Ingles gramatica


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Ingles gramatica

  1. 1. Presente Simple - (Simple Present Tense)El Presente Simple es un tiempo verbal que se utiliza para describir accioneshabituales que suceden con cierta frecuencia y no hace referencia a si está ocurriendoen el momento actual.I play tennis. Yo juego al tenis.(Hace mención de un deporte que realizo cotidianamente y que no necesariamente loestoy jugando en este momento).He works in an office. Él trabaja en una oficina.(Se refiere al trabajo que desarrolla una persona frecuentemente).They travel to Madrid. Ellos viajan a Madrid.(Habla de un viaje que se repite a diario, aunque el sujeto no lo esté realizando ahora).A continuación se muestran las formas afirmativa, interrogativa y negativa deeste tiempo verbal:En el cuadro superior se hatomado como ejemplo el verbo PLAY (jugar). Observe que en el modo afirmativo, enla 3º persona del singular, se le añade una "S" al verbo.He eats vegetables. Él come vegetales.Alice dances at the theatre. Alice baila en el teatro.The dog breaks the fence. El perro rompe la cerca.En el modo interrogativo y negativo se utiliza el auxiliar DO, aunque en la 3º personadel singular se coloca como auxiliar DOES y se le quita la "S" al verbo.Existen algunos casos particulares como por ejemplo, si el verbo empleado terminaen "SS", "SH", "CH", "O" y "X" al formar la 3º persona del singular en la forma
  2. 2. afirmativa se le agrega "ES". Aquí vemos algunos ejemplos:Si el verbo es FISH (pescar), se conjugará: He fishes at the sea. Él pesca en el mar.Si el verbo es KISS (besar), se conjugará: She kisses to her boyfriend. Ella besa a sunovio.Si el verbo es WATCH (observar), se conjugará: He watches the mountain. Él observala montaña.Si el verbo es FIX (arreglar), se conjugará: He fixes his car. Él arregla su coche.Si el verbo es GO (ir), se conjugará: She goes to the office. Ella va a la oficina.Otra excepción se presenta si el verbo termina en "Y" tras consonante. Para formar la3º persona del singular se sustituye esta "Y" por una "i" acompañada de la terminación"ES". Por ejemplo:Si el verbo es STUDY (estudiar) se conjugará: She studies the lesson. Ella estudia lalección.Para la forma negativa se puede emplear la forma contraída de DONT en lugar de DONOT o DOESNT en vez de DOES NOT.I dont play tennis. Yo no juego al tenis.He doesnt work in an office. Él no trabaja en una oficina.They dont travel to Madrid. Ellos no viajan a Madrid.PART 2 OF PRESENT TENSEStructure ExamplesWe use thePresent SimpleTense:To form the PresentSimple Tense we use theverbs base form (go, work,speak, study). In 3rdpersonsingular (he, she, it), thebase form of the verb takes-s/es. (Auxiliary verbs "be,""do," "have", which canalso be used as main verbs,are exceptions.)Affirmative formIyou workwethey1. Philip gets up at 6 oclockevery morning.2. I go to school every day.3. She sometimes goes out onFriday night.4. I usually sleep late onSunday morning.5. Peter works for 8 hoursevery day.6. We usually start work at 8oclock.7. My children often watchTV in the afternoon.8. He always forgets hiskeys.when we talk aboutthings that happenrepeatedly orhabituallyWith PresentSimple Tense weoften use timeexpressions such asalways, often,sometimes, usually,seldom, on Saturdays,rarely, never, everyday, etc.1. I work in a bank.2. Kate speaks English verywhen we talk aboutpermanent or long-
  3. 3. he/she/it works /-s/go - goes /-es/watch - watches /-es/play - plays /-s/study - studies /-es/! Remember:to beI/you/we/they arehe/she/it isto doI/you/we/they dohe/she/it doesto haveI/you/we/they havehe/she/it hasNegative formIyou DO NOT /dont/we WORKtheyhe/she/it DOES NOT/doesnt / WORK1. She doesnt often go tothe cinema.2. I dont get up early atthe weekend.3. They dont speakEnglish very well.Interrogative formIDO you WORK?wetheywell.3. Tom lives in London.lasting situations1. People make choicesbecause they cant haveeverything they want.2. Nurses work in clinics andhospitals.3. Football is a very popularsport in Bulgaria.when we talk aboutpeople or things ingeneral1. The Earth is spherical.2. My birthday is in May.3. California is in the UnatedStates.4. The sun rises in the east.5. Water freezes at 0°C(32°F).to indicate generaltruths, facts andscientific laws1. We arrive in Rome at 6p.m.2. The train leaves in fiveminutes.3. The course starts nextThursday.when we talk abouttravel plans andtimetables (mainlywith verbs such as go,leave, arrive, start,come, return etc.)1. She loves jazz music.2. My aunt hates travellingby train.3. I like ice cream. I dontlike spinach.4. I think she is a wonderfulperson.5. Do you believe in God?6. I have no money at themoment.7. My brother has a new car.8. That bicycle belongs tome.with state (orstative) verbs such aslike, dislike, love,think, seem, look,know, feel,understand, want,need, hate,remember, forget,prefer, believe,mean, taste, hear,see, have (when themeaning is"possess"), own,belong, etc. Theseverbs are notnormally used in theContinuous Tense(but there areexceptions).1. Pour all ingredients into amixing bowl and mix giveinstructions/directions
  4. 4. DOES he/she/it WORK?1. Do they speak foreignlanguages?2. Do you want a banana?3. Does your sister play thepiano?Questions and shortanswers:Do you like spaghetti?Yes, I do.No, I dont.Does she know Bulgarian?Yes, she does.No, she doesnt.2. Walk down the street tothe corner and then turnright.The Present Simple Tense is also used in :sentences after "when", "after", "while", "till"/ "until", "before", "as soon as" - When the rainstops, well go out.Ill call you back as soon as I return conditional sentences (when the result ofthe condition is always true) - If you heat water to100°C (212°F), it boils.first conditional sentences (Often called the"real" conditional because it is used for real (orpossible) situations. These situations take place if acertain condition is met.) - If you finish yourhomework Ill bring you to the zoo.Notes about formation of the 3rd person singular(he, she, it):If the verb ends in -ss, -sh, -ch, -x or -o, add -es to thebase form:kiss - kisses, finish - finishes, watch - watches, mix -mixes, go - goesIf the verb ends in consonant + y change y to i and add-es:study - studies, copy - copies, try - tries, carry - carriesSIMPLE PRESENT(See also Verbs -Regular verbs in the simple present)Simple present, third person singularNote:Con formato: Fuente:(Predeterminado) Times New Roman,12 pto, Color de fuente: Color personalizado(RGB(35,35,142))Con formato: Fuente:(Predeterminado) Times New Roman,12 pto, Color de fuente: Color personalizado(RGB(35,35,142))
  5. 5. 1. he, she, it: in the third person singular the verb always ends in -s:he wants, she needs, he gives, she thinks.2. Negative and question forms use DOES (=the third person of the auxiliaryDO) + theinfinitive of the verb.He wants. Does he want? He does not want.3. Verbs ending in -y : the third person changes the -y to -ies:fly flies, cry criesException: if there is a vowel before the -y:play plays, pray prays4. Add -es to verbs ending in:-ss, -x, -sh, -ch:he passes, she catches, he fixes, it pushesSee also Verbs -Regular verbs in the simple present, and Be, do & haveExamples:1. Third person singular with s or -es He goes to school every morning. She understands English. It mixes the sand and the water. He tries very hard. She enjoys playing the piano.2. Simple present, formExample: to think, present simpleAffirmative Interrogative NegativeI think Do I think ? I do not think.You think Do you think? You dont think.he, she, it thinks Does he, she, it think? He, she, it doesnt think.we think Do we think? We dont think Do you think? You dont think.The simple present is used:1. to express habits, general truths, repeated actions or unchanging situations, emotionsand wishes:I smoke (habit); I work in London (unchanging situation); London is a large city(general truth)
  6. 6. 2. to give instructions or directions:You walk for two hundred metres, then you turn left.3. to express fixed arrangements, present or future:Your exam starts at 09.004. to express future time, after some conjunctions: after, when, before, as soon as,until:Hell give it to you when you come next Saturday.BE CAREFUL! The simple present is not used to express actions happening now. SeePresent Continuous.Examples:1. For habitsHe drinks tea at breakfast.She only eats fish.They watch television regularly.2. For repeated actions or eventsWe catch the bus every morning.It rains every afternoon in the hot season.They drive to Monaco every summer.3. For general truthsWater freezes at zero degrees.The Earth revolves around the Sun.Her mother is Peruvian.4. For instructions or directionsOpen the packet and pour the contents into hot water.You take the No.6 bus to Watney and then the No.10 to Bedford.5. For fixed arrangementsHis mother arrives tomorrow.Our holiday starts on the 26th March6. With future constructionsShell see you before she leaves.Well give it to her when she arrives.
  7. 7. Simple Present TenseEnglish Grammar RulesThe simple present tense in English is used to describe an action that is regular,true or normal.We use the present tense:1. For repeated or regular actions in the present time period. I take the train to the office. The train to Berlin leaves every hour. John sleeps eight hours every night during the week.2. For facts. The President of The USA lives in The White House. A dog has four legs. We come from Switzerland.3. For habits. I get up early every day. Carol brushes her teeth twice a day. They travel to their country house every weekend.4. For things that are always / generally true. It rains a lot in winter. The Queen of England lives in Buckingham Palace. They speak English at work.Verb Conjugation & SpellingWe form the present tense using the base form of the infinitive (without the TO).In general, in the third person we add S in the third person.Subject Verb The Rest of the sentence
  8. 8. I / you / we / they speak / learn English at homehe / she / it speaks / learns English at homeThe spelling for the verb in the third person differs depending on the ending of thatverb:1. For verbs that end in -O, -CH, -SH, -SS, -X, or -Z we add -ES in the third person. go – goes catch – catches wash – washes kiss – kisses fix – fixes buzz – buzzes2. For verbs that end in a consonant + Y, we remove the Y and add -IES. marry – marries study – studies carry – carries worry – worriesNOTE: For verbs that end in a vowel + Y, we just add -S. play – plays enjoy – enjoys say – saysNegative Sentences in the Simple Present TenseTo make a negative sentence in English we normally use Dont or Doesnt with allverbs EXCEPT To Be and Modal verbs (can, might, should etc.). Affirmative: You speak French.Negative: You dont speak French.You will see that we add dont between the subject and the verb. We use Dontwhen the subject is I, you, we or they. Affirmative: He speaks German.Negative: He doesnt speak German.
  9. 9. When the subject is he, she or it, we add doesnt between the subject and theverb to make a negative sentence. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb inthe affirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the negativesentence. We will see the reason why below.Negative ContractionsDont = Do notDoesnt = Does notI dont like meat = I do not like meat.There is no difference in meaning though we normally use contractions in spokenEnglish.Word Order of Negative SentencesThe following is the word order to construct a basic negative sentence in English inthe Present Tense using Dont or Doesnt.Subject dont/doesnt Verb* The Rest of the sentenceI / you / we / they dont have / buyeat / like etc.cereal for breakfasthe / she / it doesnt* Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = The infinitivewithout TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive To have it is just the have part.Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and itbegins with TO. For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc.Examples of Negative Sentences with Dont and Doesnt: You dont speak Arabic. John doesnt speak Italian. We dont have time for a rest. It doesnt move. They dont want to go to the party. She doesnt like fish.
  10. 10. Questions in the Simple Present TenseTo make a question in English we normally use Do or Does. It has no translation inSpanish though it is essential to show we are making a question. It is normally putat the beginning of the question. Affirmative: You speak English.Question: Do you speak English?You will see that we add DO at the beginning of the affirmative sentence to make ita question. We use Do when the subject is I, you, we or they. Affirmative: He speaks French.Question: Does he speak French?When the subject is he, she or it, we add DOES at the beginning to make theaffirmative sentence a question. Notice that the letter S at the end of the verb in theaffirmative sentence (because it is in third person) disappears in the question. Wewill see the reason why below.We DONT use Do or Does in questions that have the verb To Be or Modal Verbs(can, must, might, should etc.)Word Order of Questions with Do and DoesThe following is the word order to construct a basic question in English using Do orDoes.Do/Does Subject Verb* The Rest of the sentenceDo I / you / we / they have / needwant etc.a new bike?Does he / she / it*Verb: The verb that goes here is the base form of the infinitive = The infinitivewithout TO before the verb. Instead of the infinitive To have it is just the have part.Remember that the infinitive is the verb before it is conjugated (changed) and itbegins with TO. For example: to have, to eat, to go, to live, to speak etc.Examples of Questions with Do and Does: Do you need a dictionary?
  11. 11.  Does Mary need a dictionary? Do we have a meeting now? Does it rain a lot in winter? Do they want to go to the party? Does he like pizza?Short Answers with Do and DoesIn questions that use do/does it is possible to give short answers to directquestions as follows:Sample QuestionsShort Answer(Affirmative)Short Answer(Negative)Do you like chocolate? Yes, I do. No, I dont.Do I need a pencil? Yes, you do. No, you dont.Do you both like chocolate? Yes, we do. No, we dont.Do they like chocolate? Yes, they do. No, they dont.Does he like chocolate? Yes, he does. No, he doesnt.Does she like chocolate? Yes, she does. No, she doesnt.Does it have four wheels? Yes, it does. No, it doesnt.However, if a question word such as who, when, where, why, which or how isused in the question, you can not use the short answers above to respond to thequestion.Present Simple PracticeChoose the correct answer:1) Mary volleyball on Mondays.2) I every weekend.
  12. 12. 3) Chris and Pat to school at 7:30 AM.4) The students the homework in the afternoon.5) Martha a tree.Complete with the correct verb.LISTEN - PLAY - GO - DO - GET UP - READ - RIDE - WASH -DRIVE - WATCHa) Camila the homework at home.b) I my bike everyday.c) John to music.d) Tom football at the club on Tuesdays.e) My father his brand new car.
  13. 13. f) You the newspaper on Sundays,g) My sister T.V. in the evening.h) Lucy and I at 9 o´clock everyday.i) Danielle home at 6:30.Write the previous senteces into the NEGATIVE form. Use "DO NOT" (not don´t)or "DOES NOT" (not doesn´t), please.a) Camila the homework at home.b) I my bike everyday.c) John to music.d) Tom football at the club on Tuesdays.e) My father his brand new car.f) You the newspaper on Sundays,
  14. 14. g) My sister T.V. in the evening.h) Lucy and I at 9 o´clock everyday.i) Danielle home at 6:30.Complete the questions, then answer.1) you up at 8 AM?Yes, .2) Sylvia the homework?No, .3) your mother your bedroom?Yes, .4) you English?Yes, .
  15. 15. 5) Simple present tense exerciseComplete the following sentences using the appropriate simple present tense form of theverb given in the brackets. In the case of questions, use the indicated subject as well.1. He …………………… (work) best in the evening.2. The train ……………………. (arrive) at 4.15.3. How often …………………….. (you / visit) your grandparents?4. She …………………….. (be) from Malaysia.5. James ……………………. (not smoke).6. How often ……………………. (he / go) to the gym?7. Where …………………… (you / live)?8. He ……………………. (play) tennis on Sundays.9. He …………………… (not work) hard.10. Jack ………………… (not speak) English.11. ……………………. (you / know) English?12. How …………………….. (you / start) a washing machine?Answers1. He works best in the evening.2. The train arrives at 4.15.3. How often do you visit your grandparents?4. She is from Malaysia.5. James does not smoke.6. How often does he go to the gym?
  16. 16. 7. Where do you live?8. He plays tennis on Sundays.9. He does not work hard.10. Jack does not speak English.11. Do you know English?12. How do you start a washing maClarisa