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WELCOME
TODAY’S TOPIC
DIE CASTING : CLASSIFICATION
OF DIES
 WHAT IS A DIE?
 A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing
industries to cut or shape material mostly using a
pr...
DEFINETION OF DIE CASTING
 Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by
forcing molten metal under hig...
 Maximum weight limits for aluminium, brass,
magnesium, and zinc castings are approximately
70 pounds (32 kg), 10 lb (4.5...
CLASSIFICATION OF DIES IN
DIE CASTING
ON THE BASIS OF
NUMBER OF
IMPRESSIONS
ON THE BASIS
OF MATERIAL
POURED
APPLICATION
OF...
SINGLE CAVITY DIES
 As the name indicates, here the No. cavities is only
one. This means the die produces only one
compon...
 Advantages
 Die cost is low
 Design and manufacturing is easy.
 Die is smaller in size, which makes it possible for u...
MULTIPLE CAVITY DIES
 The Multiple cavity dies have more than one or
several cavities and all cavities are similar or
ide...
 Advantages
 Production rate is high.
 Unit cost per component is less.
 Edged gated components can also be placed sym...
HOT CHAMBER DIE CASTING
 In hot chamber die casting manufacture, the supply of
molten metal is attached to the die castin...
 Some applications of Zinc Die Castings:
 Automotive Industry
 Fuel Pumps
 Carburetor Parts
 Valve Covers
 Handles
 The essential feature of this process is the independent holding and injection
units. In the cold chamber process metal ...
 Some application for Aluminum Die Castings:
 Automotive industry
 Home Appliances
 Communication Equipment
 Sports &...
GRAVITY DIE CASTING
 Gravity die casting is a simple casting process which utilises reusable metallic
moulds. The process...
 Pros
 Good surface texture
 Equipment costs are relatively low
 No need for applied pressure,
so mould designs tend t...
LOW PRESSURE DIE CASTING
 The process works like this, first a metal die is positioned
above a sealed furnace containing ...
 Application of Pressure Die Casting
 Automotive parts like wheels, blocks, cylinder heads, manifolds
etc.
 Aerospace c...
HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING
 In the high pressure die casting process the metal is forced
into a high grade steel tool at h...
 High pressure die casting is a competitive casting
method when components have requirements which
cannot be achieved by ...
VACCUM DIE CASTING
 A steel die is enclosed in an airtight bell housing. The housing or
receiver has two openings: the sp...
 Because the sprue opening is submerged beneath the surface of
the molten metal, only pure alloy, free from oxides and dr...
SQUEEZE CASTING
 liquid metal is introduced into an open die, just as in a closed
die forging process. The dies are then ...
THANK YOU
I WOULD LIKE TO HAVE QUERIES
Die Casting and its types By Raghav Gupta
Die Casting and its types By Raghav Gupta
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Die Casting and its types By Raghav Gupta

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Die Casting and its types By Raghav Gupta

  1. 1. WELCOME
  2. 2. TODAY’S TOPIC DIE CASTING : CLASSIFICATION OF DIES
  3. 3.  WHAT IS A DIE?  A die is a specialized tool used in manufacturing industries to cut or shape material mostly using a press tool , mould & die casting. Like molds, dies are generally customized to the item they are used to create. Products made with dies range from simple paper clips to complex pieces used in advanced technology PRESS TOOL MOULD DIE CASTING
  4. 4. DEFINETION OF DIE CASTING  Die casting is a metal casting process that is characterized by forcing molten metal under high pressure into a mold cavity. The mold cavity is created using two hardened tool steel dies which have been machined into shape and work similarly to an injection mold during the process.  Most die castings are made from non-ferrous metals, specifically 1.) zinc 2.) copper 3.) aluminium 4.) magnesium 5.) lead 6.) pewter : 85–99% tin along with copper , antimony , bismuth. 7.) tin based alloys o Depending on the type of metal being cast, a hot- or cold-chamber machine is used.
  5. 5.  Maximum weight limits for aluminium, brass, magnesium, and zinc castings are approximately 70 pounds (32 kg), 10 lb (4.5 kg), 44 lb (20 kg), and 75 lb (34 kg), respectively.[8]  The material used defines the minimum section thickness and minimum draft required for a casting as outlined in the table below. The thickest section should be less than 13 mm (0.5 in), but can be greater.[9]   Metal Minimum section Minimum draft Aluminium alloys 0.89 mm (0.035 in) 1:100 (0.6°) Brass and bronze 1.27 mm (0.050 in) 1:80 (0.7°) Magnesium alloys 1.27 mm (0.050 in) 1:100 (0.6°) Zinc alloys 0.63 mm (0.025 in) 1:200 (0.3°)
  6. 6. CLASSIFICATION OF DIES IN DIE CASTING ON THE BASIS OF NUMBER OF IMPRESSIONS ON THE BASIS OF MATERIAL POURED APPLICATION OF PRESSURE HOT CHAMBER DIE CASTING COLD CHAMBER DIE CASTING LOW PRESSURE DIE CASTING HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING VACCUM DIE CASTING SQUEEZE DIE CASTING GRAVITY DIE CASTING SINGLE IMPRESS ION MULTI IMPRESSI ON
  7. 7. SINGLE CAVITY DIES  As the name indicates, here the No. cavities is only one. This means the die produces only one component per shot. The single are used when,  With the available Die casting machine, only single cavity die can be accommodated, w.r.t. the locking force, shot weight and die size.  Required production is less, which does not necessitate a multiple cavity die.  Component may require center gating.  Complexity of component is such that it requires side cores in many directions, which may not permit more than one cavity.
  8. 8.  Advantages  Die cost is low  Design and manufacturing is easy.  Die is smaller in size, which makes it possible for use of smaller capacity machine.  Disadvantages  Unit cost per casting is more.  Production capacity is less.  Edged gated component in hot chamber die casting machine will cause imbalance as they are placed on one side of the injection centre line.
  9. 9. MULTIPLE CAVITY DIES  The Multiple cavity dies have more than one or several cavities and all cavities are similar or identical, such that identical components are produced. Multiple cavities dies are used when,  The required production volume is large.  The available die casting machine can accommodate more than one cavity die  It becomes economically feasible to go for multiple die wrt the investments unit cost price.
  10. 10.  Advantages  Production rate is high.  Unit cost per component is less.  Edged gated components can also be placed symmetrically around the injection center line  Disadvantages.  Initial investment of the is more.  With increase in number of cavities, the feed balancing and thermal balancing becomes more complicated.  With increase in number of cavities, the design and manufacturing becomes more complex.  These require larger capacity machines which reduces the number shots per hour. This is because the operating speed in larger capacity machines is less compared to that of smaller capacity machines.
  11. 11. HOT CHAMBER DIE CASTING  In hot chamber die casting manufacture, the supply of molten metal is attached to the die casting machine and is an integral part of the casting apparatus for this manufacturing operation.The metal for casting is maintained at an appropriate temperature in a holding furnace adjacent to, if not part of, the machine. The injection mechanism is located within the holding furnace and a substantial part of it is therefore in constant contact with the molten metal. Pressure is transmitted to the metal by the injection piston, which forces it through the gooseneck and into the die. On the return stroke metal is drawn into the gooseneck for the next shot. In this process there is minimum contact between air and the metal to be injected, thus minimizing the tendency for turbulent entrainment of air in the metal during injection. Due to the prolonged contact between the metal and parts of the injection system hot chamber is restricted to zinc- base alloys. The Zinc alloys are the most widely used in the die casting process. They have very desirable physical, mechanical and casting properties. They also have the ability to be readily finished with commercial electroplated or organic coatings.
  12. 12.  Some applications of Zinc Die Castings:  Automotive Industry  Fuel Pumps  Carburetor Parts  Valve Covers  Handles
  13. 13.  The essential feature of this process is the independent holding and injection units. In the cold chamber process metal is transferred by ladle, manually or automatically, to the shot sleeve. Actuation of the injection piston forces the metal into the die. This is a single-shot operation. This procedure minimizes the contact time between the hot metal and the injector components, thus extending their operating life. However, the turbulence associated with high- speed injection is likely to entrain air in the metal, which can cause gas porosity in the castings. The cold chamber process is used for the production of aluminum and copper base alloys and has been extended to the production of steel castings. Next to zinc aluminum is the most widely used die-casting alloy. The primary advantage is it light weight and its high resistance to corrosion. Magnesium alloy die-castings are also produced and are used where a high strength–to–weight ratio is desirable.  The mold has sections, which include the “cover” or hot side and the “movable” or ejector side. The die may also have additional moveable segments called slides or pulls, which are used to create features such as undercuts or holes which are parallel to the parting line. The machines run at required temperatures and pressures to produce a quality part to near net- shape. COLD CHAMBER DIE CASTING
  14. 14.  Some application for Aluminum Die Castings:  Automotive industry  Home Appliances  Communication Equipment  Sports & Leisur
  15. 15. GRAVITY DIE CASTING  Gravity die casting is a simple casting process which utilises reusable metallic moulds. The process is primarily used for simple shapes with some basic coring possible. It is mostly suited to casting light alloys but can also be used for steel and cast irons.  The two halves of the mould are sprayed with a coating (usually silicate based) and then put together using locating pins to align the two halves and clamped. The mould is heated using gas burners prior to pouring the molten metal. The mould will typically have a runner for pouring and a riser to allow the molten metal to run through, the filling process is normally aided by spraying the mould with lubricants just prior to pouring.  The coating serves two purposes:  to act as a release agent that prevents the molten metal adhering to the metal die  to prevent premature solidification of the molten metal  Once poured the mould is allowed to cool before being opened to release the casting. Further machining will be necessary to remove any excess material and heat treatment may be required dependent on component use.
  16. 16.  Pros  Good surface texture  Equipment costs are relatively low  No need for applied pressure, so mould designs tend to be quite simple  Scrap metal can be recycled  Quick set up times  Cons  High percentage of scrap metal  High occurrence of porosity, but this can be minimized by slower pouring  Only good for simple 3D shapes, cannot be used for complex shapes  There are new coatings becoming available for gravity die casting that are much longer lasting than the silicate based coatings and that prevent the need for constant retouching up and extend the useful life of the moulds.
  17. 17. LOW PRESSURE DIE CASTING  The process works like this, first a metal die is positioned above a sealed furnace containing molten metal. A refractory- lined riser extends from the bottom of the die into the molten metal. Low pressure air (15 - 100 kPa, 2- 15 psi) is then introduced into the furnace. This makes the molten metal rise up the tube and enter the die cavity with low turbulence. After the metal has solidified, the air pressure is released . This makes the metal still in the molten state in the riser tube to fall back into the furnace. After subsequent cooling, the die is opened and the casting extracted.  With correct die design it is possible to eliminate the need of the riser also. This is because of the directional freezing of the casting. After the sequence has been established, the process can be controlled automatically using temperature and pressure controllers to oversee the operation of more than one diecasting machine.
  18. 18.  Application of Pressure Die Casting  Automotive parts like wheels, blocks, cylinder heads, manifolds etc.  Aerospace castings. Electric motor housings.  Kitchen ware such as pressure cooker.  Cabinets for the electronics industry.
  19. 19. HIGH PRESSURE DIE CASTING  In the high pressure die casting process the metal is forced into a high grade steel tool at high speed and -pressure. The casting temperature is roughly 700°C during casting.  This equipment consists of two vertical platens on which bolsters are located which hold the die halves. One platen is fixed and the other can move so that the die can be opened and closed. A measured amount of metal is poured into the shot sleeve and then introduced into the mould cavity using a hydraulically-driven piston. Once the metal has solidified, the die is opened and the casting removed.  In this process, special precautions must be taken to avoid too many gas inclusions which cause blistering during subsequent heat-treatment or welding of the casting product.  Both the machine and its dies are very expensive, and for this reason pressure die casting is economical only for high- volume production.
  20. 20.  High pressure die casting is a competitive casting method when components have requirements which cannot be achieved by other casting processes such as:  high volumes and/or  better tolerances and/or  smooth surface finish
  21. 21. VACCUM DIE CASTING  A steel die is enclosed in an airtight bell housing. The housing or receiver has two openings: the sprue, at the bottom, through which molten metal enters the die and the vacuum outlet at the top. The sprue opening is submerged below the surface of the molten metal and the vacuum is drawn within the receiver, creating a pressure differential between the die cavity and the molten metal in the crucible. This pressure differential causes the molten metal to flow up the sprue and into the die cavity, where it solidifies. The die is removed from the receiver, opened, and the casting ejected. The cycle is then repeated with each shot producing from one to several castings, depending on the number of cavities in the die.  By controlling the vacuum, the pressure differential between the die cavity and the molten metal can be varied allowing for differential fill rates necessitated by part design and gating requirements. This results in tight control of the fill rate which also directly influences the soundness of the casting. Through proper part design, die design and the use of the vacuum die process, voids, shrinks, and gas pockets can be greatly reduced or eliminated in critical areas.
  22. 22.  Because the sprue opening is submerged beneath the surface of the molten metal, only pure alloy, free from oxides and dross, can enter the die cavity. This helps to produce clean, sound castings with minimal foreign materials that detract from strength, appearance and machinability.
  23. 23. SQUEEZE CASTING  liquid metal is introduced into an open die, just as in a closed die forging process. The dies are then closed. During the final stages of closure, the liquid is displaced into the further parts of the die. No great fluidity requirements are demanded of the liquid, since the displacements are small. Thus forging alloys, which generally have poor fluidities which normally precludes the casting route, can be cast by this process.  This technique is especially suited for making fibre-reinforced castings from fibre cake preform. Squeeze casting forces liquid aluminium to infiltrate the preform. In comparison with non-reinforced aluminium alloy, aluminium alloy matrix composites manufactured by this technique can double the fatigue strength at 300°C. Hence, such reinforcements are commonly used at the edges of the piston head of a diesel engine where solicitations are particularly high.
  24. 24. THANK YOU I WOULD LIKE TO HAVE QUERIES

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