Managing industrial relations


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Managing industrial relations

  1. 1. Chapter 1: Introduction to Human Relations I. The Nature, Purpose, and Importance of Human Relations A. Human relations defined B. Human Relations in the age of information C. The importance of human relations D. The challenge of human relations E. The influence of the behavioral sciences F. Human relations and the "total person" G. The need for a supportive environment II. The Forces Influencing Behavior at Work A. Organizational culture B. Supervisory-management influence C. Work group influence D. Job influence E. Personal characteristics of the worker F. Family influence III. The Development of the Human Relations Movement A. The impact of the Industrial Revolution B. Taylor's scientific management C. Mayo's Hawthorne studies D. From the Great Depression to the new millennium IV. Major Themes in Human Relations A. Communication B. Self-awareness C. Self-acceptance D. Motivation E. Trust F. Self-disclosure G. Conflict resolution V. Human Relations: Benefits to You Chapter 2: Improving Personal and Organizational Communications I. Advanced Technology's Impact on Communication II. The Communication Process A. Impersonal one-way versus interpersonal two-way communication B. Sendermessagereceiver-feedback III. Communication Filters A. Semantics--the meaning of words B. Language and cultural barriers C. Emotions D. Attitudes E. Role expectations F. Gender-specific focus G. Nonverbal messages 1. Eye contact 2. Facial expressions
  2. 2. 3. Gestures 4. Personal space H. Who is responsible for effective communication? IV. How to Improve Personal Communication A. Send clear messages 1. Use simple, clear, and concise words carefully 2. Use repetition 3. Use appropriate timing 4. Consider the receiver's preferences B. Develop active listening skills 1. Critical listening 2. Empathic listening V. Communication Channels in Organizations A. Formal channels 1. Vertical channels 2. Horizontal channels B. Informal channels 1. The Grapevine C. How to Improve Organizational Communication 1. Create a climate that encourages upward communication VI. Communicating via Technology A. Voice mail B. E-Mail 1. Know your companies e-mail policies 2. Create an appropriate e-mail address 3. Use the Subject: line 4. Watch your language 5. Avoid forwarding junk mail Chapter 3: Understanding Your Communication Style I. Communication Styles: An Introduction A. Communication style defined B. Fundamental concepts supporting communication styles C. Learning to cope with communication style bias II. The Communication Style Model A. The dominance continuum B. Where should you be on the dominance continuum? C. The sociability continuum D. Where should you be on the sociability continuum? E. Four basic communication styles 1. Emotive style 2. Director style 3. Reflective style 4. Supportive style F. Variation within your communication style 1. Zone 1 2. Zone 2
  3. 3. 3. Excess zone G. Tips on style identification III. Versatility: The Third Dimension A. Achieving versatility through style flexing B. Strategies for adapting your style 1. Flexing to the emotive style 2. Flexing to the director style 3. Flexing to the reflective style 4. Flexing to the supportive style C. Style flexing: pitfalls and possibilities IV. A Final Word of Caution A. Strength/weakness paradox Chapter 4: Building High Self-Esteem I. The Power of Self-Esteem A. Self-esteem = self-efficacy + self-respect B. How self-esteem develops 1. Childhood: unconditional acceptance of authority figures' comments 2. Adolescence: peer comparisons 3. Adulthood: self-worth usually based on what we have and what we do rather than an internal value system II. Self-Esteem Influences Your Behavior A. Characteristics of people with low self-esteem 1. They tend to maintain an external locus of control 2. They are more likely to participate in self-destructive behaviors 3. They tend to exhibit poor human relations skills 4. They may experience failure syndrome B. Characteristics of people with high self-esteem 1. They are future oriented, not overly concerned about past mistakes or failures 2. They are better able to cope with life's problems and disappointments 3. They are able to feel all emotions without letting those emotions affect their behavior in a negative way 4. They are less likely to take things personally. 5. They are able to accept other people as unique, talented individuals 6. They exhibit a variety of self-confident behaviors such as saying "thank you" after a compliment, allowing others to be right, expressing their opinions even if they differ from others, etc. III. How to Build Self-Esteem A. Search for the source of low self-esteem B. Identify and accept your limitations C. Take responsibility for your decisions D. Develop expertise in some area E. Seek the support and guidance of mentors 1. Use multiple mentors 2. Search for a mentor who has the qualities of a good coach 3. Market yourself to a prospective mentor
  4. 4. F. Set realistic goals G. Visualize the results you want to achieve H. Use positive self-talk 1. Be specific 2. Use personal pronouns and present tense verbs 3. Describe the results you want to achieve, not what you do not want IV. Organizations Can Help A. Workers need to feel valued, competent, secure, empowered, and connected Chapter 5: Personal Values Influence Ethical Choices I. Character, Integrity, and Moral Development A. Character: Your personal standards of behavior B. Integrity: The basic ingredient of character exhibited when you follow through with what you say you will do II. How Personal Values Are Formed A. Identify your core values B. Influences that shape your life 1. People and events 2. Family 3. Religious groups 4. Schools 5. The media 6. People you admire C. Avoiding values drift III. Values Conflicts A. Internal values conflicts result when a person is forced to choose between two or more strongly held values B. Values conflicts with others may occur as people of different generations, races, cultures, ethnic backgrounds, or religions interact with one another IV. Personal Values and Ethical Choices A. How to make the right ethical choices 1. Learn to distinguish right and wrong 2. Make certain your values harmonize with those of your employer 3. Don't let your life be driven by the desire for immediate gratification V. Corporate Values and Ethical Choices A. The problem of corporate crime B. Positive steps toward preventing corporate crime 1. Establish and support a strong code of ethics 2. Hire with care 3. Provide ethics training 4. Develop support for whistle blowing VI. Values and Ethics in International Business A. Bribery used to secure foreign contracts B. Human rights violations C. Lack of sensitivity to foreign markets
  5. 5. Chapter 6: Attitudes Can Shape Your Life I. Attitudes Can Be Learned A. Root causes of negative attitudes 1. Low self-esteem 2. Unresolved conflict 3. Work that is not satisfying 4. Fear or uncertainty B. The powerful influence of attitudes C. The age of information mandates attitude changes II. How Attitudes Are Formed A. Socialization B. Peer and reference groups C. Rewards and punishment D. Role model identification E. Cultural influences III. Attitudes Valued by Employers A. Self-motivated B. Openness to change 1. Stubbornness: refusing to change 2. Arrogance: do not need to change 3. Inflexibility: closed-minded C. Team spirit D. Health consciousness E. Appreciation of coworker diversity F. Honesty IV. How to Change Attitudes A. Changing your own attitude 1. Choose happiness 2. Embrace optimism 3. Think for yourself 4. Open-mindedness B. Helping others change their attitudes 1. Change the conditions that precede the behavior 2. Change the consequences that follow the behavior V. Organizations' Efforts Toward Improving Employees' Attitudes VI. A Final Word from Viktor Frankl: "The last of the freedoms is to choose one's attitude in any given set of circumstances." Chapter 7: Motivating Yourself and Others I. The Complex Nature of Motivation A. Motivation defined -- the reason people do what they do 1. Internal and external motivators B. The Motivation to Satisfy Basic Desires C. Characteristics of motives
  6. 6. 1. Motives are individualistic 2. Motives change 3. Motives may be unconscious 4. Motives are often inferred 5. Motives are hierarchical II. Influential Motivational Theories A. Maslow's hierarchy of needs 1. Physiological needs 2. Safety and security needs 3. Social or belongingness needs 4. Esteem needs 5. Self-actualization needs B. Maslow's theory reconsidered C. Herzberg's Motivation-Maintenance Theory 1. Maintenance factors: salary, fringe benefits, supervision, appropriate working conditions, social relationships, policies and administration 2. Motivational factors: achievement, responsibility, recognition, and opportunities for advancement D. Expectancy Theory 1. Motivational strength is determined by whether or not you believe you can be successful at a task E. Goal-Setting Theory 1. Goals provide the power of purpose by directing energy toward a specific target; they encourage you to make the effort to actually do something rather than simply dream about it; they encourage persistence that help you go beyond obstacles; and they force you to bridge the gap between the dream and the reality. F. McGregor's Theory X and Theory Y (Human Relations in Action boxed insert) III. Contemporary Employee Motivation Strategies A. Motivation through job design 1. Job rotation 2. Job enlargement 3. Job enrichment B. Motivation through incentives C. Motivation through learning opportunities D. Motivation through empowerment E. Motivation through others' expectations IV. Self-Motivation Strategies A. Go outside your comfort zone B. Build immunity to cynicism C. Strive for balance D. Take action Chapter 8: Improving Interpersonal Relations with Constructive Self- Disclosure
  7. 7. I. Self-Disclosure: An Introduction A. Self-disclosure defined B. Benefits gained from self-disclosure 1. Increased accuracy in communication 2. Reduction of stress 3. Increased self-awareness 4. Stronger relationships II. The Johari Window: A Model for Self-Understanding A. The four panes of the Johari Window 1. Open area 2. Blind area 3. Hidden area 4. Unknown area B. Self-disclosure/feedback styles III. Appropriate Self-Disclosure A. Use self-disclosure to repair damaged relationships 1. The art of apologizing 2. The art of forgiveness B. Present constructive criticism with care C. Discuss disturbing situations as they happen D. Accurately describe your feelings and emotions E. Select the right time and place F. Avoid overwhelming others with your self-disclosure IV. Barriers to Self-Disclosure in an Organizational Setting A. Lack of trust B. Role relationships versus interpersonal relationships V. Practice Self-Disclosure Chapter 9: Achieving Emotional Balance in a Chaotic World I. Emotions: An Introduction A. Achieving emotional balance--a daily challenge B. Emotional intelligence C. The emotional expression D. The emotional factor at work 1. Relationship strategy II. Factors That Influence Our Emotions A. Temperament B. Unconscious influence 1. Transactional analysis C. Cultural conditioning III. Coping with Your Anger and the Anger of Others A. Managing your anger B. Effective ways to express your anger 1. Avoid reacting in a manner that could be seen as emotionally unstable 2. Do not make accusations or attempt to fix blame 3. Express your feelings in a timely manner
  8. 8. 4. Be specific as you describe the factors that triggered your anger, and be clear about the resolution you are seeking C. How to handle other people's anger 1. Recognize and accept the other person's anger 2. Encourage the angry person to vent his or her feelings 3. Do not respond to any angry person with your own anger 4. Give the angry person feedback IV. Violence in the Workplace A. Employee sabotage B. Preventing workplace violence 1. Use hiring procedures that screen out unstable persons 2. Develop a strategy for responding to incidents before they actually occur 3. If someone must be demoted, fired, or laid off, do it in a way that does not demoralize the employee 4. Provide out-placement services for laid-off or terminated employees 5. Establish a systematic way to deal with disgruntled employees 6. Provide supervisors and managers with training that will help them prevent workplace violence and deal effectively with violence if it does occur V. Emotional Styles A. Suppressing your emotions B. Capitulating to your emotions C. Overexpressing your emotions D. Accommodating your emotions E. Gender differences in emotional style VI. Strategies for Achieving Emotional Control A. Identifying your emotional patterns B. Fine-tuning your emotional style 1. Take responsibility for your emotions 2. Put your problems into proper perspective 3. Take steps to move beyond negative emotions such as envy, anger, and jealousy. 4. Give your feelings some exercise Chapter 10: Building Stronger Relationships with Positive Energy I. How Positive Energy Contributes to Improved Interpersonal Relationships A. Actions and events that create positive energy II. Our Need for Positive Experiences A. Support from Maslow B. Support from Skinner C. Support from Berne III. Positive Reinforcement--A Powerful Affirmation A. Confirmation behaviors 1. Orientation and training 2. Praise 3. Courtesy
  9. 9. 4. Active listening 5. Positive written communication IV. Barriers to Positive Reinforcement A. Preoccupation with self B. Misconceptions about positive reinforcement C. The "too busy" syndrome D. Failing to identify commendable actions E. Not knowing what to say or do V. Rewarding Individual and Team Performance A. Incentive programs B. Criticisms of incentive programs 1. Pay is not an effective motivator 2. Rewards can punish 3. Rewards can damage relationships 4. Rewards may mask real problems C. Reexamining our ideas about productivity D. The critical importance of environment Chapter 11: Developing a Professional Presence I. Professional Presence--An Introduction A. Professional presence--a definition B. The importance of making a good first impression C. The primacy effect D. The first few seconds 1. Assumptions versus facts E. Cultural influence II. The Image You Project A. Surface language B. Selecting your career apparel C. Wardrobe engineering 1. The quality of your wardrobe will influence the image you project 2. The newest dress fad is often inappropriate in a business or professional setting 3. Your wardrobe should be appropriate for your field and for you D. The business casual look 1. Wear dressier business clothing when meeting with customers or clients 2. Respect the boundary between work and leisure clothing 3. Wear clothing that is clean and neat and that fits well E. Your facial expression F. Your entrance and carriage G. Your voice H. Your handshake 1. Degree of firmness 2. Degree of dryness of hands 3. Duration of grip 4. Depth of interlock
  10. 10. 5. Eye contact during handshake I. Your manners 1. When you establish new relationships, avoid calling people by their first names too soon 2. Avoid obscenities and offensive comments or stories 3. Watch your table manners 4. Express appreciation at appropriate times 5. Be familiar with meeting etiquette 6. Be aware of personal habits that may be offensive to others J. Incivility--the ultimate career killer K. Professional presence at the job interview Chapter 12: Team Building: A Leadership Strategy I. Leadership Challenges in the Age of Information A. Team building: an introduction B. Teamwork doesn't come naturally C. The transition to team-based structures 1. Self-managed teams 2. Cross-functional teams D. Real teams are rare II. Basic Beliefs About Teamwork A. McGregor's influence 1. The atmosphere of the workplace is informal, comfortable, and relaxed 2. There is a lot of discussion about work-related issues; the members listen to one another 3. The tasks or objectives of the group are well understood and accepted 4. There is disagreement 5. People express their feelings as well as their ideas B. The Leadership Grid® 1. Impoverished management 2. Country club management 3. Authority-compliance management 4. Middle of the road management 5. Team management C. Hall's contributions D. Behavioral science principles supporting team building 1. Shared participation in problem solving and decision making is basic to growth, development, and contribution 2. Mutual trust and respect undergird productive human relationships 3. Open communication supports mutual understanding 4. Conflict resolution by direct problem-solving confrontation promotes personal health 5. Responsibility for one's own actions stimulates initiative III. Team-Building Skills for Leaders A. Consideration B. Structure
  11. 11. C. Improving consideration skills 1. Recognize accomplishments 2. Provide for early and frequent success 3. Take a personal interest in each employee 4. Establish a climate of open communication 5. Discover individual employee values D. Improving structure skills 1. Communicate your vision and priorities 2. Encourage individual and team goal setting 3. Provide specific feedback often 4. Deal with performance problems immediately IV. Situational Leadership A. The character test V. Teamwork: The Employee's Role A. Employees as leaders B. Becoming a valued team member 1. Avoid becoming part of a clique or subgroup within the team 2. Avoid any action that might sabotage the team 3. Maintain honest, open communication among team members 4. Express your own strong beliefs, creative solutions, and ideas C. Managing the relationship with your boss 1. Assess your own strengths 2. Develop an understanding of your boss 3. Flex your communication style 4. Be frank and candid Chapter 13: Resolving Conflict and Dealing with Difficult People I. A New View of Conflict A. The cost of conflict II. Finding the Root of the Conflict A. The root of a conflict 1. Ineffective communication 2. Value clashes 3. Culture clashes 4. Work policies and practices 5. Adversarial management 6. Noncompliance 7. Competition for scarce resources 8. Personality clashes B. Resolving conflict assertively C. How to become more assertive 1. In the beginning, take small steps 2. Use communication skills that enhance assertiveness 3. Be soft on people and hard on the problem III. Learn to Negotiate Effectively A. Think win/win
  12. 12. B. Beware of defensive behaviors C. Know that negotiating styles vary 1. Avoidance style (uncooperative/nonassertive) 2. Accommodating style (cooperative/nonassertive) 3. Win/lose style (uncooperative/assertive) 4. Compromising style (moderately assertive/moderately cooperative) 5. Problem-solving style (assertive/cooperative) IV. Conflict Resolution Process A. Step 1: Decide whether you have a misunderstanding or a true disagreement B. Step 2: Define the problem and collect the facts C. Step 3: Clarify perceptions D. Step 4: Generate options for mutual gain E. Step 5: Implement options with integrity F. Alternative dispute resolution V. The Role of Labor Unions in Conflict Resolution A. Labor's role in the new economy B. Collective bargaining C. Contemporary issues facing labor unions Chapter 14: Responding to Personal and Work-Related Stress I. The Stress Factor in Your Life A. Responding to stress: the fight or flight syndrome II. Major Causes of Stress A. Change B. Technostress 1. Tether anxiety 2. Monitoring anxiety 3. Computer addiction 4. Information overload 5. The computer workstation (ergonomics) C. Noise pollution D. Long hours/irregular schedules E. Incompetent leaders F. Work and family transitions III. Assessing the Stress in Your Life A. Warning signs of too much stress IV. Stress Management Strategies A. Sleep B. Exercise C. Nutrition D. Meditation E. Humor and fun F. Solitude G. Emotional hardiness and support: Stress may be your fault V. Coping with Psychological Disorders A. Anxiety B. Depression
  13. 13. C. Burnout D. Therapy Options 1. Employee assistance programs (EAPs) Chapter 15: Valuing Work Force Diversity I. Work Force Diversity--A Definition A. Dimensions of diversity 1. Primary dimensions are core elements about a person that cannot be changed, such as age, gender, race, physical traits, and sexual orientation 2. Secondary dimensions are those elements that can be changed or modified, such as education, parental status, marital status, religious beliefs, work experience, or income II. Prejudiced Attitudes A. How prejudicial attitudes are formed and retained 1. Childhood experiences 2. Ethnocentrism 3. Economic factors III. The Many Forms of Discrimination A. Gender B. Age C. Race D. Religion E. Disability F. Sexual orientation G. Subtle forms of discrimination H. What can you do? IV. The Issue of Valuing Diversity A. The economics of valuing diversity V. Managing Diversity A. What individuals can do 1. Learn to look critically and honestly at myths and preconceived ideas you were conditioned to believe about others 2. Develop sensitivity to differences 3. Develop your own diversity awareness program B. What organizations can do 1. Organizational commitment: Make sure top management is committed to valuing diversity and promotes that commitment through the ranks as a process, not an event 2. Employment practices: Constantly review standards of recruiting, hiring, and promoting. Establish a way to monitor nondiscriminatory policies and provide top management with regular reports 3. Training and Development: Give managers and employees the information they need to work effectively with their diverse coworkers C. Affirmative Action: Yesterday and Today 1. Affirmative action plans
  14. 14. 2. Affirmative action debate goes on a. Preferences are discriminatory b. Preferences do not make sense, given changing demographics 2. Twelve-step programs Chapter 16: The Changing Roles of Men and Women I. Traditional Roles Are Changing A. Changes in the role of women B. Changes in the role of men 1. The burden of stress 2. Where is the balance? II. Problems Facing Women in Organizations A. The wage gap B. The glass ceiling C. Balancing career and family choices 1. "The mommy track" and other options III. Problems Facing Men in Organizations A. Men working with women B. Balancing career and family choices IV. Challenges and opportunities for working men and women A. The challenge of child care B. Flexible work schedule opportunities 1. Flextime 2. Compressed workweek 3. Job sharing 4. Telecommuting V. How to Cope with Gender-Biased Behavior A. Sexual harassment in the workplace: Quid pro quo and hostile work environment B. How to deal with sexual harassment VI. Learn to understand and respect gender-specific language A. Learn new organization etiquette Chapter 17: A Life Plan for Effective Human Relations I. Achieving Balance in a Chaotic World A. One-dimensional model II. Toward a New Definition of Success A. The need for new models of success B. Loss of leisure time C. Developing your own life plan III. Toward Right Livelihood A. Right livelihood is based on conscious choice B. Right livelihood places money in a secondary position
  15. 15. C. Right livelihood recognizes that work is a vehicle for personal growth D. Defining your relationship with money 1. True prosperity 2. Mature money management E. Defining your nonfinancial resources 1. Physical and mental health 2. Education and training (intellectual growth) 3. Leisure time 4. Healthy spirituality IV. Developing a Healthy Lifestyle A. Guidelines for a healthy diet 1. Maintain a diet that is balanced and varied 2. Reduce calorie intake 3. Cut down on fatty foods 4. Eat foods with adequate starch and fiber 5. Avoid too much sodium 6. If you drink alcohol, do so in moderation B. Improving your physical fitness 1. Walking 2. Swimming 3. Jogging V. Planning for Changes in Your Life A. The power of habits 1. Motivation 2. Knowledge 3. Practice 4. Feedback 5. Reinforcement B. The goal-setting process VI. The Choice Is Yours