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Abstract pervasive


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Abstract pervasive

  2. 2. PERVASIVE COMPUTING – THE NEXT ERA OF COMPUTER SCIENCE A.RAGAVENDRAN, S.SETHUPATHY Department of Computer science and engineering Nandha Engineering College sethupathi.cs@gmail.comAbstract:- This is a paper that describes of what have been done and what isthe future of pervasive computing as well needed to be its existing challenges. It starts out by “The most profound technologies are thosecomparing pervasive computing with that disappear. They weave themselves intodistributed system and mobile computing the fabric of everyday life until they areand how the three fields are related to indistinguishable from it.”- Mark Weisereach other. It then mentions uniquecharacteristics that forms the basis of Another important contribution of thispervasive computing and clarifies them paper is that it interconnects a lot ofwith example scenarios. Proactively, the research areas that looks disjoint, andability to foresight users’ intention, and proposes to put all of them to work forself-tuning, the ability to adjust behavior pervasive fit the environment, are described as two Topics to be covered but not limited to thekey ideas in pervasive computing. following:Thereafter, the paper starts to discuss the *Hardware used in mobile devicesstate of art design and implementation *Issues in wireless communicationproblems that challenges us in building *Data access and file systems adaptationpervasive computing systems. In addition, for mobile computingthe paper reminds us the challenges in *Resource allocation in mobile systemsareas outside computer systems. This *Sensing and Actuationincludes but not limited to human *Context aware systemscomputer interaction (HCI), Artificial *Protection, security and Privacy issuesintelligence and software agents. *Design methodologies of Pervasive systems *Applications of pervasive systems andThis paper presents a comprehensive application oriented issuesoverview of pervasive computing in terms
  3. 3. 1. INTRODUCTION: of Internet, the World Wide Web, and other networking technologies, instantFormally ubiquitous computing is defined communication and transmission of dataas "machines that fit the human were made possible, shrinking the worldenvironment instead of forcing humans to and bringing the people across the globeenter theirs." This paradigm is also close together transcending geographicdescribed as pervasive computing, barriers.artificial intelligence., The variouscomputing technologies have beenevolving continuously penetrating far and 2. PERVASIVE COMPUTING:wide and increasingly influencing almost The goal of pervasive computing, whichevery aspect of our day-to-day life. combines current network technologies with wireless technologies, voiceThe rapidly advancing technology has recognition, internet capability andblessed us with a host of versatile devices artificial intelligence, is to create anto make our life easier. The invention of environment where the connectivity ofequipments like abacus, transistor, devices is embedded in such a way that theENIAC, PC, mobile phone etc defined connectivity is unconstructive and alwaysnew and higher levels of sophistication, available. It is a numerous, causallyuse, and comfort for the human life. accessible, often invisible devices. It makes a computer so natural that we use itThe revolution unleashed by the massive without even thinking about it. It providespenetration of cellular mobile phones has access to relevant information andmade it a community device like the radio. applications through a new class ofThis was made possible by the tremendous ubiquitous, intelligent appliances that havegrowth in the new computation paradigm the ability to easily function when andcalled PERVASIVE COMPUTING. This where needed. We envision an explosionapproach envisions a conglomeration of of interconnected small devices fromsmall smart devices like sensors, signal watches to cars that make our lives easierconditioners, wearable computers, mobile and more productive. A parallel revolutionphones, notebook computers, hand-held’s, lays in the network-enabling thesePDA s etc seamlessly integrated and pervasive computing devices by providingscattered in the environment. The ultimate transparent, ubiquitous access togoal is to enable ANY TIME ANY e-business services. In general, it isWHERE computing. And with the advent
  4. 4. roughly the opposite of virtual reality. over large distances within a reasonablePervasive means spreading widely delay. Attempts are being made to developthroughout an area or a group of people. intelligent wearable computers that can perform a primary diagnosis.Pervasive health care focuses explicitly onthe use of pervasive computing technology Anytime/anywhere--->any device--->anyfor developing tools and procedures that network--->any data.put the patient at the center of the health Any time: 7 days X 24 hours, global,care process. From a technological stand ubiquitous accesspoint it includes remote monitoring, Any device: pc, PDA, cell phone and soremote consultation, and assistive forth.technologies. Any network: access, notification, data synchronization, queued transactions, wireless optimization, security, content adaptation, development tools, device and user management Any data: e-mail, personal information manager, inter-intranet, public services Imagine a world filled with all sorts of electronic devices - traditional desktop computers, wireless laptops, small PDAS, smart cell phones, tiny wristwatch pagers, clever little coffee pots. You have just imagined the future of Pervasive Computing (PvC).Fig1.Pictorial overview of the pervasive health care scenario 3. PRINCIPLES: This has opened up exciting The basic principles of pervasivepossibilities in the health care sector both computing arein terms of diagnostic equipments and  Decentralizationcommunication devices. Now tele-  Diversificationmedicine systems have sufficiently  Connectivityadvanced so as to relay the medical data  Simplicity
  5. 5. 3.1. DECENTRALISATION: The shift application context. Applications are afrom a centralized view to a strongly seamless integration of software anddecentralized computing landscape is the hardware. They are intended to be used infirst paradigm of pervasive computing. a specific situation and optimized for thatPervasive computing distributes the environment. One major challenge arisingresponsibilities between the variety of from the increasing diversity is how tosmall devices, each of which take over manage the different capabilities of thosespecific tasks and functionality. The manifold devices. Each delivery platformability to use applications and information has its own characteristics making iton mobile devices and synchronize any difficult to provide common applications.updates with network based systems or A major requirement is integrating all thisother devices is a new task arising from technology to deliver real solutions tothat decentralization. Pervasive devices users.and applications are often embedded into aservice infrastructure, like a cellular phone 3.3. CONNECTIVITY: The thirdnetwork. Decentralization makes it paradigm of pervasive computing is thenecessary for service providers to strong demand towards connectivity.administer their deployed software and Manifold devices are seamlessly integrateddeliver updates to the customer’s devices in an IT world without boundaries.from remote. Handheld computer collaborates in the cellular phone via infrared in order to3.2. DIVERSIFICATION: Pervasive synchronize data over a wireless network.computing introduces an entirely new view Alternatively, the same handheld canof functionality: there is a clear move from connect via serial port to a LAN. Theuniversal computers challenging vision of pervasive connectivity isperformance, price and functionality to “Everybody’s software, running ondiversified devices which aim at best everybody’s hardware over everybody’smeeting the requirements of a specific network”. One approach for achievinggroup of users for a specific purpose. The connectivity is to base the applications onnew gadgets appearing in these days in common standards. Open standards haveassociation with pervasive computing, to be established which are prepared tosuch as WAP phones, screen phones, or face the demands of the describedhandheld computers, offer only a highly manifold and differentiated devices. Newcustomized functionality for a particular standards like WAP, Bluetooth have been
  6. 6. created by large cross-industry initiatives, SYSTEMS:defining the necessary communicationprotocols as well as the underlyingphysical connections. The Internet hasevolved to be the backbone of worldwideprivate and public networks.3.4. SIMPLICITY: Pervasive devices arevery specialized tools that are notoptimized for general use. They perform Fig2. Pervasive healthcare system inthe task for which they have been designed hospitalsvery well from a usability point of view. Beyond pure technology the issue of convincing real life applications isThese lines up with the fourth paradigm of increasingly becoming a central topic inpervasive computing; aiming at simplicity the field of Pervasive Computing. Here theof usage. The magic words are area of health and healthcare has emergedavailability, convenience, and ease of use. as a promising domain. So calledInformation access and management must Pervasive Healthcare Systemsbe applicable without spending significant encompasses a broad range of topics suchtime learning how to use technology. as advanced hospital information andWhile proper selection and education of logistics systems, mobile healthuser groups was required to manage the monitoring, assisted living for the elderlycomplexity of traditional computer and the handicapped, and lifestyle andsystems, pervasive computers are intuitive wellness related personal systems. Theto use and might not even require the demographic trend towards a more elderlyreading of a manual. Pervasive computing society and the rising healthcare costs leadpostulates a holistic approach: Hardware to a strong demand for solutions thatand software should be seamlessly provide adequate care at affordable cost.integrated and target the very specific Furthermore consumers are increasinglyneeds of and end-user. Providing all these health conscious and looking for lifestyle,in a small and cheap device is definitely a wellness and health related products.challenging task for developers. As promising as it is as an application domain, the field of Pervasive Healthcare4. PERVASIVE HEALTHCARE
  7. 7. is scientifically and technologically highly 5.1. Cardiac Holter:challenging. Healthcare applications Named after its inventor, Dr. Norman J.involve complex processes often within Holter is a portable device forstrict regulatory constraints. Reliability, continuously monitoring the electricalsecurity and privacy are central to many activity of the heart Holter monitor recordsapplications. In addition since the systems electrical signals from the heart via a seriesare often closely integrated with the user’s of electrodes attached to the chest. Theeveryday activities and relate to very number and position of electrodes variesprivate issues subtle, human computer by model, but most Holter monitorsinteraction issues play an important role in employ from three to eight. Thesethe system design. electrodes are connected to a small piece5. PERVASIVE DEVICES of equipment that is attached to the(SENSORS): patients belt, and is responsible for keeping a log of the hearts electricalA brief glance at some important wearable activity throughout the recording period...cardiac devices is listed below. This data is later downloaded to a PC and examined as an ECG pattern and analyzed using analysis software. The software gives a visual indication of any abnormality. A set of templates of ECG patterns have been derived and they serve as a reference. Fig3.LC circuit based sensor 5.2. Vita phone Hertz handy: This is a complete system for patients to measure an ECG signal and transmit the data to a central location called service center for analysis and further processing. A panic button is provided which on being Fig4. Force sensing resistors pressed sends an alarm signal to the service center along with the patients current GPS position.
  8. 8. 5.3 Welch allyn Micropaq: technician or a doctor; this is a huge overhead for the professionals consideringIt supports multi parameter monitoring like the number of patients they attend to in aECG display, heart rate, patient alarms, etc hugely populous country like India. If youand also alarm messages from an Acuity need an immediate diagnosis this approachCentral Station. It extends patient care by too proves to be inadequate. In high riskproviding patient alarms when it is out of cases you need to make the diagnosis onrange or not connected to the wireless the fly instantaneously. Hence thenetwork. The Micropaq can be integrated wearable device should have sufficientinto wireless Ethernet Local Area computational intelligence to monitor theNetworks. heart rate and analyze it dynamically, detect the flaws and immediately inform the care provider. In short, to be of use in a5.4 E-san: crisis situation the above mentioned devices fail for want of decision supportThis is for asthma monitoring. This uses a and provision to communicate an alert.combination of electronic peak flow meter And hence the authors propose a newand a PDA handset which transmits the framework which would solve thesereadings to a central server over a GPRS drawbacksconnection. It also has an integratedmonitoring device for diabetics. 6 PERVASIVE COMPUTING - A LIFE SAVING TOOL:5.5 Amon: The silent heart attack belongs to the highAmon is a wrist mounted device which risk category. Since this does not triggeracquires signals such as heart rate, skin any visible indications unlike an ordinaryperspiration, body temperature etc and heart attack, it could often be fatal andtransmit these data to a remote tele- usually goes unnoticed. The only fool-medicine center. But the vital parameters proof method of detecting this is byare not continuously transmitted and observing the deviation in the ECGinconsistency in the medical data has been (Electro cardiogram) pattern.reported. But this data after reception must again hasThe recording done by these devices must to be analyzed by doctors in order to makealways be analyzed only by a qualified the diagnosis. This could prove to be too
  9. 9. slow in dealing with crises like silent heartattacks where an immediate diagnosis andcare delivery is of paramount importance.Fortunately computation technology hasadvanced to provide us with smallwearable devices with integrated sensorsfor cardiac monitoring. Fig6. Diagrammatic representation of the healthcare system architecture Fig5.Cardiac monitoring system The first part is the wearable diagnosticThe proposed scheme envisions a wearable unit and has the following components.diagnostic unit which will continuouslymonitor the heart checking for i. A transducer unit in order to pickabnormality. This is done based on a up the electrical pulses of the heart.template matching procedure. Instead of ii. A conditioner: This will extractstoring the entire pattern it stores the data the data relevant to heart attack.related to the abnormality alone. The iii. Template: The templates will storedetection generates a trigger signal which the reference values with which theis picked up by the patients mobile phone, output of the conditioner will beand it causes a predefined message to be matched. The template will besent to a predefined number such as the customized to suit the patients’doctors mobile phone automatically condition based on parameters likewithout alerting the patient and causing age, sex, history of attacks andpanic. This communication process can be anonymous conditions. Thissuitably enhanced like alerting the nearest template will be set based on aor any chosen hospital by an automated doctor’s consultation and it can becall. changed or updated regularly. iv. Trigger generator: In the case of any abnormality this trigger generator will generate a signal
  10. 10. which can be picked up by a mobile phone or PDA so that the There are several sensors to detect human alert can be relayed to a care blood pressure. A patient suffering from provider. blood pressure will be fixed with this sensor in his wrists. When blood pressureThe second part is the alert unit. This is either increases or decreases, these sensorsconfigured as software installed on the detect them and inform them to thepatients mobile phone or PDA. It listens patient’s PDA. The PDA is set in such afor the trigger from the wearable unit and manner that it automatically sendsupon its receipt executes a routine which information to the hospital server viawill forward a predefined message to a internet. The hospital server analyses thepredefined number like the doctors or that information, prepares a report regardingof a trusted medical care provider. This the patient’s condition. Then it sends thesystem will provide an instantaneous report to the doctor. In accordance to theanalysis and alert which could be vital in report, it alerts the patient’s relative andsaving valuable time and human life. also the patient (through PDA). When theEnhancements like alerting or navigating patient is somewhere outside and if heto the nearest hospital could be added. moves to a critical unconscious state, the sensor will automatically detect it and it7 IMPLEMENTATION: will be indicated to the hospital server. A Hence, the patient’s relative will be patient Internet with PDA informed with the problem and the patient sensor in his can be rescued immediately. wrist 8 FUTURE: Hospital Server It is difficult to predict the future evolution in a rapidly changing environment. Almost every business process involving people will integrate Patients’ Doctor’s pervasive computing into marketing and Relative Personal Mobile delivery channels. Highly personalized services and the ability to control Fig7.Pictorial representation for communication and services via easy toimplementation of pervasive computing use interfaces are key to gaining
  11. 11. acceptance. Mobile communication and life. In this paper, we have described thethe Internet are converging into an overall implementation of pervasive computing inmobile computing infrastructure with the medicine – as a life saving tool. Thus, wenext generation of the Internet. Security stand at the beginning of yet another era inand privacy will be guaranteed by the computers – pervasive era.extensive use of encryption and public keyinfrastructure. Pervasive portals servicing 10 REFERENCES:millions of concurrent users will demandweb application servers and scalable server a) Pervasive Computing, by Uweinfrastructure with high performance and Hansmann, Lothar Merk, Martin S.availability. Managing the rapid change in Nicklous, Thomas Stoberthe pervasive computing space will be a b) Pervasive Computing – Technologymajor challenge for all participants. and Architecture of Mobile and Internet applications, Jochen Burkhardt, Dr. Horst Henn,9 CONCLUSION: Stefan Hepper, Klaus Rintdorff, Pervasive computing in an Thomas Schackincreasingly networked world continues to c) Pervasive Computing in Healthaffect more and more of the worlds Care Jacob, E. Bardram, Alexpopulation. More questions than answers Mihalidis, Dadong Wan Publishedremain, more investment required than 2006, CRC Pressprofit currently available, but plenty of d) Mobile Medicine : hand held’sopportunity and revolutionary benefits used to treat disease Dueul. R(and potential pitfalls) for everyone who Pervasive Computing IEEE,participates. Although this is a global Volume1, Issue2, Apr-Jun 2002phenomenon, regional and national social e) A Low Power Linear Phase Digitaland cultural factors will directly influence FIR Filter for Wearable ECGthe technologies and promise of pervasive Devices Young Lian, Jianghong Yu,computing. Engineering in Medicine andPervasive computing is quite a bit Biology Society, 2005. IEEE-different, because it assumes a distributed EMBS 2005. 27th Annualenvironment model. It has the potential to International Conference of thedramatically alter how people use devices Volume , Issue , connect and communicate in everyday