Stem cells in regenrative therapy

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stem cells applications on
heart
brain
cancer
diabetes
blood


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Stem cells in regenrative therapy

  1. 1. STEM CELLS IN REGENERATIVE THERAPY PRESENTED BY B.RAGHAVENDRA UNDER THE GUIDANCE OF Asst PROFESSOR A.SWAPNA Mtech (Bio-tech) Page 1
  2. 2. STEM CELL Primitive cell with a veryhigh potential and infiniteability of self –renewal anddifferentiation into othercell types Page 2
  3. 3. Symmetrical cell division Self renewal Page 3
  4. 4. Asymmetrical cell division Page 4
  5. 5. STEM CELL TYPE DESCRIPTION EXAMPLE Each cell can Cells from early (1-3Totipotent develop into a new days) embryos individual Some cells of Cells can form anyPluripotent blastocyst (5 to 14 (over 200) cell types days) Cells differentiated, Fetal tissue, cord but can form aMultipotent blood, and adult number of other stem cells tissues Page 5
  6. 6. CLONINGSomatic cell nuclear transfer Page 6
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  15. 15. IDENTIFYING STEM CELLS In vitroPeripheral blood Colony forming units Erythroid stem cells Page 15
  16. 16. SOURCES OF STEM CELLS Adult stem cells Embryonic stem cells Cord blood cells From adults stem cells can be collected mostly from brain and bone marrow. From embryo stem cells can be collected from blastocyst. Page 16
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  19. 19. APPLICATIONS OF ADULT STEM CELLS AS Haemopoitic cells, Cardiac Cells Neuronal Cells Hepatocytes Skeletal Muscles Page 19
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  21. 21. APPLICATIONS OF STEM CELLS Neurodegenerative disorders Cancer Heart failure Diabetes Haematopoitic diseases Hepatocytic diseases Page 21
  22. 22. NEUROGENRATIVE DISORDERS Parkinson’s disease Alzheimer’s disease Huntington’s disease Amyotrophic lateral sclerosisParkinson’s treatment Due to loss of dopaminergic neurons in substantia nigra disease occurs Symptoms are muscle rigidity, resting tremor, and slowing of movement. Over time, patients sustain a loss of mobility and dysautonomia , dystonic cramps and dementia Cell transplantation from fetal tissues has offered some success in the treatment of Parkinsons disorder There are two principalvdifferent ways of using ESCs predifferentiated into DA neurons and stem or progenitorcells with different commitment transplanted into the striatum or SN. Page 22
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  24. 24. HUNTINGTON’S DISEASE TREATMENTHD is a fatal hereditary and neurodegenerative disease characterized bycognitive impairment, and emotional disorder. HD is caused by mutation of a gene, which resulted in an abnormalexpansion of CAG-encoded polyglutamine repeats in a protein calledhuntingtin (Walker, 2007). This leads to loss of medium spiny neurons(GABAergic neurons) in the striatum cell transplantation serve as a hopeful strategy for reducing neuraldamage and replacing the lost neurons in the HD brainALZHEIMER’S TREATMENTloss of cholinergic neurons of forebrain due to formation of betaamyloid insoluble protiens Replacement of damged cholinergicneurons by transplantation of developed stem cells Page 24
  25. 25. subventricular zone (SVZ) and olfactory bulb and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampusTypes of stem cell transplants for treating cancer Autologous —the cells come from you Allogeneic —the cells come from a matched related or unrelated donor Syngeneic —the cells come from your identical twin or triplet In a typical stem cell transplant very high doses of chemo are used, often along with radiation therapy, . This treatment also kills the stem cells in the bone marrow. Soon after treatment, stem cells are given to replace those that were destroyed. These stem cells are given into a vein, much like a blood transfusion. Over time they settle in the bone marrow and begin to grow and make healthy blood cells. This process is called engraftment Page 25
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  27. 27. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF STEM CELLS ONCANCER Page 27
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  29. 29. HEART FAILURE TREATMENT Hematopoietic stem cells could transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes when injected in the border zone of infarcted myocardium, making them of particular interest in the treatment of cardiac disease because they represent a well-characterized and ample source of progenitor cells. Page 29
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  31. 31. HEMATOPOIESIS Page 31
  32. 32. HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL Page 32
  33. 33. THE SOURCES OF HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS Bone marrow Peripheral blood Umbilical cord blood Use of allogeneic bone marrow transplants is in the treatment of hereditary blood disorders, such as different types of inherited anemia (failure to produce blood cells), and inborn errors of metabolism Leukemia , beta-thalassemia, globoid cell leukodystrophy, sickle-cell anemia Page 33
  34. 34. STEM CELLS FOR DIABETES Page 34
  35. 35.  Production of growth factors Differentiation of ductal epithelium Replication of pre existing beta cells Acinar transdifferentiation Page 35
  36. 36. CONCLUSION Neurodegenrative disorders are incurable can more effective therapy by stem cells. Tissue damage cells can be replaced by stem cells Page 36
  37. 37. REFERENCES Alison, M.R., Poulsom, R., Jeffery, R., Dhillon, A.P., Quaglia, A., Jacob, J., Novelli, M., Prentice, G., Williamson, J., and Wright, N.A. (2000). Hepatocytes from non-hepatic adult stem cells. Nature. 406, 257. Audet, J., Miller, C.L., Rose-John, S., Piret, J.M., and Eaves, C.J. (2001). Distinct role of gp130 activation in promotingself-renewal divisions by mitogenically stimulated murine hematopoietic stem cells. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98, 1757–1762. Baum, C.M., Weissman, I.L., Tsukamoto, A.S., Buckle, A.M., and Peault, B. (1992). Isolation of a candidate human hematopoietic stem- cell population. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 89, 2804–2808. Bittner, R.E., Schofer, C., Weipoltshammer, K., Ivanova, S., Streubel, B., Hauser, E., Freilinger, M., Hoger, H., Elbe-Burger, A., and Wachtler, F. (1999). Recruitment of bone-marrow-derived cells by skeletal and cardiac muscle in adult dystrophic mdx mice. Anat. Embryol. (Berl) 199, 391–396. Page 37
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