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Class sources of drugs

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Sources of drugs
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Class sources of drugs

  1. 1. Dr. RAGHU PRASADA M S MBBS,MD ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPT. OF PHARMACOLOGY SSIMS & RC.
  2. 2. Natural Plants- Animal Micro organisms Mineral SYNTHETIC The quality control is better, the process is easier cheaper. The chemical structure of prototype drug can be modified EX-aspirin, paracetamol, Phenytoin, Amphetamine
  3. 3. Source Plant Drug Use Leaf Digitalis Digoxin CHF Bark Cinchona Quinine Malaria Fruit Opium Morphine Analgesic Seed Eserin Anticho Myasthenia.Gravis linestrase
  4. 4. Example Trade Name Classification Chinchona Bark Quinidine Antiarrhythmic, Malaria Purple Foxglove Digitalis Cardiotonic Poppy Plant Paregoric, Antidiarrheal, (Opium) Morphine,  Analgesic, Codeine  Antitussive
  5. 5. Important Pharmacological active principles in plants are: 1)Alkaloids 2)Glycosides 3)Oils 4)Resins 5)Gums 6)Tannins PLANT SOURCE
  6. 6. Nitrogenous hetrocyclic bases. Insoluble in water. Form salts with acids, which are soluble in water. Ex: Drug Plant Atropine Atropa belladona Quinine Cinchona bark ALKALOIDS
  7. 7. Drug Plant Morphine Papavaram somniferum(Poppy) Reserpine Rauwolfia serpentina Nicotine Tobaco leaves Alkaloids names usually end with “ine”. ALKALOIDS
  8. 8.  These are combinations of sugar with other organic structures. O  Glycoside O  Glucoside O aminoglycoside Sugar portion governors the pharmacokinetic characteristic of glycoside. Sugar Non sugar . Glycosides Glucose Non sugar Aminosugar Non sugar
  9. 9. On hydrolysis with mineral acids all glycoside split up into sugar and non sugar residues. Ex: Cardiac glycosides Digitoxin, Digoxin are obtained from Fox glove leaves (Digitalis purpurea). Glycosides
  10. 10. Generally 3 types of oils are used for medical purposes. i) Essential oils (Volatile oils) ii) Fixed oils. iii) Mineral oils
  11. 11. Obtained from leaves or flower petals by steam distillation. Terpene derivative so these have aroma Steam volatile No food value (caloric) Do not from soaps with alkaloids They do not rancid (Foul smell) on prolong stay
  12. 12. Uses:- Carminatives:- For expulsion of gas from stomach. Ex:- Ginger, eucalyptus oil. (act as irritant to gastric mucosa) Antiseptic:- Mouth washes. Flavouring agents:- Peppermint oil Pain relieving agents:- Clove oil for toothache Acts as counter irritant Essential oils (volatile oils)
  13. 13. Ground nut oil, coconut oil, olive oil, caster oil (purgative) Obtained by solvent extraction of crushed seeds. Saturated from Animal Unsaturated from Plant Non volatile, have caloric value Form soaps with alkaloids Become rancid on prolong stay
  14. 14. Mostly petroleum products Obtained by dry distillation of wood. Have no calorific value and do not become rancid on prolonged use Ex:- Liquid paraffin (hydrocarbon derived from petroleum) Uses:-Lubricant laxative for promote defecation.
  15. 15. These are polymers of volatile oils and insoluble in water. Ex: Benzoin Use: Used as inhalational in common cold Treatment in cough
  16. 16. Secretary products of plants These are dispersible in water and form adhesive mucilaginous colloids Ex:- Gum acacia Uses:- Emulsifying or suspending agents.
  17. 17. Non nitrogenous phenolic derivatives from plant. Soluble in water. Ex:- Astringents (precipitate surface proteins)
  18. 18. Obtained from animal Drug Animal Heparin  Leech Insulin Pork pancreas Thyroxin Thyroid Vit. B12 Liver extract Cod liver oil Anti toxic sera
  19. 19.  Animals Example drug Pancreas of Cow, Insulin; regular, Antidiabetic Pancreas of pork Hormone Stomach of Cow, Pepsin Digestive Hormone Thyroid Gland Thyroid, USP Hormone Of Animals
  20. 20. Bacterial, Fungi, Moulds imp source of many life saving drugs. These obtained from MO and used to kill Microorganisms. Drug Microorganism Penicillin Penicilium notatum Chloramphenicol Streptomyces venezuelace Griseofluvin Pencillin grisofullivum Streptomycin Streptomyces griseus Neomycin Streptomyces fradiae
  21. 21. Use in pharmacotherapy Mineral Use Ferrous sulfate(FeSo4) Anaemia Magnesium sulfate(MgSo4) Purgative Sodium bicarbonate (NaHco3) Antacid Aluminum Hydroxide Antacid
  22. 22. Example Trade Name Classification Magnesium Milk of Magnesia Antacid, Laxative Zinc Zinc Oxide Oint. Sunscreen, Skin Protectant Gold Auranofin Anti-inflammatory; Used in Rheumatoid Arthritis
  23. 23. Presently majority of drugs are obtained synthetically Some of drugs which are earlier obtained from plant today synthesized in lab. Advantage Quality can be controlled Process is easier and cheaper More potent and safer Large scale production
  24. 24. Example Trade Name Classification Meperidine Demerol Analgesic Diphenoxylate Lomotil Antidiarrheal Co-Trimoxazole Septra Anti-Infective Sulfonamide; Used in the treatment of UTI’s
  25. 25. These are mainly obtained by changing the chemical structure of natural obtaining drugs. Ex: Atropine bromide Penicillin substrates.( by changing –R side chain)
  26. 26. HCG(Human Chorionic Gonadotropin)  Pregnant women Menotrophin  Post Menopausal women urine Regular insulin  Human Urokinase  Human kidney cells GHRH(Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone)  Human
  27. 27. Relatively new methodology involves the blending of discoveries from molecular biology, rDNA technology, DNA alteration, Gene splicing, immuno pharmacology. Ex:-Hepatitis-B Insulin (Human insulin of rDNA techniques)

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