Bio medical respiratory system and therapy eqiupment......(Nandu)
• Internal and external respiration
• Pulmonary function test (PFTs)
• PHYSIOLOGY of Respiration system
• Respiratory Therapy Equipment
• Respiration is the exchange of gases in any
• Respiration is the process in which sugars are
converted in to usable energy.
• a process in living organisms
involving the production of energy,
typically with the intake of oxygen
and the release of carbon dioxide
from the oxidation of complex
Internal and External Respiration
• External respiration (breathing) is
basically the transfer of gas between
respiratory organs such as lungs and the
• Internal respiration (tissue respiration)
is the transfer of gas between the blood
and cells and release energy.
Pulmonary function test
• Pulmonary Function testing
measures the function of lung
capacity and lung and chest wall
mechanics to determine whether or
not the patient has a lung problem.
• Pulmonary Function Tests are
commonly referred to as "PFTs"
• The lungs are a pair of spongy, elastic bag, air-filled
organs located on either side of the
chest (thorax) where oxygenation of air
• The lungs are covered by a thin tissue layer
called the pleura. The same kind of thin tissue
lines the inside of the chest cavity
LARYNX-- TRACHEA (1.5-2CM)
LARYNX OR VOICE BOX TRACHEA OR WIND PIPE
Left stem lung (0.1cm) Right stem lung(0.1cm)
AlVEOLI 0.02Cm and 300 million in number
• In alveoli interchange of the oxygen from
the lungs to the blood and diffusion of
carbon dioxide from the blood to the lugs
• About 300 million alveoli are found in
• The alveolar surface area is about 80m2
• When we inhale diaphragm which is at bottom of
thoraic cavity which when pulls downward to
enlarge the thorax.
• On release of inspiratory muscles the elasticity of
the lungs and ribcage combine with tone of
diaphragm reduces volume of thorax there by
developing a +ve pressure that forces air out of
• Inspiration -3mm of Hg
• Expiration +3mm Of Hg
• If a patient is incapable of adequate
ventilation by natural process then
mechanical assistance must be provided so to
get oxygen delivered to body.
• 1. an apparatus used to help inhale air,
anesthetics, medicinal vapors, etc.
• 2. an apparatus for giving artificial
• Inhalators generally supply oxygen or
other therepeutic gas to a patient who
is able to breath spontaneously without
assistance. (oxygen concentration is
• Humidity is the amount of water vapor in the
• Humidifier therapy adds moisture to the air to
prevent dryness that can cause irritation in
many parts of the body
• Virtually it is included in all inhalators,
respirators and ventilators to humidify air.
• Nebulizers use oxygen, compressed air or
ultrasonic power to break up medical
solutions and suspensions into small aerosol
droplets that can be directly inhaled from the
mouthpiece of the device.
• aerosol is a "mixture of gas and liquid
• Used when water or other mediacation be
suspended in the inspired air as an aerosol.
• ultrasonic nebulizer an electronic device that
generates ultrasound waves that break up
water into an aerosol mist.
• Consists two parts
• Generatorproduces radio frequency
• Nebulizer itself
• These are often included as a part of a
ventilator or inhalator to remove mucus and
other fluids from air ways.
• In most cases it is not provided as a part of
respiratory therapy equipment a separate
suction device may be utilized