Research methodology week03

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Research methodology week03

  1. 1. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (Business Research Methods) Week 329 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 1
  2. 2. Decision-Making Decision-Making is the process of resolving a problem or choosing amongst alternative opportunities  What is the problem or opportunity?  How much Information is available?  What Information is needed? Complete Absolute Decision-Making Certainty Ambiguity Situation Value of Research29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 2
  3. 3. Certainty, Uncertainty, Ambiguity  Certainty – Decision-maker has all the requisite information concerning the business problem (or opportunity). Research may be unnecessary. Complete certainty about the future is rare in practice  Uncertainty – General nature of the business problem is clear but information about alternative courses of action is incomplete as are the events which may occur. Research may be a potentially valuable tool here  Ambiguity – Nature of the problem to be solved is unclear. Objectives are vague and alternatives difficult to define. Research may be a useful excercise29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 3
  4. 4. Types of Research Exploratory Research: • undertaken with the aim of clarifying ambiguous problems • general problems usually known but not sufficiently understood • the purpose is to get more information, not to uncover specific courses of action (subsequent research) Determining a specific course of action to follow is not a purpose of exploratory research! Example: Child-Care support programme for employees29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 4
  5. 5. Types of Research Descriptive Research: • undertaken with the aim of determining the characteristics of a population or phenomenon • Previous knowledge of problem exists • High degree of precision or accuracy required Examples: Who are the main consumers of organic foods? How many students read the prescribed course literature? Where do most holiday-makers travelling overseas go? When do petrol stations tend to raise their prices?29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 5
  6. 6. Types of Research Causal Research: • undertaken with the aim of identifying cause and effect relationships amongst variables • are normally preceeded by exploratory and descriptive research studies • Often difficult to determine because of the influence of other variables (concommitant Variation and the presence of other hidden variables) Example: Higher ice-cream consumption causes more people to drown (indicative of a causal relationship (?))29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 6
  7. 7. Stages in the Research Process Define Problem Planning a Conclusions Research Design and Report Planning Processing and a Sample Analysing the Data Gathering the Data29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 7
  8. 8. Forward and Backward Linkages  Forward Linkage – The earlier stages of a research project determine the design at a later stage Example: The goal of the research project will determine the selection of the sample and the way data is collected  Backward Linkage – The later stages of a research project determine how its earlier stages are conducted Example: The company executives require certain specific information which the researcher anticipates and for which he or she plans the data collection and analysis steps accordingly29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 8
  9. 9. Flowcharting the Research Process (1) Problem Discovery Selection of Secondary (historical) data exploratory Pilot Study research technique Experience Survey Case Study Problem Definition (Statement of research objectives) Survey (Interview, Questionnaire) Selection of Experiment (Laboratory, Field) basic research Secondary Data Study method Observation29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 9
  10. 10. Flowcharting the Research Process (2) Survey (Interview, Questionnaire) Experiment (Laboratory, Field) Collection of Data (Fieldwork) Secondary Data Study Observation Editing and Coding Data Sample Design Data Processing and Analysis Probability Non-Probability Interpretation of Findings Sampling Sampling Report29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 10
  11. 11. Ethical Considerations in Business Research • Ethics & Morals • Societal norms and values • Divergent perceptions of what is considered ethical and unethical • What is “ethical” in business research? • Ethical Guidelines and professional associations29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 11
  12. 12. Ethical Interfaces in Business Research Subjects’ Rights Clients’ Rights Researchers’ Obligation Researchers’ Obligation Research Research Researcher Subject Sponsor Researchers’ Rights Researchers’ Rights Subjects’ Obligation Clients’ Obligation Subjects Rights & Clients Obligation29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 12
  13. 13. Ethical Behavior Considerations: Research Subjects  Truthfulness in giving information to the researcher if a research subject or respondent gives his or her consent to participate in a research study  Sustained cooperativeness with the researcher throughout the course of the research study  Adhere to responsibility if informed consent is given to the researcher  State any constraints or limitations in advance29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 13
  14. 14. Ethical Behavior Considerations: Researchers  No deception, be forthright and do not conceal the true purpose of the research  Maintain objectivity, courtesy and high professional standards through scientific process  No falsification, alteration or misrepresentation of data for political or other purposes  Protect the confidentiality of the research subjects and research sponsors  No faulty conclusions  No inclusion or use of information or ideas contained in competing research proposals29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 14
  15. 15. Ethical Behavior Considerations: Research Sponsors  No request for submission of competitive bids by researchers if selection of the researcher has already been made  Avoid manipulation and influencing of the researcher with a view to discrediting individuals or organizations  The conclusions drawn from research work should be consistent with the data and not influenced by other undesirable conditions or motives  Observe the confidentiality of the research subjects and researcher  Avoid Advocacy Research29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 15
  16. 16. The Menace of Plagiarism Please read the CIIT Academic Honesty Policy compiled by Mr. Laeeq-ur-Rehman Khan which is distributed in this class as a separate sheet ZERO TOLERANCE (and ZERO MARKS) for cheating and plagiarism at COMSATS Institute of Information Technology!29 August 2005 MBA III (Research Methodology) Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 16

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