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Service mkting


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Service marketing
Gap model
dimensions of service quality

Published in: Services
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Service mkting

  1. 1. Recap - The Gaps model (Zeithaml, Parasuraman & Berry 1990)
  2. 2. Recap: Stages in Consumer Decision Making and Evaluation of Services
  3. 3. Models of service quality
  4. 4. The evolution of service quality Disconfirmation of expectations The Nordic model The three component model The Gaps model of service quality & SERVQUAL
  5. 5. Disconfirmation of expectations (Oliver 1980)
  6. 6. Frequently Asked Questions About Customer Expectations Should a company aim to ‘delight’ the customer? How does a company exceed customer service expectations? Do customer service expectations continually escalate? Is it a better strategy to under-promise and over-deliver? How does a service company stay ahead of competition in meeting customer expectations?
  7. 7. The Nordic model (Gronroos 1990) Represents the service experience on the basis of functional and technical elements Technical quality refers to what the customer receives from the service Functional quality refers to service delivery Model emphasises companies must be careful what they promise
  8. 8. The three-component model Rust & Oliver (1994) Source: Rust & Oliver, 1994. p. 11
  9. 9. Customer expectations of service Types of expectations customers hold for service performance Sources of customer expectations
  10. 10. Possible Levels of Customer Expectations
  11. 11. Dual customer expectations levels and the Zone of Tolerance Desired Service Zone of Tolerance Adequate Service
  12. 12. Zones of Tolerance for Different Service Dimensions DDeessiirreedd SSeerrvviiccee Zone of Tolerance AAddeeqquuaattee SSeerrvviiccee Desired Service Zone of Tolerance Adequate Service Reliability Tangibles Level of Expectation Source: L. L. Berry, A. Parasuraman, and V. A. Zeithaml, “Ten Lessons for Improving Service Quality,” Marketing Science Institute, Report No. 93-104 (May 1993).
  13. 13. Factors That Influence Desired Service Lasting Service Intensifiers Lasting Service Intensifiers Desired Service PPeerrssoonnaall NNeeeeddss Zone of Tolerance Adequate Service
  14. 14. Factors That Influence Adequate Service Temporary Service Temporary Service Intensifiers Intensifiers Perceived Service Perceived Service Alternatives Alternatives Self-Perceived Service Role Self-Perceived Service Role Situational Factors Situational Factors Desired Service Zone of Tolerance Adequate Service Predicted Service Predicted Service
  15. 15. Factors That Influence Desired and Predicted Service Predicted Service Explicit Service Promises Implicit Service Promises WWoorrdd--ooff--MMoouutthh Desired Service Zone PPaasstt EExxppeerriieennccee of Tolerance Adequate Service
  16. 16. Customer perceptions Factors which influence consumers’ perceptions Factors which influence satisfaction Dimensions of service quality Service encounters
  17. 17. Customer Perceptions of Quality and Customer Satisfaction
  18. 18. Factors Influencing Customer Satisfaction Product/service quality Specific product or service features Consumer emotions Attributions for service success or failure
  19. 19. Factors Influencing Customer Satisfaction Perceptions of equity or fairness Other consumers, family members, and coworkers Price Personal factors the customer’s mood or emotional state situational factors
  20. 20. Outcomes of Customer Satisfaction Increased customer retention Positive word-of-mouth communications Increased revenues
  21. 21. ASCI and Annual Percentage Growth in S&P 500 Earnings Source: C. Fornell “Customer Satisfaction and Corporate Earnings,“ commentary appearing on ACSI website, May 1, 2001,
  22. 22. Relationship between Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty in Competitive Industries Source: James L. Heskett, W. Earl Sasser, Jr., and Leonard A. Schlesinger, The Service Profit Chain, (New York, NY: The Free Press, 1997), p. 83.
  23. 23. Service Quality The customer’s judgment of overall excellence of the service provided in relation to the quality that was expected. Service quality assessments are formed on judgments of: outcome quality interaction quality physical environment quality
  24. 24. The SERVQUAL dimensions – Perceived Service Quality (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry 1988) Reliability (dependability, accurate performance) Assurance (competence, courtesy, credibility & security) Tangibles (appearance of physical elements) Empathy (easy access, good communications & customer understanding) Responsiveness (promptness & helpfulness)
  25. 25. The Five Dimensions of Service Quality Ability to perform the promised service dependably and accurately. Knowledge and courtesy of employees and their ability to inspire trust and confidence. Physical facilities, equipment, and appearance of personnel. Caring, individualized attention the firm provides its customers. Willingness to help customers and provide prompt service. Reliability Assurance Tangibles Empathy Responsiveness
  26. 26. Exercise to Identify Service Attributes In groups of five, choose a services industry and spend 10 minutes brainstorming specific requirements of customers in each of the five service quality dimensions. Be certain the requirements reflect the customer’s point of view. Reliability: Assurance: Tangibles: Empathy: Responsiveness :
  27. 27. RELIABILITY SERVQUAL Attributes