Treatment of surface water by autonomous solar powered

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  • Treatment of surface water by autonomous solar powered

    1. 1. Treatment of Surface Water by Autonomous Solar-Powered Membrane Cells By Raed Waked Al-Qutub     Supervisor Dr. Abdelrahim Abusafa `` April,2010 An-Najah National University Clean Energy & Energy Conservation Engineering
    2. 2. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM . REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    3. 3. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM . REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    4. 4. INTRODUCTION Why is Water Important? Water resources are essential for satisfying human needs, health, and ensuring food production, energy and the restoration of ecosystems, as well as for social and economic development and for sustainable development. According to UN World Water Development Report in 2003, it has been estimated that two billion people are affected by water shortages in over forty countries, and 1.1 billion do not have sufficient drinking water.
    5. 5. INTRODUCTION Energy Sources in Surface water treatment <ul><li>Power grid, AC powered system is economic and takes minimum maintenance. </li></ul><ul><li>Diesel Generator, require frequent site visits for refueling and maintenance, and furthermore diesel fuel is often expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>Renewable energy sources by using Photovoltaic and wind turbine….etc. </li></ul>A water treatment system needs a source of power to operate.
    6. 6. Water and Energy Crisis in Palestine <ul><li>Palestine does not contain a lot of water sources which is not enough with ever increasing population. </li></ul><ul><li>The Israelis and the Palestinians share interrelated water systems: </li></ul><ul><li>Groundwater </li></ul><ul><li>Western Aquifer : Recharge area lies in the West Bank, The entire storage area lies in Israel and 95% of its water is used by Israel. </li></ul><ul><li>The Northern Aquifer : its recharge and storage areas essentially located within the West Bank. However, Israel extracts about 70% of the water. </li></ul><ul><li>The Eastern Aquifer: which is entirely within the West Bank, has 37% of its water consumed by Israel - mostly by settlers . </li></ul>
    7. 7. Water and Energy Crisis in Palestine <ul><li>Springs and Wells </li></ul><ul><li>The number of measurable springs in the West Bank is 146 and the number of non measurable springs, hardly reached or low discharge is 163 </li></ul><ul><li>There are 561 wells; 519 Palestinian wells and 42 wells under Israeli control. Out of Palestinian wells, there are 18 new wells and 148 wells out of order. Out of the working wells, 308 wells are used for irrigation (55.4%) and the (44.6 %) are used for domestic purposes. </li></ul>
    8. 8. Water and Energy Crisis in Palestine <ul><li>Palestine lacks conventional energy resources such as oil and gas, and therefore must import all its energy from Israel at a relatively high cost. </li></ul><ul><li>Presence of the Israeli occupation and drained of water and energy resources over the years of occupation. </li></ul><ul><li>Many of the surface water in Palestine suffer from Fecal, Kᶧ and not suitable for drinking. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>For this previous reasons, we searched for alternative energy sources for water treatment such as solar energy, which is considered a key determinant of economic and social development. </li></ul>
    10. 10. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION EXPERIMENTAL WORK . REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    11. 11. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION EXPERIMENTAL WORK . REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    12. 12. WATER TREATMENT METHODS <ul><li>Objectives of Water Treatment </li></ul><ul><li>Provide potable water that is chemically and biologically safe for human consumption. It should also be free from unpleasant tastes and odors. </li></ul><ul><li>Water treatment aims at producing water that satisfies a set of drinking water quality standards. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Classification of water treatment processes
    14. 14. Classification of water treatment processes <ul><li>The water entering the system is preheated, and gross solids removed. </li></ul><ul><li>The water is entered through heat exchanger where the water is boiled into vapor. A mixture of water and vapor exit the heat exchanger and enter the separator. </li></ul><ul><li>The compressor draws the vapor from the separator and compresses it to about 0.35 bar, thereby increasing its temperature. The superheated vapor is then pumped into the condenser. </li></ul>Distillation Vapor Compression
    15. 15. Classification of water treatment processes <ul><li>As the hot vapor releases its latent heat, it condenses into distilled water, which is then discharged from the system. </li></ul><ul><li>The heat exchanger used to boil additional water in the evaporator side. </li></ul><ul><li>As additional water is evaporated during the process, the remaining water becomes more concentrated. When the desired level of concentrate is reached, the concentrate is discharged. </li></ul>Distillation Vapor Compression
    16. 16. Classification of treatment of water processes Multistage Flash Distillation (MSF) Low Pressure (chamber) Classification of water treatment processes Distillation
    17. 17. Classification of water treatment processes Multieffect Boiling Distillation (MEB) Use vapor in next champer Distillation
    18. 18. Classification of treatment of water processes <ul><li>Definition: </li></ul><ul><li>A Filtration Membrane is a physical boundary over which a solute (TDS) can be separated from a solvent (water) by applying energy in the form of pressure or electric potential. </li></ul>Membrane Processes Technology A cross section in a membrane.
    19. 19. Classification of treatment of water processes
    20. 20. Classification of treatment of water processes <ul><li>2. Membrane process types: </li></ul><ul><li>The main membrane processes used in water treatment are: </li></ul><ul><li>A. Microfiltation (MF) </li></ul><ul><li>B. Ultrafiltation (UF) </li></ul><ul><li>C. Nanofiltration (NF) </li></ul><ul><li>D. Reverse Osmosis (RO) </li></ul>
    21. 21. Classification of treatment of water processes
    22. 22. Classification of treatment of water processes Membrane Process Typical Operating Range µm Permeate description MF 0.8-2.0 Water, dissolved solute UF 0.005-0.2 Water, small molecules. NF 0.001-0.01 Water, very small molecules, ionic solutes RO 0.0001-0.001 Water, very small molecules, ionic solutes
    23. 23. Classification of treatment of water processes
    24. 24. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM . REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    25. 25. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM . REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    26. 26. Reverse Osmosis Process Osmosis is the process in which water moves from a lower concentration to a higher concentration. <ul><ul><li>Principles of Osmosis </li></ul></ul>Reverse Osmosis is the process in which water moves from a higher concentration to a lower concentration, the amount of force or pressure applied must exceed the osmotic pressure <ul><ul><li>Principles of Reverse Osmosis </li></ul></ul>
    27. 27. Reverse Osmosis Process <ul><ul><li>Process Description and Terminology </li></ul></ul>
    28. 28. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM . REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    29. 29. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM . REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    30. 30. Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Cell Sizing <ul><ul><li>Solar Radiation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Palestine enjoys over 2500 sunlight hours every year, with an annual average solar radiation intensity exceeding 5.3 kWh/m 2 .day as shown in table 4.1. </li></ul>
    31. 31. Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Cell Sizing Photovoltaic Module <ul><li>A single PV cell produces an output voltage less than 1V, about 0.6V for crystalline silicon (Si) cells. </li></ul><ul><li>thus a number of PV cells are connected in series to achieve a desired output voltage. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of commercially available PV modules with crystalline-Si cells have either 36 or 72 series-connected cells. </li></ul>
    32. 32. Solar Energy and Photovoltaic Cell Sizing Sizing of System Components The sizing of PV Panel, by using the peak power of the PV generator to cover the total load demand is obtained as in equation   (Where is the daily energy consumption in kWh, PSH is the peak sun hours (PSH= 5.4); , are the efficiencies of charge regulator and inverter respectively ( = 0.92, =0.9) and is the safety factor for compensation of resistive losses and PV-cell temperature losses =1.15
    33. 33. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM . REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    34. 34. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    35. 35. Assembly diagram of the PV-RO system
    36. 36. PV-RO system <ul><li>Specification of the DC pump </li></ul><ul><li>the main source of this water is Shraish spring located in Nablus city in west bank </li></ul><ul><li>Feed Water </li></ul><ul><li>Characteristics of shraish spring </li></ul>2. DC pump Input Voltage: DC 24 V Pressure Up to 4 Bar Prime Self-Priming up to 2~3 meter Capacity 378 L/day pH TDS (mg/L) Fecal (cfu/100ml) Turbidity (NTU) K+ (mg/L) Shraish 7.62 397 600 0.26 30 Standard 6.5-8 <50 0 <1 12
    37. 37. PV-RO system 3. photovoltaic cell <ul><li>The specification of the photovoltaic is listed below in table </li></ul>Solar module SM55(Siemens) Electrical parameters   Maximum power rating Pmax [Wp] 55 Rated current Impp [A] 3.15 Rated voltage Vmpp [V] 17.4 Short circuit current Isc [A] 3.45 Open circuit voltage Voc [V] 21.7
    38. 38. PV-RO system <ul><li>5 micron filter, removes sedi­ment, clay and particulate matter to 5 micron range. </li></ul><ul><li>1-2 micron carbon filter removes chlorine, harmful chemicals. </li></ul><ul><li>1-2 micron filter compacted carbon block, to reduce or eliminate a wide range of contaminants </li></ul>4. Pretreatment filters
    39. 39. PV-RO system <ul><li>The reverse osmosis membrane was made with a polyamide thin film composite membrane in spiral wound configuration. </li></ul>4. Reverse Osmosis Membrane <ul><li>Membrane Configurations </li></ul><ul><li>Spiral Wound Modules </li></ul>It consists of membrane envelopes (leaves) and feed spacers which wound around a perforated central collection tube.
    40. 40. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    41. 41. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    42. 42. EXPERIMENTAL WORKS The experimental results were measured by using many appropriate devices MEASURING INSTRUMENTS Description Ammeter Current Voltmeter Voltage Pressure gauge Pressure output from the DC pump Conductivity meter Dist 1, HANNA H198301 pH meter pH 211, microprocessor based, Bench pH/mV/Cº meters Turbidity meter Cole Palmer, model 8391-45 Membrane Filtration Technique. Fecal Coliform (FC)
    43. 43. <ul><li>Effect of Solar Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>The system was operated in a sunny day in June 2009 at 9:00 AM when the solar radiation was in the range of (478.75) W.hr/m 2, and all other parameters constant. </li></ul><ul><li>Solar radiation , Power output from PV , Power input to the Pump </li></ul><ul><li>Effect of solar radiation on power input to the pump </li></ul>
    44. 44. <ul><li>Effect of Solar Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>The pressure output of the pump exit is directly proportional to the power input to the pump. </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between the power input to the pump and pump pressure </li></ul>
    45. 45. <ul><li>Effect of Solar Radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Power input to the Pump permeate flow rate </li></ul>Effect of power input to the pump on permeate flow rate
    46. 46. <ul><li>Effect of Solar Radiation </li></ul>Summary The PV panel provides electrical current directly to the high pressure pump whose speed increases as the power from the PV panel increases.
    47. 47. <ul><li>Effect of Pump Pressure on the Permeate Water Flow rate </li></ul><ul><li>Permeate flow rate , pressure drop across membrane </li></ul><ul><li>When the feed pressure increased from 0.63 bar to 1.2 bar, the permeate production increased by 83%. </li></ul>Effect of membrane Pressure on permeate flow rate
    48. 48. Water Quality pH, TDS decrease and K ᶧ ,turbidity increases when the flow rate of permeate water increased Effect of permeate flow rate on permeate pH
    49. 49. Water Quality pH, TDS decrease and K ,turbidity increases when the flow rate of permeate water increased Effect of flow rate of permeate water on K + concentration
    50. 50. Water Quality pH, TDS decrease and K ,turbidity increases when the flow rate of permeate water increased Effect of flow rate of permeate water on total dissolved solids
    51. 51. Water Quality pH, TDS decrease and K ᶧ ,turbidity increases when the flow rate of permeate water increased Effect of flow rate of permeate water on turbidity
    52. 52. <ul><li>Effect of Feed Water Temperature on Permeate Flowrate </li></ul><ul><li>water temperature increase , Permeate flow rate increase </li></ul>
    53. 53. <ul><li>Effect of Feed Water Temperature on Permeate Flowrate </li></ul>The main reason for this trend is the reduction in viscosity with temperature increase. As viscosity decrease the mass transfer through the membrane surface is enhanced.
    54. 54. <ul><li>Effect of Feed Water Temperature on Permeate Flowrate </li></ul>The effect of feed water temperature on product quality is generally very small Feed Water Temp (ºC) Permeate Quality 33 35 38 40 44 Flow rate (L/h) 8.6 10.0 10.8 12.0 15.0 pH 6.1 7.3 6.3 5.9 6.7 TDS (mg/L) 48 50 49 50 51 Fecal (cfu/100ml) 0 0 0 0 0 Turbidity (NTU) 0.15 0.14 - - - K ᶧ (mg/L) 7.1 7.5 8.4 8.4 8.3
    55. 55. <ul><li>Effect of Feed water Salinity on Permeate flow rate </li></ul><ul><li>The input water salinity was adjusted by adding NaCl to produce solution concentrations of 500, 650 and 800 ppm. All other parameter were kept constant. </li></ul><ul><li>The osmotic pressure does not depend on the solute type, or its molecular size, but only on its molar concentration. </li></ul><ul><li>Higher operating pressures are needed to overcome the osmotic pressure. </li></ul>
    56. 56. <ul><li>Effect of Feed water Salinity on Flow rate Salinity of Permeate Water </li></ul><ul><li>When the feed water contains high salt concentration, The permeate flow rate decrease. </li></ul>
    57. 57. <ul><li>Effect of Recovery on Permeate Water Quality </li></ul><ul><li>adjustable valve at the retentate exit </li></ul><ul><li>The permeate flow rate increase, the fecal was observed for the first time when the recovery changed </li></ul>Power (W) Permeate flowrate (L/h) Retentate flowrate (L/h) Permeate water properties pH TDS (mg/L) Fecal (cfu /100ml) K (mg/L) 8.73 5.88 22.73 5.97 35 10 6.1 7.98 13.04 13.95 6.1 43 17 6.6 8.17 14.15 6.98 6.2 63 45 6.8
    58. 58. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    59. 59. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    60. 60. ECONOMIC EVALUATION 7.1 Cost Analysis The product cost is strongly correlated with unit capacity, quality of feed water, pretreatment, types of water treatment technology, site condition, costs of land. Average daily water flow rate can be calculated as the following: During June, the average flow rate 44.32 L/d and the monthly average solar radiation was 8.25 kWh/m².
    61. 61. ECONOMIC EVALUATION The average water flow rate = = 40.04 L/d According to other months, the average water flow rates were calculated corresponding the monthly average solar radiation as shown
    62. 62. ECONOMIC EVALUATION Common Economic Parameter : Plant life time is 25 years. Operating days per year are 270 days. Feed water TDS is 400mg/L (normal case). Operating and maintenance (O&M) costs are 20% of the system annual payment. Annual rate of membrane replacement is 20%. Interest rate is 5%. Plant availability (f ) is 90%. Capacity(M)=40 L/d Salvage value of the units will be zero.
    63. 63. ECONOMIC EVALUATION 7.1.1 Capital Cost Total capital cost of PV module = 11Watt X 7.27 $/Watt. =80$ <ul><li>Capital cost (CC) summary </li></ul>Item Cost PV module (Siemens SM55, 55Wp) 80$ Reverse Osmosis Membrane 100$ Booster Pump (12VDC) 150$ 3 stages pretreatment filters, accessories 100$ Total 430$
    64. 64. ECONOMIC EVALUATION Fixed Charges To determine the fixed charge value of the capital costs, these costs are multiplied by an amortization factor ( a ) Annual fixed charges = (a) X (CC) = 0.070952X430$ =30.5$/year Annual Operating Costs Annual operating cost covers all expenses after commissioning and during the actual operation
    65. 65. ECONOMIC EVALUATION Operating and Maintenance (O&M) Costs The annual O&M costs are estimated at 20% of the plant annual payment = (20%) X (A fixed ) = 20% X 30.5$/year =6.1$/year Annual O&M Costs
    66. 66. ECONOMIC EVALUATION Membrane Replacement Replacement rate may vary between 5%–20% per year = (20%) X (membrane cost) = 20% X 100$ =20$/year Annual O&M Costs <ul><li>Unit production cost (A unit ) </li></ul>A unit = 5.8$/m³ Total annual cost (A total )=A fixed +A replacement +A O&M =56.6$/year
    67. 67. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    68. 68. INTRODUCTION WATER TREATMENT METHODS 1 SOLAR ENERGY & PV CELL SIZING EXPERIMENTAL WORKS & RESULTS ECONOMIC EVALUATION PV-RO SYSTEM REVESE OSMOSIS PROCESS 2 3 4 5 6 7 Outline 8 CONCLUSIONS&RECOMMENDATION
    69. 69. <ul><li>The looming water crises in Palestine can be significantly reduced by the exploitation of the abundant brackish and surface water resources. </li></ul><ul><li>The combination between renewable energies specially (photovoltaic cells) and RO Water Treatment Processes very suitable in Palestine for remote sites lacking of electric grids where water scarcity is a big problem . </li></ul><ul><li>Economically, it was found that although the energy is free, the water production cost from the PV–RO unit is $5.23/m 3 which is still expensive and can not be economically viable, only in catastrophes and remote areas and far. </li></ul>CONCLUSIONS
    70. 70. <ul><li>One source of renewable energy was not economically viable and could be used as another source assistant as hybrid system which is economical and available for 24h/day along the year. </li></ul><ul><li>The effect on product quality is generally a very small change compared to the Change observed in productivity when the feed temperature increased from 33°C to 44°C. </li></ul><ul><li>They are not recommended to make Recovery in biologically unsafe water </li></ul><ul><li>because the Fecal was observed for the first time when the recovery changed </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>CONCLUSIONS
    71. 71. RECOMMENDATIONS <ul><li>It is recommended that future work be focused on another Power source assistant as hybrid system (Diesel Generator) which is available for 24h/day along the year. </li></ul><ul><li>Other sources of water with different characteristics can be also tested. The effect of fecal concentration can be investigated by changing the source of water. </li></ul><ul><li>Different membrane arrangement such series and parallel configurations can be also tested to see the effect of recovery. </li></ul><ul><li>Design of solar heaters that can heat the feed water prior to membrane treatment is highly recommended. </li></ul>

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