a brief history of
photography
part 1:
where did
photography come
from?
photography -
photography - light
photography - light +
photography - light writing+
photography - light writing+
“drawing with light”
photography -
camera -
light writing+
“drawing with light”
photography -
camera -
light writing+
“drawing with light”
room, or chamber - an
enclosed space
camera obscura -
photography -
camera -
light writing+
“drawing with light”
room, or chamber - an
enclosed space
camera obscura -
photography -
camera -
light writing+
“drawing with light”
room, or chamber - an
enclosed space
an enclos...
camera obscura -
photography -
camera -
light writing+
“drawing with light”
room, or chamber - an
enclosed space
an enclos...
camera obscura -
photography -
camera -
light writing+
“drawing with light”
room, or chamber - an
enclosed space
an enclos...
墨翟
(China, c. 470 - c. 391 BCE)
Mo Di, or “Mozi”
墨翟
(China, c. 470 - c. 391 BCE)
earliest known mention of basic
photography concepts:
Mo Di, or “Mozi”
墨翟
(China, c. 470 - c. 391 BCE)
Mozi discovered that while in a darkened room, a
tiny opening in one wall projected an ups...
墨翟
(China, c. 470 - c. 391 BCE)
Mozi discovered that while in a darkened room, a
tiny opening in one wall projected an ups...
Aristotle (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE)
Aristotle (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE)
was sitting under a tree during a solar eclipse,
and noticed that each gap in the leaves...
Aristotle (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE)
a solar eclipse is when the moon passes
between the Sun and the Earth - so that
from the...
Aristotle (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE)
a solar eclipse is when the moon passes
between the Sun and the Earth - so that
from the...
Aristotle (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE)
a solar eclipse is when the moon passes
between the Sun and the Earth - so that
from the...
Aristotle (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE)
Aristotle
afterwards, he experimented letting light shine
through different shapes of holes, but noticed
that it always pr...
Aristotle
afterwards, he experimented letting light shine
through different shapes of holes, but noticed
that it always pr...
Aristotle
afterwards, he experimented letting light shine
through different shapes of holes, but noticed
that it always pr...
Aristotle
afterwards, he experimented letting light shine
through different shapes of holes, but noticed
that it always pr...
Aristotle
afterwards, he experimented letting light shine
through different shapes of holes, but noticed
that it always pr...
!"#$%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ ،,-. /(‫أ‬
“Alhazen”
Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham
(Iraq, 965 - c. 1040 CE)
!"#$%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ ،,-. /(‫أ‬
“Alhazen”
extensively studied light & optics, built the first
(official) camera ob...
!"#$%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ ،,-. /(‫أ‬
“Alhazen”
extensively studied light & optics, built the first
(official) camera ob...
!"#$%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ ،,-. /(‫أ‬
“Alhazen”
extensively studied light & optics, built the first
(official) camera ob...
interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to
realize the modern understanding of vision:
light (for example, from the sun) ...
interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to
realize the modern understanding of vision:
light (for example, from the sun) ...
interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to
realize the modern understanding of vision:
light (for example, from the sun) ...
interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to
realize the modern understanding of vision:
light (for example, from the sun) ...
interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to
realize the modern understanding of vision:
light (for example, from the sun) ...
interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to
realize the modern understanding of vision:
light (for example, from the sun) ...
interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to
realize the modern understanding of vision:
light (for example, from the sun) ...
before this, it was actually the accepted belief
that the human eye sent out “rays” which
“scanned” objects
before this, it was actually the accepted belief
that the human eye sent out “rays” which
“scanned” objects
before this, it was actually the accepted belief
that the human eye sent out “rays” which
“scanned” objects
before this, it was actually the accepted belief
that the human eye sent out “rays” which
“scanned” objects
before this, it was actually the accepted belief
that the human eye sent out “rays” which
“scanned” objects
before this, it was actually the accepted belief
that the human eye sent out “rays” which
“scanned” objects
before this, it was actually the accepted belief
that the human eye sent out “rays” which
“scanned” objects
Leonardo da Vinci (Italy, 1452-1519)
Leonardo da Vinci
regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye”
was the first to realize that since the image seen in t...
Leonardo da Vinci
regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye”
was the first to realize that since the image seen in t...
Leonardo da Vinci
regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye”
was the first to realize that since the image seen in t...
Leonardo da Vinci
regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye”
was the first to realize that since the image seen in t...
Leonardo da Vinci
regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye”
was the first to realize that since the image seen in t...
Leonardo da Vinci
regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye”
was the first to realize that since the image seen in t...
Leonardo da Vinci
regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye”
was the first to realize that since the image seen in t...
from 1550 through 1569, other Italian scientists followed
da Vinci’s lead, adding lenses - as well as mirrors - to both
FO...
from 1550 through 1569, other Italian scientists followed
da Vinci’s lead, adding lenses - as well as mirrors - to both
FO...
from 1550 through 1569, other Italian scientists followed
da Vinci’s lead, adding lenses - as well as mirrors - to both
FO...
from 1550 through 1569, other Italian scientists followed
da Vinci’s lead, adding lenses - as well as mirrors - to both
FO...
from 1550 through 1569, other Italian scientists followed
da Vinci’s lead, adding lenses - as well as mirrors - to both
FO...
from 1550 through 1569, other Italian scientists followed
da Vinci’s lead, adding lenses - as well as mirrors - to both
FO...
so at this point, what are people using this
“camera obscura” thing FOR?
so at this point, what are people using this
“camera obscura” thing FOR?
Daniel Barbaro (Italy, 1514 - 1570)
so at this point, what are people using this
“camera obscura” thing FOR?
“Close all the shutters and doors until no light ...
so at this point, what are people using this
“camera obscura” thing FOR?
“Close all the shutters and doors until no light ...
so at this point, what are people using this
“camera obscura” thing FOR?
“Close all the shutters and doors until no light ...
so at this point, what are people using this
“camera obscura” thing FOR?
“Close all the shutters and doors until no light ...
so at this point, what are people using this
“camera obscura” thing FOR?
“Close all the shutters and doors until no light ...
so at this point, what are people using this
“camera obscura” thing FOR?
“Close all the shutters and doors until no light ...
many famous artists such as Johannes Vermeer (Netherlands, 1632 -
1675) likely used the camera obscura to compose paintings
many famous artists such as Johannes Vermeer (Netherlands, 1632 -
1675) likely used the camera obscura to compose paintings
intermission
a brief history of
photography
a brief history of
photography
part 2:
how did we get images
to STAY?
but so far all of this is just light - how did
people start getting the images to STAY?
but so far all of this is just light - how did
people start getting the images to STAY?
discovery of photosensitive chemic...
but so far all of this is just light - how did
people start getting the images to STAY?
discovery of photosensitive chemic...
but so far all of this is just light - how did
people start getting the images to STAY?
discovery of photosensitive chemic...
Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce
(France, 1765 - 1833)
Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce
(France, 1765 - 1833)
took the VERY FIRST PHOTOGRAPH (1826 or 1827)
Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce
(France, 1765 - 1833)
took the VERY FIRST PHOTOGRAPH (1826 or 1827)
(he called it heliography - “s...
Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce
(France, 1765 - 1833)
took the VERY FIRST PHOTOGRAPH (1826 or 1827)
(he called it heliography - “s...
Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce
(France, 1765 - 1833)
took the VERY FIRST PHOTOGRAPH (1826 or 1827)
(he called it heliography - “s...
Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce
(France, 1765 - 1833)
took the VERY FIRST PHOTOGRAPH (1826 or 1827)
(he called it heliography - “s...
Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce
(France, 1765 - 1833)
took the VERY FIRST PHOTOGRAPH (1826 or 1827)
(he called it heliography - “s...
he set up his camera obscura, put the asphalt-
covered pewter plate inside, pointed it so it was
looking out his window, a...
he set up his camera obscura, put the asphalt-
covered pewter plate inside, pointed it so it was
looking out his window, a...
he set up his camera obscura, put the asphalt-
covered pewter plate inside, pointed it so it was
looking out his window, a...
in 1829, Niépce partnered with
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
in 1829, Niépce partnered with
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
in 1829, Niépce partnered with
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
Niépce passed away in 1833, but Daguerre continued their
work on a new ...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
Niépce passed away in 1833, but Daguerre continued their
work on a new ...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
Niépce passed away in 1833, but Daguerre continued their
work on a new ...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
Niépce passed away in 1833, but Daguerre continued their
work on a new ...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
the process:
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
the process:
• highly polished copper plate exposed to iodine vapors
(t...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
the process:
• highly polished copper plate exposed to iodine vapors
(t...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
the process:
• highly polished copper plate exposed to iodine vapors
(t...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
the process:
• highly polished copper plate exposed to iodine vapors
(t...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
the process:
• highly polished copper plate exposed to iodine vapors
(t...
10 - 15 minutes of exposure
10 - 15 minutes of exposure
10 - 15 minutes of exposure
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
Daguerre gave the rights to the daguerrotype process to the
French gove...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
Daguerre gave the rights to the daguerrotype process to the
French gove...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
Daguerre gave the rights to the daguerrotype process to the
French gove...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its
popularity in the ea...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its
popularity in the ea...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its
popularity in the ea...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its
popularity in the ea...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its
popularity in the ea...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its
popularity in the ea...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its
popularity in the ea...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its
popularity in the ea...
Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre
(France, 1787 - 1851)
The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its
popularity in the ea...
drawbacks of the daguerreotype:
drawbacks of the daguerreotype:
• dangerous (poisonous)
drawbacks of the daguerreotype:
• dangerous (poisonous)
• still pretty long exposure times
drawbacks of the daguerreotype:
• dangerous (poisonous)
• still pretty long exposure times
• still pretty expensive
drawbacks of the daguerreotype:
• dangerous (poisonous)
• still pretty long exposure times
• still pretty expensive
• frag...
drawbacks of the daguerreotype:
• dangerous (poisonous)
• still pretty long exposure times
• still pretty expensive
• frag...
drawbacks of the daguerreotype:
• dangerous (poisonous)
• still pretty long exposure times
• still pretty expensive
• frag...
drawbacks of the daguerreotype:
• dangerous (poisonous)
• still pretty long exposure times
• still pretty expensive
• frag...
William Henry Fox Talbot
William Henry Fox Talbot
(England, 1800 - 1877)
William Henry Fox Talbot
(England, 1800 - 1877)
invention of the calotype / talbottype
William Henry Fox Talbot
(England, 1800 - 1877)
invention of the calotype / talbottype
he named it “calotype” from the Gre...
William Henry Fox Talbot
(England, 1800 - 1877)
invention of the calotype / talbottype
he named it “calotype” from the Gre...
William Henry Fox Talbot
(England, 1800 - 1877)
invention of the calotype / talbottype
he named it “calotype” from the Gre...
William Henry Fox Talbot
(England, 1800 - 1877)
invention of the calotype / talbottype
he named it “calotype” from the Gre...
William Henry Fox Talbot
(England, 1800 - 1877)
invention of the calotype / talbottype
he named it “calotype” from the Gre...
William Henry Fox Talbot
(England, 1800 - 1877)
invention of the calotype / talbottype
he named it “calotype” from the Gre...
William Henry Fox Talbot
(England, 1800 - 1877)
invention of the calotype / talbottype
he named it “calotype” from the Gre...
negative to positive
negative to positive
negative to positive
Historyofphoto2013
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Historyofphoto2013

  1. 1. a brief history of photography part 1: where did photography come from?
  2. 2. photography -
  3. 3. photography - light
  4. 4. photography - light +
  5. 5. photography - light writing+
  6. 6. photography - light writing+ “drawing with light”
  7. 7. photography - camera - light writing+ “drawing with light”
  8. 8. photography - camera - light writing+ “drawing with light” room, or chamber - an enclosed space
  9. 9. camera obscura - photography - camera - light writing+ “drawing with light” room, or chamber - an enclosed space
  10. 10. camera obscura - photography - camera - light writing+ “drawing with light” room, or chamber - an enclosed space an enclosed space that is dark
  11. 11. camera obscura - photography - camera - light writing+ “drawing with light” room, or chamber - an enclosed space an enclosed space that is dark aperture -
  12. 12. camera obscura - photography - camera - light writing+ “drawing with light” room, or chamber - an enclosed space an enclosed space that is dark aperture - hole or opening
  13. 13. 墨翟 (China, c. 470 - c. 391 BCE) Mo Di, or “Mozi”
  14. 14. 墨翟 (China, c. 470 - c. 391 BCE) earliest known mention of basic photography concepts: Mo Di, or “Mozi”
  15. 15. 墨翟 (China, c. 470 - c. 391 BCE) Mozi discovered that while in a darkened room, a tiny opening in one wall projected an upside-down image of the scene outside onto the opposite wall. He referred to this as “locked treasure room.” earliest known mention of basic photography concepts: Mo Di, or “Mozi”
  16. 16. 墨翟 (China, c. 470 - c. 391 BCE) Mozi discovered that while in a darkened room, a tiny opening in one wall projected an upside-down image of the scene outside onto the opposite wall. He referred to this as “locked treasure room.” earliest known mention of basic photography concepts: Mo Di, or “Mozi”
  17. 17. Aristotle (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE)
  18. 18. Aristotle (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE) was sitting under a tree during a solar eclipse, and noticed that each gap in the leaves projected a “mini-eclipse” onto the ground
  19. 19. Aristotle (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE) a solar eclipse is when the moon passes between the Sun and the Earth - so that from the Earth, the moon looks like it’s “covering up” the sun was sitting under a tree during a solar eclipse, and noticed that each gap in the leaves projected a “mini-eclipse” onto the ground
  20. 20. Aristotle (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE) a solar eclipse is when the moon passes between the Sun and the Earth - so that from the Earth, the moon looks like it’s “covering up” the sun was sitting under a tree during a solar eclipse, and noticed that each gap in the leaves projected a “mini-eclipse” onto the ground
  21. 21. Aristotle (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE) a solar eclipse is when the moon passes between the Sun and the Earth - so that from the Earth, the moon looks like it’s “covering up” the sun was sitting under a tree during a solar eclipse, and noticed that each gap in the leaves projected a “mini-eclipse” onto the ground
  22. 22. Aristotle (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE)
  23. 23. Aristotle afterwards, he experimented letting light shine through different shapes of holes, but noticed that it always projected the sun as a circle (like it is in real life) (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE)
  24. 24. Aristotle afterwards, he experimented letting light shine through different shapes of holes, but noticed that it always projected the sun as a circle (like it is in real life) (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE) just like how during a solar eclipse, even circular holes will project eclipse-shaped light
  25. 25. Aristotle afterwards, he experimented letting light shine through different shapes of holes, but noticed that it always projected the sun as a circle (like it is in real life) (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE) just like how during a solar eclipse, even circular holes will project eclipse-shaped light
  26. 26. Aristotle afterwards, he experimented letting light shine through different shapes of holes, but noticed that it always projected the sun as a circle (like it is in real life) (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE) just like how during a solar eclipse, even circular holes will project eclipse-shaped light
  27. 27. Aristotle afterwards, he experimented letting light shine through different shapes of holes, but noticed that it always projected the sun as a circle (like it is in real life) (Greece, 384 - 322 BCE) just like how during a solar eclipse, even circular holes will project eclipse-shaped light
  28. 28. !"#$%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ ،,-. /(‫أ‬ “Alhazen” Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham (Iraq, 965 - c. 1040 CE)
  29. 29. !"#$%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ ،,-. /(‫أ‬ “Alhazen” extensively studied light & optics, built the first (official) camera obscura, & scientifically proved that light travels in straight lines - Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham (Iraq, 965 - c. 1040 CE)
  30. 30. !"#$%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ ،,-. /(‫أ‬ “Alhazen” extensively studied light & optics, built the first (official) camera obscura, & scientifically proved that light travels in straight lines - Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham (Iraq, 965 - c. 1040 CE) which is why projected images are upside down
  31. 31. !"#$%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ '( ')*%‫ا‬ ،,-. /(‫أ‬ “Alhazen” extensively studied light & optics, built the first (official) camera obscura, & scientifically proved that light travels in straight lines - Abu Ali al-Hasan Ibn al-Haitham (Iraq, 965 - c. 1040 CE) which is why projected images are upside down
  32. 32. interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to realize the modern understanding of vision: light (for example, from the sun) reflects off of things, our eyes interpret that reflected light, and that’s how we are able to see them
  33. 33. interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to realize the modern understanding of vision: light (for example, from the sun) reflects off of things, our eyes interpret that reflected light, and that’s how we are able to see them
  34. 34. interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to realize the modern understanding of vision: light (for example, from the sun) reflects off of things, our eyes interpret that reflected light, and that’s how we are able to see them
  35. 35. interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to realize the modern understanding of vision: light (for example, from the sun) reflects off of things, our eyes interpret that reflected light, and that’s how we are able to see them
  36. 36. interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to realize the modern understanding of vision: light (for example, from the sun) reflects off of things, our eyes interpret that reflected light, and that’s how we are able to see them
  37. 37. interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to realize the modern understanding of vision: light (for example, from the sun) reflects off of things, our eyes interpret that reflected light, and that’s how we are able to see them
  38. 38. interestingly, Alhazen was also the first to realize the modern understanding of vision: light (for example, from the sun) reflects off of things, our eyes interpret that reflected light, and that’s how we are able to see them
  39. 39. before this, it was actually the accepted belief that the human eye sent out “rays” which “scanned” objects
  40. 40. before this, it was actually the accepted belief that the human eye sent out “rays” which “scanned” objects
  41. 41. before this, it was actually the accepted belief that the human eye sent out “rays” which “scanned” objects
  42. 42. before this, it was actually the accepted belief that the human eye sent out “rays” which “scanned” objects
  43. 43. before this, it was actually the accepted belief that the human eye sent out “rays” which “scanned” objects
  44. 44. before this, it was actually the accepted belief that the human eye sent out “rays” which “scanned” objects
  45. 45. before this, it was actually the accepted belief that the human eye sent out “rays” which “scanned” objects
  46. 46. Leonardo da Vinci (Italy, 1452-1519)
  47. 47. Leonardo da Vinci regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye” was the first to realize that since the image seen in the camera obscura was upside-down, the HUMAN eye might see that way as well (Italy, 1452-1519)
  48. 48. Leonardo da Vinci regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye” was the first to realize that since the image seen in the camera obscura was upside-down, the HUMAN eye might see that way as well (Italy, 1452-1519) da Vinci thought that maybe the human eye used lenses to “flip” our vision right side up
  49. 49. Leonardo da Vinci regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye” was the first to realize that since the image seen in the camera obscura was upside-down, the HUMAN eye might see that way as well (Italy, 1452-1519) da Vinci thought that maybe the human eye used lenses to “flip” our vision right side up at this time, lenses (from the Latin word for “lentil”) were already being widely used as magnifiers and vision- correcting spectacles
  50. 50. Leonardo da Vinci regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye” was the first to realize that since the image seen in the camera obscura was upside-down, the HUMAN eye might see that way as well (Italy, 1452-1519) da Vinci thought that maybe the human eye used lenses to “flip” our vision right side up at this time, lenses (from the Latin word for “lentil”) were already being widely used as magnifiers and vision- correcting spectacles
  51. 51. Leonardo da Vinci regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye” was the first to realize that since the image seen in the camera obscura was upside-down, the HUMAN eye might see that way as well (Italy, 1452-1519) da Vinci thought that maybe the human eye used lenses to “flip” our vision right side up at this time, lenses (from the Latin word for “lentil”) were already being widely used as magnifiers and vision- correcting spectacles lens
  52. 52. Leonardo da Vinci regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye” was the first to realize that since the image seen in the camera obscura was upside-down, the HUMAN eye might see that way as well (Italy, 1452-1519) da Vinci thought that maybe the human eye used lenses to “flip” our vision right side up at this time, lenses (from the Latin word for “lentil”) were already being widely used as magnifiers and vision- correcting spectacles lens
  53. 53. Leonardo da Vinci regarded the camera obscura as an “artificial eye” was the first to realize that since the image seen in the camera obscura was upside-down, the HUMAN eye might see that way as well (Italy, 1452-1519) da Vinci thought that maybe the human eye used lenses to “flip” our vision right side up at this time, lenses (from the Latin word for “lentil”) were already being widely used as magnifiers and vision- correcting spectacles lens lentils
  54. 54. from 1550 through 1569, other Italian scientists followed da Vinci’s lead, adding lenses - as well as mirrors - to both FOCUS the image, and CORRECT the image (make it right-side up)
  55. 55. from 1550 through 1569, other Italian scientists followed da Vinci’s lead, adding lenses - as well as mirrors - to both FOCUS the image, and CORRECT the image (make it right-side up) Johannes Kepler (Germany, 1571-1630)
  56. 56. from 1550 through 1569, other Italian scientists followed da Vinci’s lead, adding lenses - as well as mirrors - to both FOCUS the image, and CORRECT the image (make it right-side up) came up with the name “camera obscura” and also was the first to invent one that was portable and could be taken from place to place Johannes Kepler (Germany, 1571-1630)
  57. 57. from 1550 through 1569, other Italian scientists followed da Vinci’s lead, adding lenses - as well as mirrors - to both FOCUS the image, and CORRECT the image (make it right-side up) came up with the name “camera obscura” and also was the first to invent one that was portable and could be taken from place to place Johannes Kepler (Germany, 1571-1630) (also, he was the first to guess that it was the BRAIN that “flipped” our vision right-side up - rather than lenses/ mirrors that are used in a camera or camera obscura)
  58. 58. from 1550 through 1569, other Italian scientists followed da Vinci’s lead, adding lenses - as well as mirrors - to both FOCUS the image, and CORRECT the image (make it right-side up) came up with the name “camera obscura” and also was the first to invent one that was portable and could be taken from place to place Johannes Kepler (Germany, 1571-1630) (also, he was the first to guess that it was the BRAIN that “flipped” our vision right-side up - rather than lenses/ mirrors that are used in a camera or camera obscura)
  59. 59. from 1550 through 1569, other Italian scientists followed da Vinci’s lead, adding lenses - as well as mirrors - to both FOCUS the image, and CORRECT the image (make it right-side up) came up with the name “camera obscura” and also was the first to invent one that was portable and could be taken from place to place Johannes Kepler (Germany, 1571-1630) (also, he was the first to guess that it was the BRAIN that “flipped” our vision right-side up - rather than lenses/ mirrors that are used in a camera or camera obscura) this is “Kepler” (a crater on the moon) which was named after him
  60. 60. so at this point, what are people using this “camera obscura” thing FOR?
  61. 61. so at this point, what are people using this “camera obscura” thing FOR? Daniel Barbaro (Italy, 1514 - 1570)
  62. 62. so at this point, what are people using this “camera obscura” thing FOR? “Close all the shutters and doors until no light enters the camera obscura except through the lens, and opposite hold a piece of paper which can move forward and backward until the scene appears in sharpest detail. There on the paper you will see the whole view as it really is, with its distances, its colours and shadows and motion, the clouds, the water twinkling, the birds flying. By holding the paper steady you can trace the whole perspective with a pen, shade it and delicately colour it from nature.” Daniel Barbaro (Italy, 1514 - 1570)
  63. 63. so at this point, what are people using this “camera obscura” thing FOR? “Close all the shutters and doors until no light enters the camera obscura except through the lens, and opposite hold a piece of paper which can move forward and backward until the scene appears in sharpest detail. There on the paper you will see the whole view as it really is, with its distances, its colours and shadows and motion, the clouds, the water twinkling, the birds flying. By holding the paper steady you can trace the whole perspective with a pen, shade it and delicately colour it from nature.” Daniel Barbaro (Italy, 1514 - 1570)
  64. 64. so at this point, what are people using this “camera obscura” thing FOR? “Close all the shutters and doors until no light enters the camera obscura except through the lens, and opposite hold a piece of paper which can move forward and backward until the scene appears in sharpest detail. There on the paper you will see the whole view as it really is, with its distances, its colours and shadows and motion, the clouds, the water twinkling, the birds flying. By holding the paper steady you can trace the whole perspective with a pen, shade it and delicately colour it from nature.” Daniel Barbaro (Italy, 1514 - 1570)
  65. 65. so at this point, what are people using this “camera obscura” thing FOR? “Close all the shutters and doors until no light enters the camera obscura except through the lens, and opposite hold a piece of paper which can move forward and backward until the scene appears in sharpest detail. There on the paper you will see the whole view as it really is, with its distances, its colours and shadows and motion, the clouds, the water twinkling, the birds flying. By holding the paper steady you can trace the whole perspective with a pen, shade it and delicately colour it from nature.” Daniel Barbaro (Italy, 1514 - 1570)
  66. 66. so at this point, what are people using this “camera obscura” thing FOR? “Close all the shutters and doors until no light enters the camera obscura except through the lens, and opposite hold a piece of paper which can move forward and backward until the scene appears in sharpest detail. There on the paper you will see the whole view as it really is, with its distances, its colours and shadows and motion, the clouds, the water twinkling, the birds flying. By holding the paper steady you can trace the whole perspective with a pen, shade it and delicately colour it from nature.” Daniel Barbaro (Italy, 1514 - 1570) Giovanni Battista della Porta (Italy, c. 1535 - 1615)
  67. 67. so at this point, what are people using this “camera obscura” thing FOR? “Close all the shutters and doors until no light enters the camera obscura except through the lens, and opposite hold a piece of paper which can move forward and backward until the scene appears in sharpest detail. There on the paper you will see the whole view as it really is, with its distances, its colours and shadows and motion, the clouds, the water twinkling, the birds flying. By holding the paper steady you can trace the whole perspective with a pen, shade it and delicately colour it from nature.” Daniel Barbaro (Italy, 1514 - 1570) Giovanni Battista della Porta (Italy, c. 1535 - 1615) wrote that the camera obscura made it “possible for anyone ignorant in the art of painting to draw with a pencil or pen the image of any object whatsoever”.
  68. 68. many famous artists such as Johannes Vermeer (Netherlands, 1632 - 1675) likely used the camera obscura to compose paintings
  69. 69. many famous artists such as Johannes Vermeer (Netherlands, 1632 - 1675) likely used the camera obscura to compose paintings
  70. 70. intermission
  71. 71. a brief history of photography
  72. 72. a brief history of photography part 2: how did we get images to STAY?
  73. 73. but so far all of this is just light - how did people start getting the images to STAY?
  74. 74. but so far all of this is just light - how did people start getting the images to STAY? discovery of photosensitive chemicals
  75. 75. but so far all of this is just light - how did people start getting the images to STAY? discovery of photosensitive chemicals by the Middle Ages, alchemists knew that silver salts turn black when exposed to light
  76. 76. but so far all of this is just light - how did people start getting the images to STAY? discovery of photosensitive chemicals by the Middle Ages, alchemists knew that silver salts turn black when exposed to light in 1802, Thomas Wedgwood & Humphry Davy were able to temporarily capture images - but they wouldn’t stay
  77. 77. Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce (France, 1765 - 1833)
  78. 78. Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce (France, 1765 - 1833) took the VERY FIRST PHOTOGRAPH (1826 or 1827)
  79. 79. Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce (France, 1765 - 1833) took the VERY FIRST PHOTOGRAPH (1826 or 1827) (he called it heliography - “sun writing”)
  80. 80. Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce (France, 1765 - 1833) took the VERY FIRST PHOTOGRAPH (1826 or 1827) (he called it heliography - “sun writing”) after much experimentation, he had found a working combination of materials:
  81. 81. Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce (France, 1765 - 1833) took the VERY FIRST PHOTOGRAPH (1826 or 1827) (he called it heliography - “sun writing”) after much experimentation, he had found a working combination of materials: • polished pewter
  82. 82. Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce (France, 1765 - 1833) took the VERY FIRST PHOTOGRAPH (1826 or 1827) (he called it heliography - “sun writing”) after much experimentation, he had found a working combination of materials: • polished pewter • covered in bitumen of Judea (related to asphalt; hardens and BLEACHES when exposed to light)
  83. 83. Joseph-Nicéphore Niépce (France, 1765 - 1833) took the VERY FIRST PHOTOGRAPH (1826 or 1827) (he called it heliography - “sun writing”) after much experimentation, he had found a working combination of materials: • polished pewter • covered in bitumen of Judea (related to asphalt; hardens and BLEACHES when exposed to light) • afterwards, “rinsed” the plate with oil of lavender & white petroleum
  84. 84. he set up his camera obscura, put the asphalt- covered pewter plate inside, pointed it so it was looking out his window, and opened the shutter
  85. 85. he set up his camera obscura, put the asphalt- covered pewter plate inside, pointed it so it was looking out his window, and opened the shutter EIGHT HOURS LATER...
  86. 86. he set up his camera obscura, put the asphalt- covered pewter plate inside, pointed it so it was looking out his window, and opened the shutter EIGHT HOURS LATER...
  87. 87. in 1829, Niépce partnered with
  88. 88. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre in 1829, Niépce partnered with
  89. 89. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) in 1829, Niépce partnered with
  90. 90. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) Niépce passed away in 1833, but Daguerre continued their work on a new process, which he finished in 1837 and named “daguerreotype”: in 1829, Niépce partnered with
  91. 91. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) Niépce passed away in 1833, but Daguerre continued their work on a new process, which he finished in 1837 and named “daguerreotype”: • he discovered the “latent image” (an image that is invisible until you develop it) in 1829, Niépce partnered with
  92. 92. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) Niépce passed away in 1833, but Daguerre continued their work on a new process, which he finished in 1837 and named “daguerreotype”: • he discovered the “latent image” (an image that is invisible until you develop it) • accidentally left an exposed plate in a dark space which also had a broken thermometer in it - he realized that the mercury vapors (from the broken thermometer) had caused a chemical reaction which “developed” the image in 1829, Niépce partnered with
  93. 93. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) Niépce passed away in 1833, but Daguerre continued their work on a new process, which he finished in 1837 and named “daguerreotype”: • he discovered the “latent image” (an image that is invisible until you develop it) • accidentally left an exposed plate in a dark space which also had a broken thermometer in it - he realized that the mercury vapors (from the broken thermometer) had caused a chemical reaction which “developed” the image • this process shortened exposure time from over 8 hours down to 20 - 30 minutes in 1829, Niépce partnered with
  94. 94. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851)
  95. 95. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) the process:
  96. 96. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) the process: • highly polished copper plate exposed to iodine vapors (this makes silver iodide) - have to be used within an hour
  97. 97. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) the process: • highly polished copper plate exposed to iodine vapors (this makes silver iodide) - have to be used within an hour • expose to light (about 10 - 20 minutes)
  98. 98. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) the process: • highly polished copper plate exposed to iodine vapors (this makes silver iodide) - have to be used within an hour • expose to light (about 10 - 20 minutes) • develop the plate over mercury heated to about 170°F (heating creates vapors)
  99. 99. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) the process: • highly polished copper plate exposed to iodine vapors (this makes silver iodide) - have to be used within an hour • expose to light (about 10 - 20 minutes) • develop the plate over mercury heated to about 170°F (heating creates vapors) • fix the image in warm salt water
  100. 100. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) the process: • highly polished copper plate exposed to iodine vapors (this makes silver iodide) - have to be used within an hour • expose to light (about 10 - 20 minutes) • develop the plate over mercury heated to about 170°F (heating creates vapors) • fix the image in warm salt water • rinse with hot distilled water
  101. 101. 10 - 15 minutes of exposure
  102. 102. 10 - 15 minutes of exposure
  103. 103. 10 - 15 minutes of exposure
  104. 104. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851)
  105. 105. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) Daguerre gave the rights to the daguerrotype process to the French government in 1839 in exchange for a life-long pension for himself and Niépce’s son.
  106. 106. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) Daguerre gave the rights to the daguerrotype process to the French government in 1839 in exchange for a life-long pension for himself and Niépce’s son. France published instructions for the process in 1839 and made them available “free to the world,” in the spirit of the 50th anniversary of the French Revolution.
  107. 107. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) Daguerre gave the rights to the daguerrotype process to the French government in 1839 in exchange for a life-long pension for himself and Niépce’s son. France published instructions for the process in 1839 and made them available “free to the world,” in the spirit of the 50th anniversary of the French Revolution. the fact that the process was free from copyright meant that it spread quickly, causing “Daguerreotypomania”
  108. 108. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851)
  109. 109. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its popularity in the early 1850's, ranged from 25 cents for a sixteenth plate (of 1 5/8 inches by 1 3/8 inches) to 50 cents for a low-quality "picture factory" likeness to $2 for a medium-sized portrait at Matthew Brady's Broadway studio.
  110. 110. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its popularity in the early 1850's, ranged from 25 cents for a sixteenth plate (of 1 5/8 inches by 1 3/8 inches) to 50 cents for a low-quality "picture factory" likeness to $2 for a medium-sized portrait at Matthew Brady's Broadway studio. {1850
  111. 111. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its popularity in the early 1850's, ranged from 25 cents for a sixteenth plate (of 1 5/8 inches by 1 3/8 inches) to 50 cents for a low-quality "picture factory" likeness to $2 for a medium-sized portrait at Matthew Brady's Broadway studio. 25¢ {1850
  112. 112. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its popularity in the early 1850's, ranged from 25 cents for a sixteenth plate (of 1 5/8 inches by 1 3/8 inches) to 50 cents for a low-quality "picture factory" likeness to $2 for a medium-sized portrait at Matthew Brady's Broadway studio. 25¢ 50¢ {1850
  113. 113. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its popularity in the early 1850's, ranged from 25 cents for a sixteenth plate (of 1 5/8 inches by 1 3/8 inches) to 50 cents for a low-quality "picture factory" likeness to $2 for a medium-sized portrait at Matthew Brady's Broadway studio. 25¢ 50¢ $2.00{1850
  114. 114. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its popularity in the early 1850's, ranged from 25 cents for a sixteenth plate (of 1 5/8 inches by 1 3/8 inches) to 50 cents for a low-quality "picture factory" likeness to $2 for a medium-sized portrait at Matthew Brady's Broadway studio. 25¢ 50¢ $2.00{1850 } 2013
  115. 115. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its popularity in the early 1850's, ranged from 25 cents for a sixteenth plate (of 1 5/8 inches by 1 3/8 inches) to 50 cents for a low-quality "picture factory" likeness to $2 for a medium-sized portrait at Matthew Brady's Broadway studio. 25¢ 50¢ $2.00{1850 } 2013 = $12.04
  116. 116. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its popularity in the early 1850's, ranged from 25 cents for a sixteenth plate (of 1 5/8 inches by 1 3/8 inches) to 50 cents for a low-quality "picture factory" likeness to $2 for a medium-sized portrait at Matthew Brady's Broadway studio. 25¢ 50¢ $2.00{1850 } 2013 = $12.04 = $24.09
  117. 117. Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre (France, 1787 - 1851) The price of a daguerreotype, at the height of its popularity in the early 1850's, ranged from 25 cents for a sixteenth plate (of 1 5/8 inches by 1 3/8 inches) to 50 cents for a low-quality "picture factory" likeness to $2 for a medium-sized portrait at Matthew Brady's Broadway studio. 25¢ 50¢ $2.00{1850 } 2013 = $12.04 = $24.09 = $96.38
  118. 118. drawbacks of the daguerreotype:
  119. 119. drawbacks of the daguerreotype: • dangerous (poisonous)
  120. 120. drawbacks of the daguerreotype: • dangerous (poisonous) • still pretty long exposure times
  121. 121. drawbacks of the daguerreotype: • dangerous (poisonous) • still pretty long exposure times • still pretty expensive
  122. 122. drawbacks of the daguerreotype: • dangerous (poisonous) • still pretty long exposure times • still pretty expensive • fragile - had to be kept in sealed cases
  123. 123. drawbacks of the daguerreotype: • dangerous (poisonous) • still pretty long exposure times • still pretty expensive • fragile - had to be kept in sealed cases • left-right reversed (unless you had a fancy camera)
  124. 124. drawbacks of the daguerreotype: • dangerous (poisonous) • still pretty long exposure times • still pretty expensive • fragile - had to be kept in sealed cases • left-right reversed (unless you had a fancy camera) maybe most importantly:
  125. 125. drawbacks of the daguerreotype: • dangerous (poisonous) • still pretty long exposure times • still pretty expensive • fragile - had to be kept in sealed cases • left-right reversed (unless you had a fancy camera) maybe most importantly: • no “negative” is produced - it’s is a direct positive - and therefore no way to make more than one
  126. 126. William Henry Fox Talbot
  127. 127. William Henry Fox Talbot (England, 1800 - 1877)
  128. 128. William Henry Fox Talbot (England, 1800 - 1877) invention of the calotype / talbottype
  129. 129. William Henry Fox Talbot (England, 1800 - 1877) invention of the calotype / talbottype he named it “calotype” from the Greek word “kalos” (meaning beautiful)
  130. 130. William Henry Fox Talbot (England, 1800 - 1877) invention of the calotype / talbottype he named it “calotype” from the Greek word “kalos” (meaning beautiful) first negative/positive photographic process
  131. 131. William Henry Fox Talbot (England, 1800 - 1877) invention of the calotype / talbottype he named it “calotype” from the Greek word “kalos” (meaning beautiful) first negative/positive photographic process got the exposure time down to SECONDS
  132. 132. William Henry Fox Talbot (England, 1800 - 1877) invention of the calotype / talbottype he named it “calotype” from the Greek word “kalos” (meaning beautiful) first negative/positive photographic process got the exposure time down to SECONDS his materials:
  133. 133. William Henry Fox Talbot (England, 1800 - 1877) invention of the calotype / talbottype he named it “calotype” from the Greek word “kalos” (meaning beautiful) first negative/positive photographic process got the exposure time down to SECONDS his materials: • paper coated with silver iodide
  134. 134. William Henry Fox Talbot (England, 1800 - 1877) invention of the calotype / talbottype he named it “calotype” from the Greek word “kalos” (meaning beautiful) first negative/positive photographic process got the exposure time down to SECONDS his materials: • paper coated with silver iodide • developed in gallic acid, silver nitrate, and acetic acid
  135. 135. William Henry Fox Talbot (England, 1800 - 1877) invention of the calotype / talbottype he named it “calotype” from the Greek word “kalos” (meaning beautiful) first negative/positive photographic process got the exposure time down to SECONDS his materials: • paper coated with silver iodide • developed in gallic acid, silver nitrate, and acetic acid • fixed in hyposulfite of soda
  136. 136. negative to positive
  137. 137. negative to positive
  138. 138. negative to positive

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