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Cocoa fermentation


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processing of cocoa beans to cocoa powder main ingredient for chocolate making

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Cocoa fermentation

  1. 1. Cocoa fermentation R.Raga Madhuri
  2. 2. Cocoa fermentation • Fermentation of pulp sugars: It takes place both in Anaerobic and Aerobic conditions: • 1- Anaerobic phase - first 48 hours (pulp does not allow air circulation). • Yeast fermentation - pulp sugars are transformed to alcohol. (ethanol). • Temperature increasing – exothermic reaction. • Formation of lactic acid. • Pulp breaks down-drains away-air penetration. It takes place in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions PULP composition: % Water 82-87 Sugars 10-13 Pentosans 2- 3 acid 1- 2 Salts 8-10 R.Raga Madhuri
  3. 3. 2- Aerobic phase - day 3 onwards • Aeration (drained pulp and turn after 48 hours) allows strong growth of Acetobacter (aerobic bacteria). • Acetobacter transforms alcohol to acetic acid. • Acetic acid penetrates into the bean and causes changes that lead to formation of chocolate flavour precursors. R.Raga Madhuri
  4. 4. Cocoa Harvesting • Two harvests are made annually : • the main crop • the intermediary crop (also called mid-crop) • From fertilization to harvesting, the fruit requires 5 to 6 months. Harvest season lasts about 5 months. • Harvesting cocoa : • cutting the ripe pods from the trees • breaking the pod (mostly with a machete) • extracting the seeds from the pods • allowing the seeds to ferment from 2 to 8 days • drying in the sun R.Raga Madhuri
  5. 5. Cocoa harvesting R.Raga Madhuri
  6. 6. • A cocoa pod:  has a rough leathery, firm outer covering (rind)  about 3 cm thick (varies with the origin of pod)  filled with sweet, mucilaginous pulp called “ baba de cacao” in South America  contains 30 to 50 large almond-like seeds  fairly soft and pinkish or purplish in color R.Raga Madhuri
  7. 7. Pod break, Bean removal R.Raga Madhuri
  8. 8. Fermentation  Fermentation of cocoa beans : • removes the mucilaginous pulp • develops flavor and aroma precursors • reduces bitterness • kills the germ of the seed and loosens the testa .  Standard methods adopted for fermentation: • Heap • Box Tray • BasketR.Raga Madhuri
  9. 9. Fermentation Methods • Heap Method: Banana leaves are spread out over sticks a few inches above ground. It takes about six days to complete. R.Raga Madhuri
  10. 10. • Box Tray Method: Use of wooden trays for drainage. It takes about four days. R.Raga Madhuri
  11. 11. • Basket Method: Use of wooden baskets with holes at the bottom. It takes from three to five days. R.Raga Madhuri
  12. 12. Drying and Storage • Fermented beans can be dried either: • In the sun • Done in thin layers of 2 - 3 cm depth. • With stirring from time to time. • Properly dried beans produce a characteristic cracking sound upon compressing a fistful of beans in the palm. • Or can scientifically use moisture meter to check dryness. • There is 6 -8% of moisture maintained by dried beans and should be cleared before storage. • Dried beans are broken, shriveled and other extraneous material removed. • Beans are packed into bags that are kept on a raised platform of wooden planks for storage. R.Raga Madhuri
  13. 13. From Cocoa Beans to the Bar R.Raga Madhuri
  14. 14. Uses of Cocoa Beans Chocolate • A common ingredient in many kinds of sweets, chocolate candy, ice creams, cookies, cakes, pies and desserts. • Food flavors, Easter eggs, coins for occasions,. R.Raga Madhuri
  15. 15. Health Benefits of Cocoa and Chocolate • Cocoa and dark chocolate may keep high blood pressure down and reduce the blood's ability to clot, thus the risk of stroke and heart attacks may be reduced. • A 15-year study of elderly men published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2006 found a 50% reduction in cardiovascular mortality and a 47% reduction in all-cause mortality for the men regularly consuming the most cocoa, compared to those consuming the least. R.Raga Madhuri
  16. 16. Cleaning • When seeds arrive to factory they are carefully selected and cleaned by passing through a bean cleaning machine that removes extraneous materials. • Different bean varieties are blended to produce the typical flavor of chocolate of particular producer. • Then the bean shells are cracked and removed. • Crushed cocoa beans are called nibs. R.Raga Madhuri
  17. 17. Roasting • The beans are then roasted to develop the characteristic chocolate flavour of the bean in large rotary cylinders. • The roasting lasts from 30 minutes to 2 hours at very high temperatures. • The bean colour changes to a rich brown and the aroma of chocolate comes through. R.Raga Madhuri
  18. 18. Grinding • The roasted nibs are milled through a process that liquefies the cocoa butter in the nibs and forms cocoa mass (or paste). • This liquid mass has dark brown colour, typical strong smell and flavour and contains about 54% of cocoa butter R.Raga Madhuri
  19. 19. Cocoa Pressing • Part of cocoa mass is fed into the cocoa press which hydraulically squeezes a portion of the cocoa butter from the cocoa mass, leaving "cocoa cakes". • The cocoa butter is used in the manufacture of chocolates; the remaining cakes of cocoa solids are pulverized into cocoa powders. R.Raga Madhuri