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Training methodologies


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Training methodologies

  2. 2. Training Methods:1) Isometric2) Isotonic3) Isokinetic4) Functional Isometric5) Variable Resistance Training
  3. 3. Training Methods:6) Negatives or Eccentric Training7) Compound Training8) Complex Training9) Circuit Training
  4. 4. Isometric
  5. 5. Definition Isometric exercises are those in which no movements takes place while a force is exerted against an immovable object
  6. 6. History Used for more than thousands of years with static holds in yoga and kung fu (martial arts) to improve muscle strength and endurance. Alexander Ivanovich Zass: Father of Isometric training
  7. 7. History 1930’s : Strength training with isometric exercises was popularized by Charles Atlas 1960’s : Gradual introduction of exercise machines. 1980’s : Became increasingly popular
  8. 8. History Current
  9. 9. Mechanics Also known as Static Resistance Training which no changes in the muscle length and joint angle take place. The muscle holds a position for a specified length of time, generally no more than 30 seconds.
  10. 10. Mechanics Can be performed against a resistance that is greater than the concentric strength of the individual or against an immovable (i.e. floor, wall) Benefit/s: Increase in strength at the specified joint trained, increase in muscle fiber recruitment.
  11. 11. Benefits Advantages Disadvantages Can be done  Build strength at anywhere only one position Low cost/little  Less muscle equipment needed hypertrophy Can rehabilitate an  Poor link or transfer immobilized joint to sport skill
  12. 12. Isometric Exercises Isometric Planks/Abdominal Bridge Triceps Extension Shoulder Pull
  13. 13. Isotonic
  14. 14. Definition Isotonic exercise refers to activities in which a resistance is raised and then lowered. When performing isotonic exercise, both concentric and eccentric contraction should be use
  15. 15. History The genealogy of lifting can be traced back to the beginning of recorded history where man’s fascination with physical abilities can be found among numerous ancient writing. One of the earlier records of using lifting as a training tool can be dates back to Ancient Greece, where the Greek physician Galen described strength training exercises using Halteres (an early form of dumbbell).
  16. 16. History Ancient Greek sculptures also depicted men lifting weights, these weights were usually stones, but these later gave way to dumbbells. By the mid 19th century the barbell was invented. Early forms included hollow globes that could be filled with sand or lead.
  17. 17. History By the end of the 9th century this was replaced by the plate-loaded barbells we see today.
  18. 18. Benefits Advantages Disadvantages Can effectively  Does not challenge mimic movements muscles through the used in sport skills full range of motion Enhances dynamic  Requires equipment coordination or machines Promote gains in  May lead to strength soreness
  19. 19. Isotonic Exercises Dynamic Concentric and Eccentric
  20. 20. Isokinetic
  21. 21. Definition It is the 3rd main category of strength training and is the least known to the general public because it is rarely seen in fitness setting. An Isokinetic contractions are similar to isotonic in that the muscle changes length during contraction, but the angular velocity is constant
  22. 22. History 1970  Concept was far from an immediate a success  Machines were few and far between with little or no feedback  Incorporated to therapy
  23. 23. History 1980  Serve motors and microprocessors transformed the early machines into fast and dynamic tools.  Instant data analysis and reproducibility  Fundamentals data collection process sparked large scale interest in isokinetic testing
  24. 24. History Current  Several different exercise machines for this form of exercise  Several examples of isokinetic exercise that are ideal for the various fitness level
  25. 25. Isokinetic Advantages Disadvantages Build strength  Requires through a full range specialized of motion equipment Beneficial for  Cannot replicate natural acceleration rehabilitation and found in sport evaluation  More complicated to Safe and less likely use and cannot to promote soreness work all muscle groups
  26. 26. Functional Isometric
  27. 27. Definition Functional Isometric is a concept of specificity wherein when you train at specific joint angles, you build significant strength at the same angle and by training with isometric contractions at the sticking points, you can increase strength at these critical and limiting angles, thereby improving your overall strength in that particular exercise. Sticking point is the position when you feel difficulties lifting weights.
  28. 28. Benefits Maximal recruitment of muscle fibers Recruit all fibers (theoretically) w/o wear and tear on joints Increased lactic acid tolerance Develop confidence SAFE
  29. 29. Drawbacks Intent required Develop strength in small ROM Difficult to quantity
  30. 30. Psychological factors Life or death situations
  31. 31. Protocol You start the bar at a specific height and lift it two to three inches Hold the position for six to ten seconds You keep adding weight until you can’t lift and hold it for at least six seconds while maintaining a good lifting posture
  32. 32. 3 positions in 1 whole exercise A few inches after the start position The sticking point A few inches from the final position
  33. 33. Sample Exercise Bicep curl Squats Bench press
  34. 34. Variable Resistance Training
  35. 35. Definition Constant Resistance Training  A type of training with the resistance directed against your muscle remaining constant through the range of movement. (Ex. Weight lifting) Variable Resistance Training  Exercises provide varying resistance through the range of the exercise. (Ex. Flexible bands, Chains and Machines)
  36. 36. History Progressive resistance training dates back to at least the 6th century BC, when has it that wrestler Milo of Croton trained by carrying a newborn calf on his back every day until the calf was fully grown. In 1996 Blake Kassel the President of Bodylastics International had an idea for a full body workout system that used elastic tubes to generate and designs, the Bodylastics workout system was born and launched in 1998.
  37. 37. Benefits Improves balance, strength, speed, and power Increased metabolism Decreased risk of injury
  38. 38. Types: Resistance Band Resistance Chains Variable Resistance Machines
  39. 39. Resistance Band ADVANTAGES Disadvantage Cheap  Tends to tear and Easy to store brake Light Portable so you can travel with them Safe
  40. 40. Resistance Chains Advantages Disadvantages Will last a lifetime  Not portable to More heavier travel  Difficult to store
  41. 41. Variable Resistance Machines Advantage Disadvantages You can monitor  Very expensive increase in strength  Limits of exercise per machine
  42. 42. Variable Resistance Exercises Bench press with resistance band Biceps curls using resistance band Deadlift with resistance chains Squat with resistance chains
  43. 43. Negatives or Eccentric Training
  44. 44. Definition Eccentric training is a muscle action in which tension is developed in the muscle and the muscle lengthens. The limb movement produced in eccentric muscle action is termed negative because the joint actions are usually moving down with gravity or are controlling rather than initiating the movement of a mass
  45. 45. History One of the first research observations with eccentric muscle action was examined in 1882 by Fick, when he discovered that a contracting muscle under stretch could produced a greater force than a shortening muscle contraction. (Lindstedt, LaStayo, and Reich, 2001).
  46. 46. History It was discovered that doing an eccentric muscle action requires lower energy demand compared to concentric muscle action. It was explained that when the weight exceeds the force developed by the muscle, as in an eccentric muscle action, it is referred to as “negative work”, because the muscle is absorbing energy in this loaded motion
  47. 47. History Research in the field of eccentric exercise is continuing to expand in many areas of sports and rehabilitation.
  48. 48. Mechanism of Eccentric Training The portion of a repetition such as lowering the bar to your chest on a bench press or letting the cable raise on a lat-pull down is called the eccentric or negative contraction. In essence, during a positive contraction, your muscle fibers shorten. During a negative contraction, your muscle fibers lengthen.
  49. 49. Mechanism of Eccentric Training Even though you may feel like it’s effortless to lower the bar to your chest on a bench press, your muscles are still working and contracting, except just eccentrically/negatively. Your muscles contract eccentrically in order to control the weight to its natural position safely.
  50. 50. Mechanism of Eccentric Training Muscle injury and soreness can occur more readily with eccentric muscle action in high- loaded and high speed conditions. That is why carefully consider the speed and weight in the use of eccentric training
  51. 51. Benefits Advantages Disadvantages Improved size  Soreness Improved strength  Damage muscle Enables preparation cells for performance  Reduced Improves neural neural/reflexes factors  Acute strength loss  Altered resting state
  52. 52. Recommendations It is beneficial for an individual under rehabilitation to start a training program with eccentric exercises and hen leads into isometric followed by concentric exercises. It is good for progression in the strength of the muscles
  53. 53. Compound Training
  54. 54. Definition Compound exercises are weight lifting exercises which involve the utilization of multiple muscle. As opposed to isolation exercises, compound exercises involves a number of joints that are used simultaneously during the exercise
  55. 55. Definition A perfect example for a compound exercise would be the bent over lateral rows. This specific exercise targets the biceps, posterior deltoids, the latissimus dorsi and the lower back muscles. For professional athletes, compound training is preferred by many as this targets multiple muscle groups thus maximizing each exercise.
  56. 56. Benefits Increased amount of calories burned during exercise Convenience in doing a full body workout Improvement of coordination, reaction time and balance Increased heart rate during exercise Less muscle fatigue, therefore longer exercise periods
  57. 57. Disadvantages of Compound Exercise Requires a lot of coordination Hard to target stubborn muscles
  58. 58. Examples of Compound Exercises Squats Lunge and twist Dead lifts Snatch Shoulder press Pull-ups Shoulder press Turkish get-up
  59. 59. Recommendations Compound exercises are more suitable for strengthening the body Workouts would be less time consuming since it targets more muscle groups therefore, more birds with just one stone For athletes, compound exercises are more suitable since they are movement specifies as opposed to isolation exercises
  60. 60. However… Compound training may also refer to a weight training technique which involves the inclusion of multiple exercises into one “Giant set.” This means that a number of weight training exercise will be combined in one set. Rest will only be done after each giant set (2-3mins).
  61. 61. Super Set
  62. 62. Objective The objectives of this technique include (1) maximizing the intensity of a workout since it targets different angles of a muscle group and (2) to maximize time since it works out more muscle in a shorter amount of time with fewer peaks in the heart rate
  63. 63. Drawback Difficult in execution especially in crowded gyms Quicker burnout due to the high intensity Injurious if pushed to the limits
  64. 64. Sample Compound Training Program Bent rows x8 Upright rows x8 Military press x8 Good morning x8 Lunges x8 (each leg) Squats push press x8 Deadlift x8 Repeat 3-5 sets with 1 min rest in between
  65. 65. Complex Training
  66. 66. Definition A power-developing workout that consist of resistance training and plyometric training Complex training, a superset where the individual performs a high intensity strength exercise and succeeds it with a plyometric exercise with similar biomechanical movement
  67. 67. Definition A sequence of complimentary movements being performed to enhance athleticism
  68. 68. History “Complex Training” was initially started by a Soviet coach named Dr. Yuri Verhoshansky in the 1960’s, utilizing muscular contraction against large resistance at relatively slow velocities of movement, followed by contractions with relatively small resistances at fast velocities of movement. This essentially combined strength training with plyometric training.
  69. 69. History Complex training was developed by the Europeans to blend the results of heavy weight training with what they call shock training and what we call plyometrics Complex training appears to have its origins in Eastern Europe
  70. 70. How to Perform Complex Training? The exercises should be performed in succession. The weight lifted should be constant in order to perform it smoothly The individual should complete all of the specified reps and sets for one exercise and then move to the next immediately afterward.
  71. 71. How to Perform Complex Training? When a complex session has started, avoid performing any static stretching exercises, performing this will relax the muscles and reduce force production potential. It is quality over quantity, the quality of the exercise is more important than the quantity being able to perform. To maintain excellent performance, execute proper rest period
  72. 72. Benefits Advantages  Due to a lack of rest period, metabolism would increase adequately which is comparable to high intensity interval training  Compared to treadmill, bike or elliptical trainer, complex training will give the individual higher rewards in less time.
  73. 73. Benefits Advantages  Will result in a greater recruitment of Type IIb, leading to greater improvements in power and rate of force development.  I appears that with an appropriate high-load weight training exercise performed before a power exercise increases the performance of the power exercise.
  74. 74. Benefits Disadvantages  It is used to boost performance for elite athletes, not advisable for beginners and novices.  It is very taxing for the body  According to a research, complex training does not enhance plyometric muscular activity.
  75. 75. Exercises The task is to complete all of the sets of the weights exercise with a rest period of 60seconds/set. After completing the weight exercise there would be another rest period of 3minutes. Then it would be continued on with the matched plyometrics exercise with a rest period of 90seconds/set.
  76. 76. Exercise Set x Reps Recovery Time(s) Squat 3 x 12RM 60Vertical Jump 3 x 10 90Bench Press 3 x 12RM 60Push-up clap 3 x 10 90 Abdominal 3 x 20 60 CrunchesMedicine ball 3 x 10 90 sit up and throw
  77. 77. Circuit Training
  78. 78. History Circuit Training is an everlasting and evolving training exercise programmed developed by R.E. Morgan and G.T. Anderson in 1953 at the University of Leeds, England. Circuit Training was developed to allow people to work at their own intensity while also training with others.
  79. 79. History In the original format, a circuit would comprise of 9 to 12 stations. A participant would move from one station to the next with little rest and performing an exercise for a set period of time or number of repetitions. History During the circuit training session all the energy systems interweave to enable different intensity activities to be performed. This will result in the aerobic energy system being more predominant during some exercises and the anaerobic energy system will be more predominant in other exercises.
  80. 80. DEFINITION OF TERMS Circuit  Refers to a number of carefully selected exercises arranged consecutively
  81. 81. DEFINITION OF TERMS Circuit training  Is a method of fitness training that is designed to develop general, all-round physical and cardiovascular fitness.  Is a training program that embraces a number of carefully selected exercises designed simultaneously to exercise in one session the four major muscle groups: legs, abdomen, arms and shoulders, and back and trunk.
  82. 82. PROTOCOL Each exercise within the circuit training is numbered and is referred to as a station. The performer progresses from one exercise station to another in sequence, completing a prescribed amount of work (repetitions) at each exercise station. All the exercises designed to load one major muscle group are completed first before the performer moves on to the next station in the circuit.
  83. 83. PROTOCOL It can be performed with exercise machines, elastic resistance bands, calisthenics, hand-held weights, or any combination of the four. When designing an exercise station, few reminders must be done:  A description of the exercise including the purpose and no. of repetitions  It is advisable to write the station number on the floor  Use arrows to indicate the direction of the next station  The sequence of the stations should more or less form a circle, rectangle, or square
  84. 84. Benefits Advantages  May be easily structured to provide a whole body workout.  May not require expensive gym equipment.  Participants normally work in small groups, allowing beginners to be guided by more experienced individuals, as well as benefiting from the supervision of the instructor.
  85. 85. Benefits Advantages  Can be adapted for any size workout area.  Can be customized for specificity; easy to adapt to your sport.  Develops strength and endurance  Appropriate form of training for most sports
  86. 86. Benefits Advantages  Can be adjusted to suit age, fitness and health of the athlete  Exercises are simple enough to make each athlete feel a sense of achievement in completing them  A wide range of exercises to select from which will maintain the athletes enthusiasm
  87. 87. Benefits Disadvantages  Many exercises require specialised equipment - e.g. gym equipment  Ample space required to set up the circuit exercises & equipment  In general can only be conducted where appropriate facilities/equipment are available
  88. 88. Benefits Disadvantages  Use of additional equipment requires appropriate health and safety monitoring  It’s not the best physical conditioning routine to follow if you are looking to make a substantial gains in strength, power and explosiveness
  89. 89. Other Variations of Circuit Training: Circuit Training Based on the Endurance Method Circuit Training Based on the Extensive Interval Method Circuit Training Based on the Intensive Interval Method Circuit Training Based on the Repetition Method
  90. 90. Guidelines Guidelines for Circuit Training for General FitnessLoad VariableNo. exercise 8 - 12Time per station 30 - 90 secondsNo. Circuits per session 1–3Rest interval between sets 30 - 90 secondsRest interval between 2 - 3 minscircuitsSpeed of execution Medium - fastFrequency 2 – 4 x week
  91. 91. Guidelines Guidelines for Muscular Endurance (Short term) Training ProgramLoad 40 – 60% 1RMNo. exercise 4-8Time per station 30 - 60 secondsNo. Circuits per session 2–4Rest interval between sets 60 - 90 secondsRest interval between 2 - 3 minscircuitsSpeed of execution Medium – fastFrequency 2 – 3 x week
  92. 92. Guidelines Guidelines for Muscular Endurance (Long term) Training ProgramLoad 30 – 40% 1RMNo. exercise 4-6Time per station VariesNo. Circuits per session 2–4Rest interval between sets VariesSpeed of execution MediumFrequency 2 – 3 x week
  93. 93. Routine Activity for the Class: Do as many push-ups as you can in 30 seconds, then rest for 30 seconds. Do as many squats as you can in 30 seconds, then rest for 30 seconds. Do as many sit-ups as you can in 30 seconds, then rest for 30 seconds. Do as many lunges as you can in 30 seconds, then rest for 30 seconds. Do as many chin-ups as you can in 30 seconds, then rest for 30 seconds.