Class antseptics and disinfectants 2

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Class antseptics and disinfectants 2

  1. 1. Dr. RAGHU PRASADA M S MBBS,MD ASSISTANT PROFESSOR DEPT. OF PHARMACOLOGY SSIMS & RC. 1
  2. 2.  Germicides  Antiseptics  Disinfectants  Sterilization  Decontamination  Sanitization  Pasteurisation  Preservation
  3. 3. DISINFECTANTS –are those germicides or chemical substances which are used to destroy or inhibit the growth of pathogenic vegetative bacteria (not their spores) on inanimate (n0nliving )surfaces such such as glassware or surgical instruments  Ex. Formaldehyde, phenols, ethyl alcohol, soaps ANTISEPTICS-are those germicides or chemical substances which are used to destroy the pathogenic bacteria (not the spores) on animate/ living) surfaces such as skin mucous membranes
  4. 4.  STERILIZATION- is the process that kills all the living micro-organisms including spores, viruses and fungi.  DECONTAMINATION- means marked reduction or destruction of viable pathogenic organisms to a level that will allow a healthy persons natural defenses to prevent any infection.  SANITATION- means reduction in microbial load from an inanimate surface to a level set forth by public health department.
  5. 5.  PASTEURISATION- is a process of heating milk or other liquids or semisolids for about 30min at 60-80 c, which kills the non-sporulating micro-organisms and prevents the growth of food borne pathogens for specific period of time
  6. 6. Act by precipitating bacterial protiens  Aldehydes –Formaldehyde, Glutaraldehyde  Phenols –Cresol, Lysol, Chloroxylenol  Alcohols –Ethyl Alcohol, Isopropyl Alcohol  Heavy Metals- Silver Nitrate, Zinc Calamine
  7. 7.  Mercurial antiseptics-mercurochrome, nitromersol Chlorophores-chlorinated lime, chloramine- T, sodium hypochlorite Iodophores –Povidine-iodine, Tincture iodine Oxidising agents-Hydrogen peroxide, potassium permanganate, peracetic acid
  8. 8.  Cationic surface active agents  Chlorhexidine, Cetrimide, Cetylpyridinium Chloride, Benzalkonium Chloride Miscellaneous agents Dyes-Acriflavine, Aminacrine, Gentian violet Others –Nitrofurazone, Boric acid
  9. 9.  Spectrum-G+ve, G-ve, bact ’l spores, . viruses, fungi Formaldehyde-37% aqueous soln-formalin 4-5%-preserve dead tissues -pungent odour ,sensitization Glutaraldehyde-is pungent, used as immersion disinfectant
  10. 10.  -broad spectrum –G+ve ,G-ve, tubercle baccilli, viruses, fungi  Cresol-is a mixture of methyl alcohol  -surface disinfectant  Lysol-50% soapy emulsion of cresol  Chloroxylenol-Non-corrosive,  Dettol -4.8% Chloroxylenol, 9% terpinol, 13%- Alcohol
  11. 11.  Eugenol –antimicrobial and analgesic Hexachlorophene-accumulates in skin, -cutaneous absorption and neural toxicity Triclosan-chlorinated biphenol antiseptic Anti-inflammatory
  12. 12.  Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol  Spectrum-G+ve, G-ve, tubercle baccilli, viruses,fungi  -they are not sporicidal  Damage-corneal tissue, mucous membrane,ulcers HEAVY METALS-Thiomersal  Silver nitrate eye drops,  Silver sulfadiazine-suppress bacterial growth
  13. 13.  Zinc salts-mild antiseptics  Zinc sulphate-eye drops  Zinc oxide+calamine Acts by complexing with sulfhydryl (-SH-) groups of bacterial enzyme Inorganic and organic Mercurochrome-weak antiseptic Nitromersol –also mercurial antiseptic
  14. 14.  Iodines and iodophores –rapidly acting broad spectrum germicide.  Its 1:20000 solution –kill vegetative bacteria  Nearly ideal disinfectants  Disadvantage of discolouring skin  Soluble complexes of iodine-5%A-ulcers  10%-disinfect endoscopies
  15. 15.  Chlorine –effective at 0.25 ppm  Used to disinfect drinking water  Sodium hypochlorite solution-(Naclo) unstable, 5% -inanimate objects Dakins solution-(surgical chlorinated soda solution ) Chlorinated lime (bleaching powder)-30-35%
  16. 16.  Organic chlorophore, less irrritant, stable  skin antisptic ,treatment of drinking water Oxidising agents Hydrogen peroxide -broad spectrum germicide,cleaning wounds, Abscesses, removing slough. 10-20%-sporicidal H2O2 –respirators aclrylic resins
  17. 17.  Peracetic acid –prepared from h2o2 and acetic acid- food processing industries Potassium Permanganate -it oxidises bacterial proteins and enzymes 1:5000 –bactericidal , gorgling, weeping eczema It stains tissues and clothing Act by altering the properties of bacterial cell membrane Cat ionic surface active agents- Chlorhexidine-contains biguanide Chlorhexidine+cetrimiide-savlon
  18. 18.  Benzalkonium chloride-1:1000-pre-operative disinfection of intact skin  1:10000 soln –for irrigation of bladder Dequalinium chloride –antiseptic ,gum paint Cetrimide -1-3%-roadside accident wounds Antiseptic and disinfectant for surgical instruments Anionic surface active agents-soaps,phosphate detergents Dyes-acriflavine –G+ve and gonococci -non irritating,chronic ulcer dressing
  19. 19.  Gentian violet-roseaniline dye , G+ve bacteria and fungi.0.5-1%-chronic ulcers Furan derivatives Nitrofurazone-G+ve, G-ve ,aerobic &anaerobic b’a, inhibit carbohydate metabolism 0.2% cream –burn dressing Boric acid-bacteristatic, weak antiseptic bladder irrigation and burns dressing
  20. 20. THANK YOU Download slides from Authorstream/presentations/raghuprasad a Slideshare/presentations/raghuprasada Youtube/raghuprasada

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