Meaning of Persuasion
• "...a symbolic process in which
communicators try to convince other people
to change their attitudes or behaviors
regarding an issue through the transmission
of a message in an atmosphere of free choice.
Key Elements of Persuasion
• Is symbolic, utilizing words, images, sounds, etc
• Involves a deliberate attempt to influence others.
• Self-persuasion is key. People are not coerced;
they are instead free to choose.
• Methods of transmitting persuasive messages can
occur in a variety of ways, including verbally and
nonverbally via television, radio, Internet or face-
Beliefs Vs Values Vs Attitude
• the assumptions we make about ourselves, about others in the world and about
how we expect things to be.
• about how we think things really are.
• What we perceive to be true or false
• deep set - our values stem from our beliefs
• about how we have learnt to think things ought to be or people ought to behave,
• in terms of qualities such as honesty, integrity and openness which when people
are asked what are their values, tend to be the main values.
• the established ways of responding, negatively or positively, to people and
situations based on the beliefs, values and assumptions we hold.
• How we respond to situation and our behaviour reflects our attitude.
• Changeable & learned
• We can control our behaviour in a way that does not reflect our beliefs and values.
Getting Ready for Persuasion
• The PAIBOC Model
• ‘Framing’ of message based on your PAIBOC
plays a crucial role
Specific Persuasive Techniques for
Audience Type Techniques
The speaker can create a little uncertainty in the minds of the
audience. This can be done through a provocative statement or a
statistic that supports the speaker’s claim. The aim is to make the
audience a little less sure of their stance.
The speaker may try to reduce resistance to his or her idea and
shift the audience towards neutrality. This can be done by
indirectly urging the audience to look at other’s point of view.
Neutral audience An attempt can be made to change the attitude of the audience as
they are not particularly committed to any cause.
The speaker can bring a moderately motivated audience to his or
her side by reinforcing existing attitudes and making the audience
commit to a course of action.
The best approach is to ask the audience to act on the persuader’s
claim. The persuader need not spend much time communicating
Is an appeal:
• Based on the character of the speaker.
• Based on charisma and likeability as well as
• Based on the authority of the speaker.
• Based on the personal power of the speaker.
• Relies upon the credibility and reputation of
the speaker as perceived by the audience.
Is an appeal:
• Based on the emotions the speaker is able to
• Based on arousing positive or negative
• At times based on ‘ingratiation’.
• At times based on ‘exchange’
• Works well when many people have to be
Is an appeal:
• Based on reasoning and rationale.
• Based on factual evidences, data, visual proofs
• Based on either of the two kinds of reasoning:
Inductive & Deductive.
• Subordinates persuading bosses is generally
based on logos persuasion as subordinates do
not hold the other two powers on their bosses.
Six Fundamental Principles of
Explanation Application Rhetoric
Liking People like and get influenced by
those who like them
Uncover real similarities and
offer genuine praise
Reciprocity People repay in kind Give what you want to receive Pathos
Social Proof People follow the lead of similar
Use peer power whenever
Consistency People align with clear
Make people’s commitment
active, public and voluntary
Authority People defer to experts Expose your authority, do not
assume it is self-evident
Scarcity People want more of what they
can have less of.
Highlight unique benefits and
According to Robert B. Cialdini, the six fundamental principles of
The Act of Persuasion: Framing
• “A frame orients a reader or listener to examine a
message with certain disposition or inclination.”
(Lyle Sussman, 1999). E.g. Tata Nano
• Framing is moulding your proposal in such a
manner that it fits in your target’s needs, fears,
concerns, values and expectations and motivates
them to take an action you want them to take.
• “Sell benefits, not the features” beautifully
captures the idea of farming.
Types of Slightly Unethical Persuasion but very
often used approaches:
• The bait & switch approach
• The door-in-the face approach
• The foot-in-the-door approach
E.g.: Infomercial of Colleen Szot, Selling insurance
to reluctant soldiers
“Do unto others what you would like others to
do unto you”
Barriers to Persuasion
• Poor Relationships
• A mismatch in beliefs and values