Leadership

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I prepared this in the training i gave to BMs to activate their role. good material and i would suggest giving some debate skills to measure communication levels.

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Leadership

  1. 1. Leadership Training<br />"Any fool can run the ship when the seas are calm, but it takes a great captain to navigate the storm." — M. Johannsen<br />
  2. 2. Leadership Core Competencies<br />CORE COMPETENCY 1: Develop the Skill of Building Skills<br />CORE COMPETENCY 2: Exert Social Influence<br />CORE COMPETENCY 3: Increase Self-Mastery<br />CORE COMPETENCY 4: Install a Transformational Mind-set<br />
  3. 3. CORE COMPETENCY 1: Develop the Skill of Building Skills<br />
  4. 4. CORE COMPETENCY 1: Develop the Skill of Building Skills<br />Skill Development Phase 1: Find Sound Theory<br />Skill Development Phase 2: Practice<br />Skill Development Phase 3: Skill Mastery<br />
  5. 5. Find Sound Theory:<br />Your skill development program is only as good as the theory behind it. In other words, before you practice, you must know and understand intellectually what has to be done. Good theory is relevant, practical, detailed and convertible into a behavior.<br />Practice:<br />Some skills development efforts require a few minutes; others take hundreds of hours. In the hundreds of hours category, we have becoming a persuasive speaker. Even those with great aptitude blessed with a large dose of talent must practice endlessly to get really good.<br />On the other hand, skill development on how to make a positive first impression takes less than Practice Requires Motivation<br />Standard assessments are very good at measuring some things, but they can't measure motivation. In our model, a person serious about skill development must be internally motivated to perfect the skill. It is unrealistic to expect any teacher or coach to motivate the apathetic or the lazy to perfect developing a skill. Still, smart organizations are wise to have defined consequences for desired and undesired behaviors.<br />Practice Requires Feedback<br />Skill development requires feedback. Unfortunately, behavioral feedback is commonly not done in most programs. There are two ways to get feedback: do it yourself or get others to do it for you. In our programs, we typically provide skilled coaches who can provide positive and negative feedback<br />
  6. 6. Communication SkillsTwelve Communication Skills You Need To Develop<br />Self-Talk<br />Interpersonal Communication <br />Listening <br />Feedback <br />Small Group Communication<br />Persuasive Skills<br />Nonverbal Communication<br />Public Speaking<br />Interviewing <br />Asking Questions <br />Cultural Communication Skills<br />Organizational <br />
  7. 7. Twelve Communication Skills You Need To Develop<br />Self-Talk<br />I frequently lose arguments with myself."—Explanation used to explain why a person ate another chocolate just after saying that they were not going to eat any more.<br />It's long been known by psychologists there is an internal dialog occurring within the mind that's incredibly important to improve. Yet, most of us pay it no mind.<br />Even good communication texts rarely mention that importance of improving the communication between Ego and Unconscious. They fail to understand that robust lines of communication need to be cultivated between the Unconscious and the Ego or you see alot of, "I don’t do what I’m supposed to do; and do what I shouldn't do.”<br />The miscommunication between the Ego and the Unconscious means the mind functions like a young child with two legs that can't work together. Consequently, you see "drunken walks" and frequent falls. And too often, one goes two steps forward, but three steps back.<br />Interpersonal Communication <br />"The mind is like a TV set, when it goes stops working, it is a good idea to shut off the sound."—Unknown<br />Interpersonal communication skills are what's used between two individuals, with one acting as a sender and the other acting as a receiver. Surprisingly, even this relatively simple form of communication is fraught with many types of problems.<br />Problems include a number of encoding and decoding biases on both the sender and the receiver side. But individuals will also choose the wrong medium, fail to solicit feedback and so on.<br />
  8. 8. Twelve Communication Skills You Need To Develop<br />Listening<br />The untrained mind listens for what's said, But the wise mind hears what's said and unsaid."— M. Johannsen<br />People are terrible listeners—but we do know how to fake it pretty well. We do this with techniques such as nodding at the right moment, period acknowledgments such as, "Ah" and "Ah, ha," and the classic technique present in the marriage, the "Yes, dear." In fact, we are so good at faking listening, that the average person can't even tell.<br />Leaders cannot afford to develop a reputation for not listening—it's ruinous. Despite this, one of the more common complaints in many organizations is, "My boss doesn't listen to me."<br />Feedback<br />"Few managers want to deliver it, most subordinates don't want to receive it. Yet, there is little improvement without it." — M. Johannsen<br />Communicating to provide feedback is necessary if one is to improve performance. Those with a high need to achieve, those who constantly seek to perform at their best, undertand the need for feedback. In fact, they will often ask for it.<br />But these are a small minority. The vast majority want to live in the "ignorance bubble" — getting an "attagirl" or an" attiboy" on occasion, but deathly afraid of hearing about mistakes and screw-ups.<br />
  9. 9. Twelve Communication Skills You Need To Develop<br />Small Group Communication<br />To improve communication in groups, one must take a very different approach compared to that used in interpersonal communication. If you think about it, business and government is just another stage—one in which you play a role. You may be a bit player, but most everyone gets some type of title. For example, the role played by the vice-president of a small bank is similar to supervisor in a manufacturing firm, although VP title sounds better. <br />Besides focusing on the task and maintaining good relationships, a meeting leader must also deal with a number of self-orientated roles. These are largely destructive behaviors that prevent the group from doing what it supposed to do while creating a great deal of frustration. Thus, the all too common comment heard after the meeting is over that it was, "It was a tremendous waste of time."<br />Persuasive Skills<br />We live in a persuasive age. Someone, somewhere at this very moment is scheming to relieve you of your hard earned cash. They won't steal it, nothing so primitive as that. <br />They will persuade you, and you will willingly hand the money over thinking that you made a smart decision, not even realizing the you had been manipulated by these unseen individuals to perform your primary function according to the marketing professors—to buy and consume. In fact, your primary role in life is to be a "consumer."<br />Long the study of sales people everywhere, those who wish to lead must get good at this communication skill. After all, you can't order your boss to do something, you must persuade. And peers don't accept your idea because it's better, they accept because it was sold. <br />
  10. 10. Twelve Communication Skills You Need To Develop<br />Nonverbal Communication<br />Body language contains meaning--sometimes more meaning than what is embedded in the words. Yet, few individuals pay much attention to it and the average person is rather clueless as to what it all means. <br />Part of this confusion stems from cultural differences. While a smile is universal, the meaning attached to other facial expressions is determined by culture. <br />Besides cultural differences there are many different types of nonverbal communication. These include: artifacts, haptics, kinesics, facial expressions, paralanguage, gestures, osculesics, chronemics, interpersonal distance,and body movements (Tubbs, and Moss, 2006). <br />Public Speaking<br />It's been said that the most common fear of the common man (or woman) is public speaking. Most of that fear is really anticipatory anxiety, where someone imagines an upcoming catastrophe that fails to materialize. <br />The art of mastering the platform consists of getting good at improving communication skills in:<br />The verbal content and visual elements projected on a screen, and<br />The nonverbal elements of the presentation. <br />
  11. 11. Twelve Communication Skills You Need To Develop<br />Interviewing<br />A number of studies over the years have indicated that interviews have a relatively low correlation when it comes to predicting future job performance. Despite this low validity, corporations everywhere make interviews a must pass initiation ritual to access corporate riches. <br />So while interviews are not that valuable to the hiring agency, they are super important to the job seeker who must act, must project, must communicate in a way that meets the interviewers criteria for the ideal candidate.<br />Asking Questions <br />Any idiot can state opinion as fact, but it takes a creative mind to ask the right questions." — Unknown<br />"Every ass loves to hear himself bray." — Thomas Fulle<br />For some reason, many executives assume that they have to dominate everyone. This is typically done is through communicating in loud voice with a fast tempo, for a long period of time to prevent someone from being able to speak or ask questions. If a question does get asked, the executive has a fall back position—the two-minute tirade of irrelevancy. <br />The power of questions can be seen in TV shows where during a trial, the defense attorney or a prosecutor can enhance or destroy a witnesses credibility simply by the using well structure questions. <br />Without improving this communication skill, effective counseling, therapy and group facilitation is essentially impossible.<br />
  12. 12. Twelve Communication Skills You Need To Develop<br />Cultural Communication Skills<br />The Japanese eat very little fat and suffer fewer heart attacks than the British or Americans.<br />*The French eat a lot of fat and also suffer fewer heart attacks than the British or Americans.<br />*The Japanese drink very little red wine and suffer fewer heart attacks than the British or Americans.<br />The Italians drink excessive amounts of red wine and also suffer fewer heart attacks than the British or Americans.<br />CONCLUSION: Eat and drink what you like. Speaking English is apparently what kills you.<br />Organizational<br />"The first function of an executive is to develop and maintain a system of communication." Chester Bernard, 1886-1961 President, USO: The Functions of the Executive (Harvard, 1938"<br />In the old days, organizational communication was limited to four types of information flows: upward, downward, lateral and rumors. Today, managers have to worry about communication through these four channel plus electronic communication mediums such as telepresense, virtual meetings, SMS, voicemail, emails, wikis, etc.<br />
  13. 13. Effective Leadership Skills<br />
  14. 14. Effective Leadership Skills<br />
  15. 15. Survive or Thrive: Five Types of Skills Critical for Good Management<br />
  16. 16. Five Types of Skills Critical for Good Management<br />Technical Skills<br />The Domain of Leadership<br />"You manage things. You lead people." — Grace Hopper, USN, Rear Admiral<br />Business Management Domain # 3: Strategy and Tactics<br />Skills Domain 4: Management<br />Skills Domain 5: Self-Mastery<br />A competitive world has two possibilities for you. You can lose. Or, if you want to win, you can change. Lester Thurow, Dean, Sloan School of Management, M.I.T., 60 Minutes, February 7, 1988<br />
  17. 17. Five Types of Skills Critical for Good Management<br />Technical Skills<br />Most people get their first job based on their technical skills (unless one happens to be the daughter of the owner, but that is another story). These jobs include traditional jobs such as software programmer, engineer, hair dresser and machinist; to the more exotic ones such as web master, systems integrator and beauty consultant. In fact, the U.S. Labor Department's Dictionary of Occupational Job Titles contains over 28,000 different technical skills.<br />Technical skills does not imply high technology since janitors, telephone operators, and secretaries are included in this area. It may require a degree or just on-the-job training. For example, a story is told about a young man, who was hired to work at a supermarket.<br />He reported for his first day of work and the store manager greeted him with a warm handshake and a smile, gave him a broom and said, "Your first job will be to sweep out the store." "But I'm a college graduate." the young man replied indignantly. "Oh, I'm sorry. I didn't know that," said the manager. "Here, give me the broom, I'll show you how.“<br />Not all technical skills are equally in demand. One of the prime mistakes high school grads and college students make is not understanding the value society places on different technical skills. Some appreciate in value (programmers), while others are in decline (telephone operators and secretaries). <br />Technical skills can also become obsolete. As any one who is in the software area can attest, their knowledge has a limited shelf life. This is an increasing problem for many companies. Its like needing a workforce running with the computing power of a calculator when one needs a Pentium microprocessor. Just having a sound set of technical skills is not enough for those who wish to move up in the organization—they must also develop other types of management skills. <br />
  18. 18. Five Types of Skills Critical for Good Management<br />The Domain of Leadership<br />In a 2005 study called, Why New Hires Fail, it was pointed out that it's the human relations skills that gets one fired. Top failure areas included: Coachability (26%): Emotional Intelligence (23%): Motivation (17%): and Temperament (15%). Lack of technical skills accounted for 11% of failed new hires.<br />One of the greatest source of job satisfaction and dissatisfaction with management is the quality of the relationship an employee has with their boss. If their manager lacks leadership skills, morale goes into the dumpster and turnover sky rockets. <br />It has long been known that while top-notch technical skills allow one to be considered for the next level of the management chain, it's your people skills that allow you to keep the job. Too often, a technical expert gets promoted and then can't get along with others—creating a lose-lose situation for the company and that individual.<br />Management rarely want to spend hard dollars since these are considered to be “soft” skills. Top management’s failure to understand the importance of developing leadership and social skills in the management ranks is both penny wise and pound foolish.<br />
  19. 19. Five Types of Skills Critical for Good Management<br />Strategy and Tactics <br />Looking for differences between the more productive and less productive organizations, we found that the most striking difference is the number of people who are involved and feel responsible for solving problems. Michael McTague, Management and training consultant, Personnel Journal, March 1986<br />For those that see themselves in the executive ranks or desire to own their own business, another category of management skills must be developed. Conceptual skills deal with the ability to use mental heuristics and understand paradigms to solve problems and make decisions. Unfortunately, many individuals lack the ability to successfully solve complex problems.<br />When the quality movement begin to blossom in America during the 80s, one of the foundation principles taught to employees were the Seven Tools of Quality. These were really very simple techniques such as flow charting and Pareto analysis. When used routinely throughout the organization, this basic tool set was enough to allow companies like GE, Motorola, Toyota and Sony to develop a reputation for high quality that resulted in better profit margins.<br />At the management level, these skills come into play in a different way. Executives must deal with a rapidly changing environment fraught with risk and uncertainty. They must develop marketing, sales and competitive strategies that are better than their competitors if they hope to get in front of the rest of the pack. <br />An even more subtle strategy and tactics skill involves developing the ability to find new business opportunities. There’s an old saying that goes, “No opportunity is ever wasted. If you miss it, one of your competitors will find it for you.”<br />The most dominant executive decision type, will be decisions under uncertainty.Henry Tosi and Stephen Carroll Management, John Wiley & Sons, 1976<br />
  20. 20. Five Types of Skills Critical for Good Management<br />Management <br />[Referring to his managerial counterparts in local government:] How would you like to run a business where your top management can change every two years, your revenue can depend on the whims and fancies of state and national government, and you have to convince more than half a million people that you can collect garbage, control crime, enhance safety, and brighten the future better than anyone else?Anonymous executive, Chief Executive, Winter 1982-1983<br />Despite the fact that many individuals inside organizations consider themselves to be part of managment, there is a surprising amount of confusion on exactly what the term "management" means. If you accept the wordnet definition from the Princeton.edu site, it is "the act of managing something." Another better definition that captures the essence of management goes this way, "Managment is the efficient allocation of scarce resources to accomplish an organizational goal." <br />But whatever definition you choose, good management skills are critical to good government and good business. <br />
  21. 21. Five Types of Skills Critical for Good Management<br />Self-Mastery<br />The easiest person to deceive is one's own self.<br /> Edward Bulwer-Lytton, 1803-1873, English novelist and playwright<br />If you think the definition of management is confusing, self-mastery is even more difficult to nail down. But it is without doubt the most important skill to develop. When one is in power, even small faults become noticed, magnified, and discussed by underlings. Impatience as an engineer is barely noticed, but in the vice-president of engineering, it's a major problem.<br />This was driven home in a recent book by Marshall Goldsmith called, What Got You Here, Wont' Get You There. In this book in which he documented twenty-one major faults of the CEO's he has worked with as a result of a number of years of executive coaching. These include, failing to give recognition, making excuses, and not listening.<br />The best executive is the one who has sense enough to pick good men to do what he wants done, and the self-restraint to keep from meddling with them while they do it.Theodore Roosevelt, 26th American President<br />
  22. 22. CORE COMPETENCY 2: Exert Social Influence<br />
  23. 23. How To Influence People:Understanding Nine Spheres of Power<br />
  24. 24. Authority<br /> “Power corrupts, and absolute power corrupts absolutely.” .—Lord Acton, Letter to Bishop Mandell Creighton, 1887<br /> “When I make a mistake, I am an idiot. . . When my boss makes a mistake, he's only human.” — Unknown<br />Authority is defined as a legitimate right to influence people based on one's position inside an organization or nation. It works best in large bureaucratic organizations and is a major mechanism of political leadership.<br />It is usually a vertical relationship, a top-down influence mechanism associated with obedience, conformity and compliance. Typically, there is also a status difference. <br />For example, people follow a doctor's instruction because that person has expertise but we do what a police officer says because the officer represents authority.<br />How To Influence People<br />
  25. 25. Coaching<br /> “Coaches have to watch for what they don't want to see and listen to what they don't want to hear.” — John Madden<br />Coaching (and by extension, mentoring and teaching) exert influence on people by providing new knowledge and new skills on how to influence people. Unfortunately, consultants are not coaches, neither are most executives. <br />Traditionally, managers and supervisors have never assumed the mantel of leadership required to function as a coach—telling someone what to do is not the same as showing someone how to do it. Neither do the vast majority of CEO's.<br />I like to ask what people will take pride in. Contrary to what you see on the resumes, work activities don't put a smile on people's face. What brings the smile is the leader who mentored, taught and coached them to be better human beings. <br />How To Influence People<br />
  26. 26. Persuasion<br /> “You can lead an organization through persuasion or formal edict. I have never found the arbitrary use of authority to control an organization either effective or, for that matter, personally interesting. If you cannot persuade your colleagues of the correctness of your decision, it is probably worthwhile to rethink your own.” —Alan Greenspan, chairman of the Federal Reserve Board<br />Long a key skill of great sales people throughout history, persuasion becomes a bulwark for the leadership when authority does not work. Technically, persuasion ends with someone saying, "I agree." <br />But agreement doesn't mean people will actually take action. Unfortunately, persuasive influence of people requires a fair amount of sales savvy and a fairly sophisticated understanding on attitude change and cognition.<br />How To Influence People<br />
  27. 27. Positive Reinforcement<br /> “Reinforcements continue to be important, of course, long after an organism has learned how to do something, long after it has acquired behavior. They are necessary to maintain the behavior in strength. “ B. F. Skinner, Harvard University, Harvard Educational Review, 1954<br />There are two types of reinforcement and two types of punishment to influence people according to a theory of psychology known as operant conditioning. Some refer to it more of a learning theory, while others think operant conditioning is a theory of motivation. It's potential for influencing people lies in the fact that consequences work in both people and animals. <br />Practically speaking, negative reinforcement presents ethical issues so shrewd leaders focus on developing influence through the use of positive reinforcement to increase the likelihood of DESIRED BEHAVIOR.<br />How To Influence People<br />
  28. 28. Punishment<br /> “You can get more with a kind word and a gun than you can with a kind word alone.”— Al Capone (1899-1947), Chicago Mobster<br />Positive and negative punishment has a very narrow definition in operant conditioning. In this case, the definition is going to be expanded to include the threatened use of a punishment. One could make an argument that the threatened use of punishment (escape-avoidance) can reduce undesired behavior just as much as much psychological pain as its real use. <br />To say one will have to use punishment to change undesired behavior says something about human nature. Nasty bosses and individuals who make Fortune Magazines toughest boss list use this as a primarily influence technique. <br />Something best used when all other forms of leadership influence don't work, it's proper use is subject to legal statutes and ethical constraints to decrease UNDESIRED BEHAVIOR.<br />How To Influence People<br />
  29. 29. Relationship<br /> “He who mistrusts most should be trusted least“— Theognis of Megara, Greek poet<br /> “Your people won't remember, and don't really give a damn how much money you saved the company.” — unknown<br />Not considered a sphere of influence by many scholars, it's power lies in a both knowing how to develop, maintain and repair relationships. In many cultures, such as in Latin American and Asia, business leaders place a greater emphasis on relationship development than is commonly done in America. Typically, business does not begin until a sound relationship is established. And doing business gets difficult when that relationship gets strained.<br />Assuming leaders devoted the time and effort to develop trust, rapport, credibility, and empathy; they have the foundation elements on how to influence people through reciprocity.<br />How To Influence People<br />
  30. 30. Expertise<br /> “Why don't you write books people can read?" — Nora Joyce to her husband James (1882-1941)<br />How to use expertise as a form of influence is somewhat of a paradox. There are experts with little influence and ignorant dolts who seem to speak the gospel. <br />Experts are people whom we think have valuable information. Often they are people who know how to make the right decision or solve that intractable problem. It helps to have depth of knowledge to be perceived as an expert, and this is an important part of the success doctors, lawyers and consultants experience.<br />How to influence with expertise lies partly in the psychological theory known as attribution theory. But too often, we accept false beliefs and false arguments as truth. <br />How To Influence People<br />
  31. 31. Vision<br /> In 1929, days after the stock market crash, the Harvard Economic Society reassured its subscribers: “A severe depression is outside the range of probability”. <br /> In a survey in March 2001, 95% of American economists said there would not be a recession, even though one had already started. — American's Vulnerable Economy, The Economist, November 15, 2007<br />Few leaders know how to influence with vision to motivate people and themselves. Those that do can accomplish great events. People that have it seem to harness an inner strength that keeps pushing them forward on a path no matter how difficult. <br />The visionary leader also understands how to influence people through the use of expectations. Setting positive and negative expectations exert tremendous influence, but few leaders understand how to use them properly.<br />How To Influence People<br />
  32. 32. Charisma<br />Charismatic leadership is one of the most powerful methods of how to influence people, but also one of the most elusive. It's difficult to develop, but well worth the effort. <br />It's been associated with religious prophets, great preachers, famous teachers and those who get tagged with the title of transformational leaders.<br />One basis for it's influence lies in an understanding of the nature of the psychological mechanism of identification. We tend to identify with individuals and their causes resonate with ours.<br />How To Influence People<br />
  33. 33. Leadership Styles <br />Three Classic Leadership Styles<br />The Laissez Faire Leadership Style<br />The Autocratic Leadership Style<br />The Participative Leadership Style<br />Situational Leadership<br />The Emergent Leadership Style<br />The Transactional Leadership Style<br />The Transformational Leadership Style<br />Charisma<br />Visionary Leadership,<br />Strategic Leadership<br />Team Leadership<br />Facilitative Leadership<br />Leadership Influence Styles<br />Cross-Cultural Leadership<br />Coaching<br />Level 5 Leadership<br />Servant Leadership<br />
  34. 34. Laissez-Faire Leadership Style <br />The laissez-faire leadership style is also known as the “hands-off¨ style. It is one in which the manager provides little or no direction and gives employees as much freedom as possible. All authority or power is given to the employees and they must determine goals, make decisions, and resolve problems on their own. <br />Employees are highly skilled, experienced, and educated. <br />Employees have pride in their work and the drive to do it successfully on their own. <br />Outside experts, such as staff specialists or consultants are being used <br />Employees are trustworthy and experienced. <br />USE<br /><ul><li> It makes employees feel insecure at the unavailability of a manager.
  35. 35. The manager cannot provide regular feedback to let employees know how well they are doing.
  36. 36. Managers are unable to thank employees for their good work.
  37. 37. The manager doesn’t understand his or her responsibilities and is hoping the employees can cover for him or her. </li></ul>DON’T USE<br />
  38. 38. The Autocratic Leadership Style<br />This is often considered the classical approach. It is one in which the manager retains as much power and decision-making authority as possible. The manager does not consult employees, nor are they allowed to give any input. Employees are expected to obey orders without receiving any explanations. The motivation environment is produced by creating a structured set of rewards and punishments. <br />New, untrained employees who do not know which tasks to perform or which procedures to follow <br />Effective supervision can be provided only through detailed orders and instructions <br />Employees do not respond to any other leadership style <br />There are high-volume production needs on a daily basis <br />There is limited time in which to make a decision <br />A manager’s power is challenged by an employee <br />The area was poorly managed <br />Work needs to be coordinated with another department or organization <br />USE<br />DON’T USE<br /><ul><li>Employees become tense, fearful, or resentful
  39. 39. Employees expect to have their opinions heard
  40. 40. Employees begin depending on their manager to make all their decisions
  41. 41. There is low employee morale, high turnover and absenteeism and work stoppage </li></li></ul><li>Bureaucratic Leadership Style <br />Bureaucratic leadership is where the manager manages “by the book¨ Everything must be done according to procedure or policy. If it isn’t covered by the book, the manager refers to the next level above him or her. This manager is really more of a police officer than a leader. He or she enforces the rules. <br />Employees are performing routine tasks over and over. <br />Employees need to understand certain standards or procedures. <br />Employees are working with dangerous or delicate equipment that requires a definite set of procedures to operate. <br />Safety or security training is being conducted. <br />Employees are performing tasks that require handling cash. <br />USE<br /><ul><li> Work habits form that are hard to break, especially if they are no longer useful.
  42. 42. Employees lose their interest in their jobs and in their fellow workers.
  43. 43. Employees do only what is expected of them and no more. </li></ul>DON’T USE<br />
  44. 44. Democratic Leadership Style <br />The democratic leadership style is also called the participative style as it encourages employees to be a part of the decision making. The democratic manager keeps his or her employees informed about everything that affects their work and shares decision making and problem solving responsibilities. This style requires the leader to be a coach who has the final say, but gathers information from staff members before making a decision. <br />The leader wants to keep employees informed about matters that affect them. <br />The leader wants employees to share in decision-making and problem-solving duties. <br />The leader wants to provide opportunities for employees to develop a high sense of personal growth and job satisfaction. <br />There is a large or complex problem that requires lots of input to solve. <br />Changes must be made or problems solved that affect employees or groups of employees. <br />You want to encourage team building and participation. <br />USE<br /><ul><li>There is not enough time to get everyone’s input.
  45. 45. It’s easier and more cost-effective for the manager to make the decision.
  46. 46. The business can’t afford mistakes.
  47. 47. The manager feels threatened by this type of leadership.
  48. 48. Employee safety is a critical concern.</li></ul>DON’T USE<br />
  49. 49. Other Leadership Styles<br />Situational Leadership<br />Situational Leadership. In the 1950s, management theorists from Ohio State University and the University of Michigan published a series of studies to determine whether leaders should be more task or relationship (people) oriented. The importance of the research cannot be over estimated since leaders tend to have a dominant style; a leadership style they use in a wide variety of situations. <br />Surprisingly, the research discovered that there is no one best style: leaders must adjust their leadership style to the situation as well as to the people being led. <br />The Emergent Leadership Style<br />Contrary to the belief of many, groups do not automatically accept a new "boss" as leader. We see a number of ineffective managers who didn't know the behaviors to use when one taking over a new group.<br />The Transactional Leadership Style<br />The approach emphasizes getting things done within the umbrella of the status quo; almost in opposition to the goals of the transformational leadership. It's considered to be a "by the book" approach in which the person works within the rules. As such, it's commonly seen in large, bureaucratic organizations.<br />
  50. 50. Other Leadership Styles<br />The Transformational Leadership Style<br />The primary focus of this leadership style is to make change happen in:<br />Our Self,<br />Others,<br />Groups, and<br />Organizations<br />Charisma <br />is a special leadership style commonly associated with transformational leadership. While extremely powerful, it is extremely hard to teach.<br />Visionary Leadership, <br />The leadership style focuses on how the leader defines the future for followers and moves them toward it.<br />Strategic Leadership <br />This is practiced by the military services such as the US Army, US Air Force, and many large corporations. It stresses the competitive nature of running an organization and being able to out fox and out wit the competition.<br />
  51. 51. Other Leadership Styles<br />Team Leadership<br />A few years ago, a large corporation decided that supervisors were no longer needed and those in charge were suddenly made "team leaders." Today, companies have gotten smarter about teams, but it still takes leadership to transition a group into a team.<br />Facilitative Leadership<br />This is a special style that anyone who runs a meeting can employ. Rather than being directive, one uses a number of indirect communication patterns to help the group reach consensus.<br />Leadership Influence Styles <br />Here one looks at the behaviors associated how one exercises influence. For example, does the person mostly punish? Do they know how to reward?<br />Cross-Cultural Leadership <br />Not all individuals can adapt to the leadership styles expected in a different culture; whether that culture is organizational or national. <br />
  52. 52. Other Leadership Styles<br />Coaching <br />A great coach is definitely a leader who also possess a unique gift--the ability to teach and train. <br />Level 5 Leadership <br />This term was coined by Jim Collins in his book Good to Great: Why Some Company’s Make the Leap and Other Don’t. As Collins says in his book, "We were surprised, shocked really, to discover the types of leadership required for turning a good company into a great one." What he seems to have found is what The Economist calls "The Cult of the Faceless Boss.“<br />Servant Leadership<br />Some leaders have put the needs of their followers first. For example, the motto of the Los Angeles Police Department, "To Protect and Serve." reflects this philosophy of service. One suspects these leaders are rare in business.<br />
  53. 53.
  54. 54. Motivation Theories <br />Need For Power, Need For Affiliation, Need For Achievement<br />McClelland felt that certain needs are not preprogrammed into the body via the genes, but learned from the environment. We learn to affiliate (or not affiliate) with people, how to exercise power, and how to be achievement oriented. Because these needs are learned, <br />McClelland would teach need for achievement, something associated with success in various fields of endeavor. It’s believed, for example, that need for achievement is one of the primary motive forces driving entrepreneurs to start a business.<br />Equity Theory<br />Adam’s lays the groundwork to understand why people perceive something as fair or unfair. This is a most serious issue for management, not to appear to have favorites and treat people the way they want to be treated.<br />Expectancy Theory<br />This approach focuses on the beliefs that influence effort and performance. For example, when if one believes that one's efforts result in a certain level of performance associated with a desired reward, likely one will take action. Of course, the exact opposite is also true. A low correlation between effort, performance and reward breeds inaction<br />
  55. 55. CORE COMPETENCY 3: Increase Self-Mastery<br />
  56. 56. Twelve Psychological Barriers To Self-Actualization and Personal Success<br />Ignorance<br />Habituation and Habit Formation<br />Destructive Personality Traits<br />The Ego Defense Mechanisms<br />Negative Self-Talk<br />Homeostasis<br />Arrested Development<br />Cognitive Dissonance<br />Failure to Understand the Language of the Unconscious<br />Failure to Master Negative Emotions and States of Mind<br />Poor Attention Management and Self-Awareness<br />Not Understanding Dreams and Myths<br />
  57. 57. Self-Actualization Barriers<br />1: Ignorance<br />2: Habituation and Habit Formation<br /> "Seventy-five percent of the high school students who will enter the workforce have no idea what the term 'inflation' means. Sixty-six percent can't tell you what profits are. And 55% of our young people have no understanding of what a 'government budget deficit' is.“<br />Paul C. O'Brien, president and CEO of New England Telephone<br />Self-mastery is essentially impossible if one is not willing to devote time to understanding the nature of the mind. For example, if you are in the habit of spending 30 minutes a day reading how the mind works, this supports self-mastery and personal success. If you have never read books on psychology or the philosophy of mind known as Buddhism, your ignorance acts as an immovable barrier impossible to overcome.<br />"Men like the opinions to which they have become accustomed from youth; this prevents them from finding the truth, for they cling to the opinions of habit."<br /> Moses Maimonides, 1135-1204, Egyptian physician and philosopher, Guide for the Perplexed<br /> <br />Habituated thinking patterns develop like certain streets in Boston. In the older parts of the city, the streets follow the paths used by long dead cows to get between barn and pasture. The issue here that we tend to get "stuck" in a set behaviors and patterns of thought that do not support our pursuit of worldly success or self-mastery. For example, you still see adults throwing temper tantrums like they did when they were four years old.<br />
  58. 58. Self-Actualization Barriers<br />3: Destructive Personality Traits<br />4: The Ego Defense Mechanisms<br /> “It's beauty that captures your attention and personality which captures your heart.<br /> Anonymous<br /> “Personality can open doors, but only character can keep them open.Elmer G. Letterman<br />Personality traits are fixed at a young age. Since most organizational leaders aren't on a rigorous program of self-mastery, they exhibit these same traits throughout their life. If one is strong on self-esteem and self-improvement, these traits would support the drive toward self-mastery. But other traits such as self-destruction, self-indulgence and self-pity would have the opposite effect.<br /> "The nice thing about egotists is that they don't talk about other people."<br /> Lucille S. Harper<br />The Ego is subject to a number of self-deceptions preventing self-mastery. Sigmund Freud many years ago observed that the Ego is a fragile entity requiring protection from anxiety. Typically it manifests as some type of stressful emotional state such as fear, guilt, embarrassment, anger, frustration, etc. Anxiety prevention takes many forms.<br />Even the little things in life can activate an Ego defense mechanism. A frown from a superior, criticism from the spouse, getting angry at the person who bumped into you are a few examples. Sadly, once these mechanisms are engaged, the mind does not properly process the information it receives.<br />For example, the defensive mechanism of repression can keep cigarette smokers from thinking about heart disease and lung cancer. Denial keeps the executives from working a problem affecting the entire organization. Rationalization makes our frailties acceptable. In all, there are over 20 of these mechanisms, most of them operating beyond conscious self-awareness.<br />.<br />
  59. 59. Self-Actualization Barriers<br />5: Negative Self-Talk<br />6: Homeostasis<br />"Those who have emotional problems engage in negative self-talk about 50 percent of the time."<br /> Schwartz, R. M. (1986). The "internal dialogue:”<br />Thoughts have a great impact on the emotions, feelings or states of mind that is operate at any given moment of time. For example, the person who thinks, "I'm not happy," typically feels that way.<br />For example, in the morning, do you think about the upcoming day in positive or negative terms? Do you have negative thoughts such as "I know I'm going to have a bad day; I'm sure I'm going to screw something up; I know I'm going to get yelled at?" Or do you tend to think about the positive?<br />For some reason, few people admit that they talk to themselves or understand the critical nature of this internal dialogue.<br /> The mind acts like a rubber band that when stretched, tends to snap back to the way it was.<br />It's hard to build new mental or behavioral habits--and extremely difficult to stop an old habit and substitute a new one. This means that one-time bursts of motivation tend to produce little lasting effect. It's safe to assume that new changes will be resisted by the motivational forces supporting the status quo (homeostasis).<br />
  60. 60. Self-Actualization Barriers<br />7: Arrested Development<br />8: Cognitive Dissonance<br /> “Few who exercise power are wise.”<br /> M. Johannsen<br />While this observation will generate controversy, many powerful leaders have immature Egos. Arrested development essentially means that Ego growth has stopped prematurely. There are many symptoms one can experience.<br />One symptom of this immaturity is the leader who cannot control their emotions. Another is a boss who blames others while failing to look at their own personal contribution to the problem. A third symptom is someone with high IQ but low emotional intelligence, etc., etc., etc. <br /> For half a century, social psychologists have been trying to figure out the human gift for rationalizing irrational behavior. Why did we evolve with brains that salute our shrewdness for buying the neon yellow car with bad gas mileage?<br /> John Tierney, International Herald Tribune<br />Cognitive dissonance commonly operates as an unconscious mechanism and so is difficult to detect. It is associated with buyers remorse and purchasers regret when it comes to making important purchases. More importantly, it provides insight into why we take pride in our stupid decisions. <br />
  61. 61. Self-Actualization Barriers<br />9: Failure to Understand the Language of the Unconscious <br />10: Failure to Master Negative Emotions and States of Mind <br />"Distrust any enterprise that requires new clothes.“<br /> —Henry David Thoreau (1817-1862)<br />The Ego sits in an isolation bubble of its own creation. It acts like a king or queen in a throne room, blissfully unaware to what's happening outside the castle. <br />The reason the ruler has no new clothes, is it never learned the symbolic, metaphoric language of the unconscious and how to access unconscious insights and resources.<br />The study found that 26% of new hires fail because they can't accept feedback, 23% because they're unable to understand and manage emotions, 17% because they lack the necessary motivation to excel, 15% because they have the wrong temperament for the job, and only 11% because they lack the necessary technical skills.<br />Why New Hires Fail. Leadership IQ Press Release, 2005<br />It’s amazing so many individuals give others the ability to control their emotions. How many times have your heard someone say, "You made me angry!" <br />Of course, it’s normally not another person’s fault that we lack emotional control. I remember a friend saying once, "I'm in perfect control of my emotions. If I get angry, I only stay angry for three days.”<br />
  62. 62. Self-Actualization Barriers<br />11: Poor Attention Management and Self-Awareness <br />12: Not Understanding Dreams and Myths <br /> “ If you don't get the reader's attention in the first paragraph, the rest of your message is lost.”<br /> Public relations maxim<br />One must properly focus attention to process any type of information. It is a common complaint among the managed that their manager, "Doesn't listen to me." In some respects, listening is a terribly difficult thing to do since it requires a great deal of mental energy. Plus, attention is in sort supply so we often miss key facts, concepts and principles.<br /> A man is not old until regrets take the place of dreams.<br /> John Barrymore<br />While there are a few neurophysiologists who believe that dreams are the result of random neuronal firings, the mainstream psychologists believe that dreams have important messages—hidden meaning the Ego typically ignores. <br />Similarly, one should understand that myths and fairy tales also contain hidden meanings—meanings helpful in understanding the true nature of a nation's culture.<br />
  63. 63. The good news if one knows what one is doing, barriers can be overcome. I remember a saying by Bror Carlson who said, “A problem that is located and identified is already half solved.” <br />By understanding the nature of the problem, we are well on the way to greater self-mastery and personal success. <br />
  64. 64. The Transformational Mind Set: Six Guidelines For Self-Mastery<br />Understand The Mind<br />Unlearning is as Important as Learning<br />Grow Your Ego<br />Purify and Unify the Unconscious<br />Set-up Robust Communication Links Between the Ego and the Unconscious<br />Improve Yourself Daily<br />
  65. 65. A Transformational Leadership Primer <br />CHARACTERISTICS<br />APPROACH<br />Self-Mastery<br />The Transformational Mind-set<br />Influence<br />Skills Development<br />Charisma<br />Vision<br />Intellectual Stimulation<br />inspiration<br />
  66. 66. Transformational Leadership Characteristics<br />According to Bass, these individuals possess:<br />Charisma. This is one of those leadership qualities that is hard to define; like beauty, you know it when you experience it. I remember a quote, about a charismatic individual by the name of Oliver North. One of his men once said about him, "I would follow him to hell since he is the only man I know who could get me back.“<br />Vision. This involves the creation of a compelling picture of the future, a desired future state that people identify with. By creating this vision, the leader provides a means for people to develop commitment, a common goal around around which to rally, and a way for people to feel successful. <br />Intellectual stimulation. Transformational leaders show new ways of looking at old problems, they challenge the existing boundaries and the mental prisons people put themselves into.<br />Inspiration.  To inspire is difficult, requiring as as it does a decent understanding of psychology. <br />
  67. 67. Philosophy Matters<br />Why Develop<br />a Success Philosophy?<br />To Prepare Yourself <br />To Counter The Corrupting Effects of Money and Power<br />To Counter a Lack of Meaning In Life<br />To Accelerate Personal Growth<br />Establishing Your Leadership Philosophy: Guidelines<br />A Good Philosophy Has A Number of Guiding Principles<br />A Faulty Philosophy Has Unintended Consequences<br />Your Philosophy Should Change and Evolve<br />It's Not Real Until Written<br />
  68. 68. Thank you<br />

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