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Fuel cell car


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use of renewable energy source(pem fuel cell)

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Fuel cell car

  1. 1. Contents:introductioncomponentsmechanismWorkingAdvantagesDisadvantagesApplicationsconclusionreference
  2. 2. Fuel cells, as devices for direct conversion of the chemical energyof a fuel into electricity by electrochemical reactions, are amongthe key enabling technologies for the transition to a hydrogen-based economy.Among the various types of fuel cells, polymer electrolytemembrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) are considered to be at theforefront for commercialization for portable and transportationapplications because of their high energy conversion efficiency andlow pollutant emission
  3. 3. Car Design:
  4. 4. Components:Fuel cellHydrogen tankElectric motor
  5. 5. What is Fuel Cell?Battery that produces electricityoverall reaction: oxidation of a fuel by oxygen 2H2(g) + O2(g)  2H2O(l) (Hydrogen) Fuel + oxygen  waterUnlimited fuel supply: reactants continuously supplied from an external source (open system) Also known as flow batteryUsed as a stack
  6. 6. How fuel cells work ? Chemistry of fuel cell At anode:- 2H  4H + 4e 2 At Cathode:- O + 4H + 4e  2H O 2 2 NET REACTION 2H2 + O2  2H O 2
  7. 7. Overview of a Fuel Cell A fuel cell consists of two electrodes sandwiched around an electrolyte. Oxygen passes over one electrode and hydrogen over the other, generating electricity, water and heat. A fuel cell system which includes a "fuel reformer" can utilize the hydrogen from any hydrocarbon fuel - from natural gas to methanol, and even gasoline.
  8. 8. Product FC -H2-251C FC-H2-051C FC-H2-251REF FC-H2-051REF FC-H2-501CModelDescriptio Cell 25cm2, Cell 25cm2- Ref., Cell 5cm2- Ref., Cell 50cm2, Cell 5cm2, H2/Airn H2/Air H2/Air H2/Air H2/AirPERFORMANCE*DC 0.7V 0.7V 0.7V 0.7V 0.7VVoltageCurrent 15A 3A 15A 3A 25ANominal 600mA/cm2 at 600mA/cm2 at 600mA/cm2 at 600mA/cm2 at 500mA/cm2 atCurrent 0.7V(Cell) 0.7V(Cell) 0.7V(Cell) 0.7V(Cell) 0.7V(Cell)DensityNominalPower 10W 2W 10W 2W 18WRatingOutputOperation 0 ~ 12W 0 ~ 2.5W 0 ~ 12W 0 ~ 2.5W 0 ~ 20WRangeCell ~45% at 10W ~45% at 2W ~45% at 10W ~45% at 2W ~45% at 18WEfficiencyEffective 25cm2 5cm2 25cm2 5cm2 50cm2area of cellPHYSICALHeight 8cm 9cmWidth 12cm 15cmDepth 12cm 15cmWeight 1kg 2kg
  9. 9. Fuel Cell Stack
  10. 10. Types of fuel cellProton Exchange Membrane (PEM)Phosphoric acid (PAFC)Solid Oxide (SOFC)Alkaline (AFC)Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC)
  11. 11. Alkali Fuel Cell:  compressed hydrogen and oxygen fuel  potassium hydroxide (KOH) electrolyte  ~70% efficiency  150˚C - 200˚C operating temp.  300W to 5kW output requires pure hydrogen fuel and platinum catylist liquid filled container → corrosive leaks
  12. 12. n Carbonate Fuel Cell (MCFC): carbonate salt electrolyte 60 – 80% efficiency ~650˚C operating temp. cheap nickel electrode catalyst up to 2 MW constructed, up to 100 MW designs exist The operating temperature is too hot for many applications. carbonate ions are consumed in the reaction → inject CO 2 to compensate
  13. 13. phoric Acid Fuel Cell (PAFC): phosphoric acid electrolyte 40 – 80% efficiency 150˚C - 200˚C operating temp 11 MW units have been tested sulpher free gasoline can be used as a fuel The electrolyte is very corrosive Platinum catalyst is very expensive
  14. 14. n Exchange Membrane (PEM): thin permeable polymer sheet electrolyte 40 – 50% efficiency 50 – 250 kW 80˚C operating temperature electrolyte will not leak or crack temperature good for home or vehicle use platinum catalyst on both sides of membrane
  15. 15. d Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC): hard ceramic oxide electrolyte ~60% efficient ~1000˚C operating temperature cells output up to 100 kW high temp / catalyst can extract the hydrogen from the fuel at the electrode high temp allows for power generation using the heat, but limits use SOFC units are very large solid electrolyte won’t leak, but can crack
  16. 16. PEM Fuel Cell: Polymer Electrolyte Membrane FC - consists of an electrolyte membrane sandwiched between an anode (negative electrode) and a cathode (positive electrode). Description - a thin, solid, organic compound, typically the consistency of plastic wrap and about as thick as 2 to 7 sheets of paper. This membrane functions as an electrolyte: allows the solution to conduct electricity Concept PEM fuel cells work with a polymer electrolyte in the form of a thin, permeable sheet and allow hydrogen protons to pass through but prohibit the passage of electrons and heavier gases.
  17. 17. PEM Fuel Cell Basics:1 Fuel cells are operationally equivalent to a battery. 4 2 Low temperature; Polymer Electrolyte The reactants or fuel in a fuel cell can Membrane (PEM) type cells are the be replaced unlike a standard standard devices. disposable or rechargeable battery. 5 For automotive applications 3 hydrogen is the fuel choice. Theoretically the maximum voltage that this reaction can generate is 1.2 V. However, in practice the cell usually 6 generates about 0.7 V to 0.9 V and Electrochemical energy comes about 1 W cm-2 of power. from the reaction: ½ H2 + ½ O2 → H2O.
  18. 18. Solid organic polymerpoly(perfluorosulfunic 50 - 100°Cacid) Operating 122 – 212°F Electrolyte Temp. System Output 53 – 58% (transportation)1KW – 250 KW 25 – 35% Electrical (stationary) Eff. 70 – 90% (low grade waste heat) CHP Eff.
  19. 19. Basic Elements of PEMFC -It conducts the electrons that are freed from the hydrogen molecules so that they can be used in anAnode external circuit. -It has channels etched into it that disperse the hydrogen gas equally over the surface of the catalyst. -has channels etched into it that distribute the oxygen to the surface of the catalyst.Cathode -conducts the electrons back from the external circuit to the catalyst, where they can recombine with the hydrogen ions and oxygen to form water Anode Reaction Cathode Reaction H2 → 2H+ + 2e- O2 + 4H+ + 4e- → 2H2O
  20. 20. Basic Elements of PEMFC -This specially treated material, which looks something Electrolyte like ordinary kitchen plastic wrap, only conducts positively charged ions. - The membrane blocks electrons. - It is usually made of platinum powder very thinly coated onto carbon paper or cloth. - The catalyst is rough and porous so that the Catalyst maximum surface area of the platinum can be exposed to the hydrogen or oxygen. - The platinum-coated side of the catalyst faces the PEM.
  21. 21. How a PEM Fuel Cell Works?
  22. 22. How a PEM Fuel System Works?
  23. 23. The Current PEM Market Portable 63% 2% Large Stationary 16% SmallBuses 3% Stationary Light Duty Niche 10% 6% Devices Transportation Total Number of PEM Units Installed Globally By Application
  24. 24. •Hydrogen tank is used to store the compressed hydrogen gas athigh pressure•Generally four types of hydrogen tanks are being used•Metal tank(steel, (200bar to 2900 psi) , aluminum,(175bar to2538 psi)•Metal tank(aluminum)with filament windings like glass,(263bar to 3814psi) and carbon fiber, (299bar to 4423 psi).•Tank made of composite materials.(305bar to 4423 psi)•Composite tanks such as carbon fiber with a polymer liner.(661bar to 9586psi)
  25. 25. Pressure regulator:
  26. 26. INTRODUCTION:A dc motor is a machine which converts electrical energy into mechanical energy.
  27. 27. 3. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF DC MOTOR When ever a current carrying conductor is placed in a  magnetic field, it experienced a force whose direction is given by fleming’s left hand rule( also called motor rule)It shows the field set up by the poles.It shows the conductor field due to flow of current in the conductor.
  28. 28. 4.TYPES OF DC MOTOR1. Series DC motor2. Shunt DC motor3. Compound DC motor
  29. 29. 1. Series DC motor
  30. 30. 2. SHUNT DC MOTOR
  31. 31. 3. Compound DC motor
  32. 32. What is a Mechanism?A mechanism is the part of a machine which containstwo or more pieces arranged so that the motion ofone compels the motion of the others.Generally used to:Change the direction of movementChange the type of movementChange the speed of movementChange the amount of torque or force available to do work
  33. 33. Front-wheel drive .*The FWD platform is used in many reliable vehicles ,such as a Honda Accord or Toyota Camry.* FWD mean that the two forward vehicles are responsible for moving the car .
  34. 34. PARTS OF FWD:1-gear box. it take the motion from the engine and we can modify the received velocity on it2-differential. it is apart mounted by bolts downward the gear box and take the output motion from the gear box and deliver it to the drive shafts (CV joints).3-drive shafts. it take the motion from the differential to the two vehicles.
  35. 35. Working:
  36. 36. Advantages:No pollutantsThere is no combustionEco friendly to natureLow cost fuel usedLess moving parts
  37. 37. Dis advantages:High manufacturing costNeeds pure hydrogenIf single cell is damaged whole stack should be inspected
  38. 38. Applications:fuel cell is being used in transportationIt is used in power generation plant (480MW power plant in u s)
  39. 39. Conclusion:
  40. 40. References (1)FAQ section, (2) Long Island Power Authority press release: Plug Power Fuel Cell Installed at McDonald’s Restaurant, LIPA to Install 45 More Fuel Cells Across Long Island, Including Homes, er/pr/2003/feb26.fuelcell.html (3) Proceedings of the 2000 DOE Hydrogen Program Review: Analysis of Residential Fuel Cell Systems & PNGV Fuel Cell Vehicles, (2) (3)Figures 1, 3 http://hyperphysics.phy-