Structural frame


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Structural frame

  1. 1. Structural Frame Chapters 3-5 EDCL 5340 Raechel Friedman, Anastacio Gomez, Philip Muzzy, & Lisa Shaw
  2. 2. Agenda Presentation Ch. 3 (15 min) Group Activity – (Vertical and Lateral) (15 min) Presentation Ch. 4 (15 min) Break -------------------------------------------------------------- (10 min) Presentation Ch. 5 (15 min) Group Activity – (Marshmallow) (30 min) Group Activity – (Artifacts) (15 min)
  3. 3. Chapter 3 Getting Organized
  4. 4. Structural Frame / Lens The ability to divide work and coordinate work Designed so there is no confusion of authority
  5. 5. Illustrated with… 2 stories Sept 11, 2001 USS
  6. 6. Structure and Organizational Performance Sept 11, 2001  Police/Fire Department  Could not communicate despite their command posts being 3 blocks apart  Breakdown of communication and coordination  Absence of a clear, workable structure impaired effectiveness  Individual Heroism USS Kennedy  Prepared for most combat contingencies  Clear well understood goals, roles, relationships and coordination = organizational performance  Uniforms – supervisors yellow, brown aircraft traffic, red for weapons and fire, purple for fuelers
  7. 7. Fredrick Taylor 1911 Known as the father of time and Motion studies: coined scientific management
  8. 8. Max Weber – Early 20th Century Monocratic Bureaucracy as an ideal form that maximized norms Technical qualifications instead of family ties or friendship Employment as long-term career Hierarchy of offices
  9. 9. Structural Forms and Functions  Blueprint for expectations and exchanges among internal and external players  Design options are almost infinite  Design needs to fit circumstances  Studies go back and forth on whether people enjoy more choice or more structure (Moeller 1968) (Leavitt 1978)
  10. 10. Structural Forms and Functions  Adler and Borys (1996) argue that structure is as important as the amount of rigidity. There are good rules and bad ones. Formal structure enhances moral if it helps us get our work done. It has a negative impact if it gets in our way, buries us in red tape, or makes it too easy for management to control us (p.69)
  11. 11. Basic Structural Tensions  Differentiation: dividing work, division of labor  Integration: coordinating efforts of different roles and units  Suboptimization: When you create roles and units of specialization, you can lose sight of big picture (remember the Police/Fire Department illustration?)
  12. 12. Vertical coordination  Authority (the boss makes the decision)  Rules and policies  Planning and control systems  Performance control (focus on results) vs. action planning (focus on process)  S.O.P. ?
  13. 13. Military Example (Vertical)
  14. 14. Lateral Coordination  Meetings  Task Forces (bigger can mean you need more lateral face to face communication)  Coordinating Roles (persuasion people that can go back and forth between specialized turfs)  Matrix Structures  Networks  Strengths and Weaknesses of Lateral Strategies
  15. 15. Lateral
  16. 16. To be successful  You NEED BOTH!
  17. 17. Vertical/Lateral Coordination Activity  2 groups of 4; 1 group of 3  Group according to color of Starburst  Grab markers/chart paper  Illustrate what Vertical Coordination and Lateral Coordination might look like in an Educational Setting  Share your description/illustration with the class
  18. 18. McDonald’s and Harvard: A Structural Odd Couple McDonald’s: clearer goals, more centralized, tighter performance controls Harvard: diffuse goals, highly decentralized, high autonomy for professors Why have two successful organizations developed such different structures?
  19. 19. Structural Imperatives Size and Age Core Process Environment Strategy and Goals Information Technology People: Nature of Workforce The case of Citibank
  20. 20. Chapter 4 Structure and Restructuring
  21. 21. Structure and Restructuring I. Structural configurations II. Why restructure? III. Making restructuring work
  22. 22. I. Structural Configuration  Mintzberg’s five-sector logo  Operating core  People who perform basic work (line workers)  Administrative Component  Managers/supervisors (line supervisor)  Strategic Apex  Focus on outside environment (executives)  Techno structure  Specialist/analysts (engineers)  Support staff  Perform tasks that facilitate work (secretaries)
  23. 23. I. Structural Configuration cont… Simple structure  Two Levels:  Strategic apex  Operating level  Start-up companies  Virtues  Structure is very flexible & adaptable  One person directs the entire operation  Vices  Lack of strategic planning (boss too close to operations)  Authority can block change
  24. 24. I. Structural Configuration cont… Machine bureaucracy  Important decisions are made at the strategic apex  Day-to-day operations are controlled by managers & SOPs  Example: McDonalds  Challenges:  How to motivate employees and satisfy workers in the operating core  Constant tension between headquarter and local managers  Overcome challenges by:  Permitting experimentation (Egg McMuffin breakfast sandwich)
  25. 25. I. Structural Configuration Professional Bureaucracy  Characteristics:  Operating core is larger than other structural parts  Few managerial levels exist between the strategic apex and professors (flat organizational structure)  Examples: Universities (EIU or U of Illinois)  Challenges:  Quality control and coordination  Dealing with incompetence and irresponsibility  Respond slow to change
  26. 26. I. Structural Configuration Divisionalized Form  Work accomplished through quasi-autonomous units (multispecialty hospital) serving defined markets  Division heads (presidents) are accountable to the corporate office  As long as the division performs, they have free reign  Benefits:  Offer economies of scale  Ample resources  Responsive  Challenges:  Headquarters may lose touch with operations
  27. 27. I. Structural Configuration Adhocracy  Loose, flexible, and organic structure  Characteristics  Don’t believe in hierarchy, rule books, dress codes, etc…  Ambiguous authority structure  Unclear objectives  Contradictory assignments
  28. 28. II. Why Restructure?  Environmental Shifts: A mandated shift can occur – as was the case of the American Telephone and Telegraph Company, or Ma Bell or even more commonly now – AT&T.  Technology Shifts: This may be one of the most profound reasons for restructuring in today’s fast paced techno-world. When is the last time that you walked into a Blockbuster Video store, played a game of solitaire with real cards, or made sure you had change in your pocket for a pay phone.  Organizations Grow: When organizations outgrow the Mom & Pop stage of business, they need an organizational structure to support tasks, decisions, and authority to remain profitable.  Leadership Changes: When new leaders step into existing organizations – there is often a “New sheriff in town, things are going to change mentality.”
  29. 29. III. Successful Restructure  Why were these restructuring efforts successful? 1. Developed a new conception of the organizational goals and strategies 2. Carefully studied the existing structure and processes (had the complete picture) 3. Designed new structure in light of goals, technology, and environment 4. Experimented while retaining things that worked
  30. 30. Chapter 5 Organizing Groups and Teams
  31. 31. Examples of Effective Group Work/ Teamwork  Organ transplant procedure  WWII U.S. Army commando team  Al Quaeda
  32. 32. Tasks and Linkages in Small Groups  Structural options for small and large tasks  Situational Variables Influencing Structure  What are we trying to accomplish?  What needs to be done?  Who should do what?  How should we make decisions?  Who is in charge?  How do we coordinate efforts?
  33. 33. Tasks and Linkages in Small Groups  Situational Variables, con’t.  What do individuals care about most?  What are special skill and talents?  What is the relationship?  How will we determine success?
  34. 34. 5 Fundamental Team Configurations  Basic Structural Configurations  One Boss  Dual Authority  Simple Hierarchy  Circle  All Channel Figure 5-1: One Boss
  35. 35. 5 Fundamental Team Configurations  Basic Structural Configurations  One Boss  Dual Authority  Simple Hierarchy  Circle  All Channel Figure 5- 2: Dual Authority
  36. 36. 5 Fundamental Team Configurations  Basic Structural Configurations  One Boss  Dual Authority  Simple Hierarchy  Circle  All Channel
  37. 37. 5 Fundamental Team Configurations  Basic Structural Configurations  One Boss  Dual Authority  Simple Hierarchy  Circle  All Channel
  38. 38. 5 Fundamental Team Configurations  Basic Structural Configurations  One Boss  Dual Authority  Simple Hierarchy  Circle  All Channel
  39. 39. Teamwork and Interdependence Models  Baseball  Football  Basketball
  40. 40. Choosing the Appropriate Structure  Determining an appropriate structural design  Nature and degree of task interaction  Geographic distribution of members  Where is autonomy needed, given the team’s goals and objectives?  Should structure be conglomerate, mechanistic, or organic?  Task of management:  fill out line-up card  prepare game plan  Influence flow
  41. 41. 6 Characteristics of High-Quality Teams  Shape purpose in light of demand or opportunity  Specific, measurable goals  Manageable size  Right mix of expertise  Common commitment  Collectively accountable
  42. 42. The Saturn Story Quality, Consumer Satisfaction, Customer Loyalty Employees granted authority Assembly done by teams – Wisdom of Teams Group Accountability
  43. 43. Marshmallow Challenge  The Marshmallow represents student achievement – the higher your marshmallow, the more students have achieved.  Materials: 20 pieces of raw spaghetti, 1 yard of string, 1 yard of masking tape, 1 marshmallow  In 18 minutes – create the most student success, within the given work structure, within your assigned roles.
  44. 44. Marshmallow Challenge  Roles:  Apex: You are in charge of making decisions and directing others. You do not directly produce work.  Operator: You are a producer.  No decisions. You are directed by others.  Support Staff: You support the work of others.  No decisions, or production.  Techno-Structure/Middle Line: You coach operators and report to the Apex.  No decisions, or production.
  45. 45. Marshmallow Challenge  Recap  Each group share out:  What kind of structure did your group have?  How does this relate(or not) to work environments?  What worked well?  What needed improvement?  If this were your organization, how would you restructure?
  46. 46. Structural Artifacts  Share your artifact(s) with your group  Focus on two artifacts to share with the class  Choose one that works well within your structure  Choose one that needs improvement  Enjoy your Starbucks!