• Fermentation of pulp sugars:
It takes place both in Anaerobic and Aerobic conditions:
• 1- Anaerobic phase - first 48 hours (pulp does not allow air
• Yeast fermentation - pulp sugars are transformed to alcohol.
• Temperature increasing – exothermic reaction.
• Formation of lactic acid.
• Pulp breaks down-drains away-air penetration.
It takes place in both anaerobic and aerobic conditions
PULP composition: %
Pentosans 2- 3
acid 1- 2
2- Aerobic phase - day 3 onwards
• Aeration (drained pulp and turn after 48 hours)
allows strong growth of Acetobacter (aerobic
• Acetobacter transforms alcohol to acetic acid.
• Acetic acid penetrates into the bean and causes
changes that lead to formation of chocolate
• Two harvests are made annually :
• the main crop
• the intermediary crop (also called mid-crop)
• From fertilization to harvesting, the fruit requires 5 to 6 months.
Harvest season lasts about 5 months.
• Harvesting cocoa :
• cutting the ripe pods from the trees
• breaking the pod (mostly with a machete)
• extracting the seeds from the pods
• allowing the seeds to ferment from 2 to 8 days
• drying in the sun
• A cocoa pod:
has a rough leathery, firm outer covering (rind)
about 3 cm thick (varies with the origin of pod)
filled with sweet, mucilaginous pulp called “ baba de cacao” in
contains 30 to 50 large almond-like seeds
fairly soft and pinkish or purplish in color
Fermentation of cocoa beans :
• removes the mucilaginous pulp
• develops flavor and aroma precursors
• reduces bitterness
• kills the germ of the seed and loosens the testa .
Standard methods adopted for fermentation:
• Box Tray
• BasketR.Raga Madhuri
• Heap Method: Banana leaves are spread out over sticks a few
inches above ground. It takes about six days to complete.
• Box Tray Method: Use of wooden trays for drainage. It takes about
• Basket Method: Use of wooden baskets with holes at the bottom.
It takes from three to five days.
Drying and Storage
• Fermented beans can be dried either:
• In the sun
• Done in thin layers of 2 - 3 cm depth.
• With stirring from time to time.
• Properly dried beans produce a characteristic cracking sound upon
compressing a fistful of beans in the palm.
• Or can scientifically use moisture meter to check dryness.
• There is 6 -8% of moisture maintained by dried beans and should be
cleared before storage.
• Dried beans are broken, shriveled and other extraneous material
• Beans are packed into bags that are kept on a raised platform of wooden
planks for storage.
Uses of Cocoa Beans
• A common ingredient in many kinds of sweets, chocolate
candy, ice creams, cookies, cakes, pies and desserts.
• Food flavors, Easter eggs, coins for occasions,.
Health Benefits of Cocoa and Chocolate
• Cocoa and dark chocolate may keep high blood pressure down and
reduce the blood's ability to clot, thus the risk of stroke and heart
attacks may be reduced.
• A 15-year study of elderly men published in the Archives of
Internal Medicine in 2006 found a 50% reduction in cardiovascular
mortality and a 47% reduction in all-cause mortality for the men
regularly consuming the most cocoa, compared to those
consuming the least.
• When seeds arrive to factory they are carefully selected and
cleaned by passing through a bean cleaning machine that removes
• Different bean varieties are blended to produce the typical flavor
of chocolate of particular producer.
• Then the bean shells are cracked and removed.
• Crushed cocoa beans are called nibs.
• The beans are then roasted to develop the characteristic
chocolate flavour of the bean in large rotary cylinders.
• The roasting lasts from 30 minutes to 2 hours at very high
• The bean colour changes to a rich brown and the aroma of
chocolate comes through.
• The roasted nibs are milled through a process that liquefies the
cocoa butter in the nibs and forms cocoa mass (or paste).
• This liquid mass has dark brown colour, typical strong smell and
flavour and contains about 54% of cocoa butter
• Part of cocoa mass is fed into the cocoa press which hydraulically
squeezes a portion of the cocoa butter from the cocoa mass,
leaving "cocoa cakes".
• The cocoa butter is used in the manufacture of chocolates; the
remaining cakes of cocoa solids are pulverized into cocoa