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Read newsletter february 2017

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Erasmus+ project newspaper

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Read newsletter february 2017

  1. 1. A story of 30 years: from Erasmus to Erasmus+ “This is the blog of the pro- ject titled “Reading in En- glish for Amusement and Dialogue in Europe (READ in Europe)” sponsored by the European Union within Erasmus+ programme for strategic partnership for schools only”. Paricipa'ng Schools Százhalomba4ai Arany János Általános Iskola és Gimnázium, Hungary Srednja skola Hvar, Croa*a FEC Santo Tomás de Aqui- no La MIlagrosa, Spain Burhan Felek Anadolu Lis- esi, Turkey Liceo Scien'fico Pasteur, Italy Pr zadeikio gimnazija, Lithuania 2017 marks 30 years of Eras- mus+. The original Erasmus pro- gramme began in 1987 as an exchange programme giving higher educa'on students a tas- te of life and learning abroad. You can read more about the anniversary on the European Commission’s dedicated Eras- mus+ 30 webpage, including a video.In the ensuing thirty years, Erasmus grew and has developed into something much bigger, which is reflected in the addi'on of the ‘+’ in 2014 to create Eras- mus+ .Today, Erasmus+ funds thousands of opportuni'es a year, for students, staff, teachers, appren'ces and young people, from across educa'on, training, youth and sport. Pro- jects cover a huge range of to- pics and the programme now extends beyond Europe with ini'a'ves like Interna'onal Cre- dit Mobility. Erasmus+ READ in Europe Special points of in- terest: • Music • Sports • Technology • Weather • Cousine • Culture Culture of Turkey 5 RIMAC Automobili 7 Hungarian Apps 9 New Technology Innova- tions in Spain 10 Lithuanian Shrovetide pancakes 13 Sport in Italy 20 Unusually cold weather in Hungary 22 Inside this issue: February 2017 Spanish Edition Volume 1, Issue 3 Erast@gram The project addresses secondary students of 14-17 who are studying English as a foreign lan- guage. The aim is to de- velop students’ literacy skills with reading, wri- 'ng and ac'ng out lite- rary pieces of par'cipa- 'ng cultures. At the same 'me teachers can share their teaching prac'ces and metho- dology, too. From erasmusplus.org
  2. 2. The story of Faros, today's Stari Grad, be- gan back in 384 BC when the ancient Greeks from the island of Paros sailed into Stari Grad Bay and founded the town. In 2016 Stari Grad celebrates important anniversary - 2400 years of and nomina'on for European Best Des'na'on 2017.Houses around you are not just ruins of some other civiliza'on but proof of con'nuity of life long 2400 year. It hosted numerous cultural, gastro and sport events throughout the last few months.Each one brought a different experience whether you like to listen to „klapa“ singing on one of the many Stari Grad squares, riding a bike through the UNESCO Stari Grad plain, or just tas'ng tra- di'onal dishes prepared by restaurant chefs. Stari Grad Brass Orchestra celebrated 140 years of con'nuous ac'vity. As part of the celebra'ons they prepared a special pro- gramme for this summer. The first concert was held on the 8th of June at 20:30 on „Škor“ Square ,were famous klapa Cambi had a concert ,with special quests and the Town of Hvar Brass Orchestra.Some of Stari Grad specials are Starogrojski paprenjok (tradi'onal pastry), lavender pastry or some of the area’s precious wines. Starogrojski paprenjok is a tradi'onal pastry which was gible Cultural Heritage. The most recognisable feature is men in scary wooden musks with big teeth and horns, dressed in furry sheep's skin, who run around making loud noises and chasing women and playfully smacking them. Similar Carnival celebra'ons are held in other parts of the world such as the Rio Carnival and the Venice Car- nival – but in Hungary one of the largest Farsang events is held in the southern city of Mohács, with what’s called the Busójárás. This huge event is recognised by UNESCO as an Intan- The famous Busójárás of fun before Easter because of that 40-day Lenten fast period in between. Tradi'onally on the final day, Tuesday, straw scarecrows would be burnt, to send winter away. For those following folk and Chris'an tradi'ons, the Lent period is used as a chance to fast and prepare for spring ahead of the big East- er celebra'ons. the most popular. The Busójárás follows old folk tradi'ons and is acknowledged by UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage. There are different events during this carnival such as busójárás, Shakespeare ball and Fat Thursday. The high-point of Farsang is its last three days, which changes dates each year depend- ing on the dates of Easter. These last three days are called Farsang Farka ("the tail of Farsang") and lasts from the so-called Farsang Sunday through to Shrove Tues- day (or "Húshagyókedd" in Hungarian). These final fes'vi'es are tradi'onally the last burst In Hungary the carnival season (Farsang) that precedes Lent, starts on Epiphany (January 6th) and it ends on Ash Wednesday. The first day of Farsang, on January 6, is also the day when, tradi'onally, many families take down and throw out their Christmas trees. Farsang is marked by many fun fes'vi'es, masquerades, balls and noisy parades that aim to scare off winter and welcome spring. There are many celebra'ons held throughout Hungary with the Busójárás in Mohács being Carnival Time in HUNGARY and ITALY “The Busójárás follows old folk tradi6ons and is acknowledged by UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage” Culture, we love Page 2 Erast@gram STARI GRAD in Croatia https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7F41zA62b_0
  3. 3. The Carnival of Venice is an annual fes'val held in Venice, Italy. The Carnival ends with the Chris'an celebra'on of Lent, forty days before Easter, on Shrove Tuesday (Martedì Grasso), the day befo- re Ash Wednesday. Masks have always been an important feature of the Vene'an carnival. Tradi- 'onally people were allowed to wear them between the fes'val of Santo Ste- fano (St. Stephen's Day) and the start of the Carnival season at midnight of Shro- ve Tuesday. Vene'an masks can be ma- de of leather, porcelain or using the original glass technique. The most important masks are the Bauta,Colombina, the Plague doctor, Arlecchino, Pantalone and More4a. In these days people usually eat 'pical cakes, like Frappe or Castagnole, parade in the streets dressed in their costumes throwing confeU and celebra'ng. The carnival of venice, ITALY The second event is the concert of the Dance Day that takes place in the stadium “Žalgiris”. It is a mass performance of one dance com- posi'on performed by dancers of different ages. The composi'on is created following one common mo've with the emphasis on the customs observed during work and family related fes'vals. The composi'ons are creat- ed by professional staged folk dance chore- ographers. The final touch in the series of the song and dance celebra'on events is the Song Day taking place in Vingis Park, on an outdoor stage designed especially for the Song Day. Approximately 400 choirs, 15 000 singers of children, youth, female, male, and mixed choirs take part in the Song Day concert. Tradi'onally, harmonized or specially tuned folk songs, works composed by classic or contemporary composers are performed on the Song Day. The three Bal'c na'ons – Estonia, Latvia, and Lithu- ania - were united by their historical fate at the end of the 18th century. All the three of na'ons were occupied by the Russian Empire. The idea of free- dom, unity, and raising of the self-awareness of the people in those countries flourished in the 19th century, at the 'me when smaller na'ons all over Europe were libera'ng themselves from the op- pression of the bigger ones. Nowadays, the song celebra'on lasts few days and is divided into few parts. The first event is the Folk Song and Dance Ensemble Night. Its tradi'onal venue is the outdoor stage in Kalnų Park. A folk song and dance ensemble combines representa'ves of three genres: a choir that performs harmo- nized Lithuanian folk or songs a band of mod- ified Lithuanian na'onal instruments and a dance company that performs folk dances . The performances are usually centred round certain mo'ves, for example, the customs and tradi'ons related to work, family. The na'onal song and dance celebra'on tradi'on has lasted for a hundred years and grew up into the most significant and largest cultural event in Lithuania. It develops crea- 've self-expression, vitality of the na'onal culture, and promotes ar's'c ac'vity by periodically gathering amateur ar's'c groups of different genres and culture professionals to enormous fes'vals that evoke enthusias'c society’s response. Lithuanian Song Festival “Tradi6onally people were allowed to wear them between the fes6val of Santo Stefano “ Page 3Volume 1, Issue 3
  4. 4. There are many popular tradi'ons in Spain but Flamenco, Fallas and Art with wri'ng and pain'ng ahead are 4he first posi'ons. Flamenco is a flokloric dance from the South of Spain. People from there dance it in the “Feria de Abril” of Sevilla every year. Bullfigh'ng is a special tradi'on for Spanish people. It´s celebrated in a bull- figh'ng square, where the bullfighter beats a bull with beau'ful movements. Fallas are celebrated in Valencia, people from there build huge wooden statues and burn them to celebrate the Saint Joseph´s day. In the Spanish Literature´s history, great authors such as Miguel de Cervantes, Lope de Vega, Francisco de Quevedo or Federico García Lorca, have been really important, because they had a very special way to express their feelings and ideas. Art in Spain has advanced a lot along the history, with many influ- ences. But it has not reached its highest point un'l the “Golden Century” ( XVI – XVII century ) with famous painters like Diego Velázquez or “El Greco”. Nowa- days, you can visit lots of art museums to appreciate the art in Spain, such us “Museo del Prado” or “Museo Reina So_a”. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_art https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spanish_litera ture http://www.spain.net/spain-guide/spanish- traditions.html Spanish Traditions Page 4 Erast@gram
  5. 5. The culture of Turkey combines a heavily diverse and heterogeneous set of elements that have been derived from the various cul- tures of the Eastern Mediterranean (West Asian) region and to a lesser degree, South- eastern European, Caucasian, and Central Asian tradi6ons. Many of these tradi6ons were ini6ally brought together by the O0o- man Empire, a mul6-ethnic and mul6- religious state. The present-day Republic of Turkey, which was declared in 1923 a6er the dissolu6on of the O0oman Empire, is s6ll a transcon6nental country that spans Europe and Asia. During the early years of the re- public, the government invested a large amount of resources into fine arts such as pain6ngs, sculpture and architecture. This was done as both a process of moderniza6on and of crea6ng a cultural iden6ty. Because of the different historical factors defining the Turkish iden6ty, the culture of Turkey com- bines clear efforts of moderniza6on and Westerniza6on undertaken in varying de- grees since the 1700s, with a simultaneous desire to maintain tradi6onal religious and historical values. Turkish culture has undergone profound changes over the last century. Today, Turkey may be the only country that contains every extreme of Eastern and Western culture (along with many compromises and fusions between the two). The O0oman system was a mul6-ethnic state that enabled people within it not to mix with each other and thereby retain separate ethnic and religious iden66es within the empire (albeit with a dominant Turkish and Southern European ruling class). Upon the fall of the empire a6er World War I the Turkish Republic adapted a unitary approach, which forced all the differ- ent cultures within its borders to mix with each other with the aim of producing na6on- al and cultural iden6ty. This mixing, instead of producing cultural homogeniza6on, in- stead resulted in many shades of grey as the tradi6onal Muslim cultures of Anatolia collid- ed with the cosmopolitan modernity of Istan- bul and the wider West. Poli6cal, legal, religious, cultural, social, and economic poli- cy changes were designed to con- vert the new Republic of Turkey into a secular, modern na6on- state. These changes were imple- mented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. As a re- sult, Turkey is one of the most westernized Islamic na6ons. Turkish literature is the collec6on of wri0en and oral texts composed in the Turkish language,either in its O0oman form or in less exclusively literary forms, such as that spoken in the Republic of Turkey today. Tradi6onal examples for Turkish folk litera- ture include the stories of Karagöz and Haci- vat, Keloğlan, İncili Çavuş and Nasreddin Hoca, as well as the works of folk poets such as Yunus Emre and Aşık Veysel. The Book of Dede Korkut and the Epic of Köroğlu have been the main elements of the Turkish epic tradi6on in Anatolia for several centuries. Culture of Turkey “...changes were implemented under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk” Page 5Volume 1, Issue 3
  6. 6. Early O0oman period (1299–1326) With the establishment of the O0oman Em- pire, the years 1300–1453 cons6tute the early or first O0oman period in architecture, when O0oman art was in search of new ide- as. This period witnessed three types of mosques: 6ered, single-domed and subline- angled mosques. The Hacı Özbek Mosque (1333) in İznik, the first important center of O0oman art, is the first example of an O0o- man single-domed mosque. During the classical period, mosque plans changed to include inner and outer court- yards. The inner courtyard and the mosque were inseparable. The master architect of the classical period, Mimar Sinan, was born in 1492 in Kayseri and died in Istanbul in the year 1588. Sinan started a new era in world architecture, crea6ng 334 buildings in various ci6es. Mimar Sinan's first important work was the Şehzade Mosque, completed in 1548. His second significant work was the Süley- maniye Mosque and the surrounding complex, built for Suleiman the Magnificent. The Selimiye Mosque in Edirne was built during the years 1568-74, when Sinan was in his prime as an archi- tect. The Rüstem Pasha Mosque, Mihrimah Sul- tan Mosque, Ibrahim Pasha Mosque, and the Şehzade Mosque, as well as the türbes (mausoleum) of Suleiman the Magnificent, Roxelana and Selim II are among Sinan's most renowned works. Most classical period designs used the Byzan6ne architecture of the neighboring Balkans as its base, and from there, ethnic elements were added, crea6ng a different architectural style. Examples of O0oman architecture of the classical period, aside from Turkey, can also be seen in the Balkans, Hungary, Egypt, Tuni- sia and Algiers, where mosques, bridges, fountains and schools were built. “Sinan started a new era in world architecture, crea6ng 334 buildings in various ci6es. “ Page 6 Erast@gram
  7. 7. NEW TECHNOLOGY AROUND The event was a three -day mentoring camp during which the par'cipants (kids from 15 to 17 years) learned from one Ameri- can and three Croa'an robo'cs experts how to design, build and operate robots. Out of only 19 students who got the chance to par- 'cipate, we're proud to share that 3 of them were ours, the students of Hvar Elementary school. The par'cipants did numerous tasks related to computers, programming and technology. They learned everything about circuits and connec'ng lights, typers and ba4eries into circuits. They've also learnt all Mechaniza'on is becoming the way of 21st century life, and with it, the field of ro- bo'cs is booming. In winter 2015 a robo'cs camp was held in northern Croa'a. about basic programming using the program "RoboPro". On the last day, the par'cipants built their own robots ,as well, and even pro- grammed them to walk on the certain path. The aim of the camp was to expand the par*cipants’ knowledge about robo*cs, promote innova*on, encourage technology startups, and use science to encourage tol- erance. ROBOTICS CAMP Today, hard work has made my dream come true. circuit races. At one of these races, the gas engine blew up. Then I decid- ed to try building an EV. After one year the car was able to drive but I was not satisfied with the result. It was heavy, and the range was very lim- ited, so I started gathering a team of experts to develop our own compo- nents since I believed that the electric propulsion can give much more com- pared to what was available on the market. At that time, I already had a very clear vision of my ultimate goal. Rimac Automobili is a Croatian car manufacturer that develops and pro- duces high-performance electric cars headquartered in Sveta Nedelja, Cro- atia. Rimac Automobili's first model, the Concept One, is known as the world's fastest production electric ve- hicle. The groundwork for the compa- ny began in 2007 as a garage-housed hobby of founder, Mate Rimac who converted his BMW E30 to incorporate an electric powertrain “I owned an old BMW which I used for drift and RIMAC AUTOMOBILI “Rimac Automobili is a Croatian car manufacturer that develops and produces high- performance electric cars “ Page 7Volume 1, Issue 3
  8. 8. A wise saying of the greatest Croa'an inven- tor and visionary - Nikola Tesla, o`en called one of history’s most important inventors, one whose discoveries in the field of electrici- ty were way ahead of his 'me and con'nue to influence technology today. So who was the ''Genius who lit the world'' and without whom we wouldn't know the world the way it's today. So, Nikola Tesla was Croa'an- American engineer and physicist born in a small village Smiljan, on July 10th, 1856. He finished elementary school in Smiljan, gym- nasium in Rakovac, a`er he studied math and physics at the Technical University of Graz and philosophy at the University of Prague. In 1884, he moved to New York to work with Thomas Alva Edison, who has taken ad- vantage of Tesla telling him to improve the design of his DC dynamos, which Tesla did, but didn't get the money in return as they agreed, so Tesla quit soon a`er and started his company ''Tesla Electric Light Company'' which wasn't as successful as planned .That period is known as ''War of Currents'' - Tesla struggled to introduce the applica'on of AC and its benefits, while Edison fought for DC beca use it was making him money. Along the first alterna'ng current (AC) motor and development of AC genera- 'on, he invented transmission technology, induc'on engine, remote control, three-phase current, hydro power plants, Tesla's transformer, first neon sign, glow lamp, wireless telegraph, wireless power transfer... Though he was famous and respected, he was never able to translate his copious inven'ons into long-term financial success - unlike his early employer and chief rival, Thomas Edison, and that's why he's o`en described as ''Brilliant scien'st, but terrible businessman''. He died on January 7. 1943 in New York. However, his impact will always be remem- bered. “Every living being is an engine geared to the wheelwork of the universe” Nikola Tesla NIKOLA TESLA Page 8 Erast@gram
  9. 9. We would like to introduce some recent Hungarian applica'ons. A smartphone app which takes away money by pressing the snooze bu6on The alarm applica'on called Snoopy was developed by Csaba Toth and Balazs Nemethi. The basic idea is is that you have to pay money for using the snooze bu4on. So if you do not wake up, it has a price. The cost of a snooze is roughly half a dollar (HUF 130), so your balance is reduced by this amount, if you would like to sleep more. Inven9on for the safety of your bikes: Velotrack security system can prevent bike- the`. The device collects data with a GPS and a mo7on detector in the bike. If someone tries to move the bike the owner immediately gets informed. In addi7on, you can see the routes you traveled and the whereabouts of your friends and family, thanks to the smartphone applica7on. Its opera7on is quite simple: the owner places a virtual logical lock on the parked bicycle. The lock can inform the owner about the safety of the neighborhood, based on community sta7s7cs of bike-the`s. Applications developed by Hungarians Lithuanian lasers cons7tute about 10 per cent of the scien7fic laser market of the world and are exported approximately to 100 countries, they are widely used in China, South Korea and Japan. Lithuanian lasers Carbide are used in eye surgery and semiconductor industry. World’s first tunable wavelength laser NT2000 by the Lithuanian company Ekspla was awarded as the best Scien7fic Laser at Laser technologies is one of the spheres of high technologies in which Lithuania has the lead. No other branch of industry in Lithuania dominates the world's market, whereas la- sers and amplifiers are widely used all over the world. Lithuania has 11 science and laser technology research centers.Over 50 per cent of world's high energy lasers and ultra fast parametric light generators are made in Lithuania. the pres7gious 2010 Prism Awards for pho- tonic innova7on in San Francisco, USA. Some facts about Lithuanian LASER split up, it would be beWer if they meet themselves and talk to each other than doing it by a Whatsapp chat ;-)! TANDEM REVIEW Tandem is an app, for Android and iOS, that helps you find na7ve speakers of almost any language who want to learn your language in exchange. You can prac7ce listening, improve your pronuncia- 7on, and learn to speak a foreign language like a local. New technologies and new apps are very useful for us. We can have chat rooms, vide- ochat and share emo7ons and feelings. Nev- ertheless, it’s important to meet other peo- ple and to spend some of your own 7me with them, because only talking face to face you can understand if the other speaker is truth- ful or not. For example, when a couple has to Trending technology in Italy “You can prac6ce listening, improve your pronuncia6on, and learn to speak a foreign language like a local” Page 9Volume 1, Issue 3 It's really simple to use: just log in, find someone online who speaks your target language, and invite them to chat for free. It's a really nice and usefull app. It has the same purpose of Erasmus: improve or learn the language and get to know diferent cultures.
  10. 10. Due to the new technologies innova'ons in Spain, at least of a 13% of the Spanish popu- la'on admit that they can´t live without new technologies. Apart from the smartphones, social nets and internet we´d like to point out Eolic energy. In the biggest Spanish ci'es like Madrid or Barcelona, the government started to build some electric sta'ons to charge electric cars. About public transport in Spain the high speed rail network is very important , also, some people developed apps for Smartphone to order for a taxi. In the last years, in Spain , 3D printed and nanotechnology have increased a lot. h4p://www.adifaltavelocidad.es/en_US/infra estructuras/lineas_de_alta_velocidad/lineas_ de_alta_velocidad.shtml owns a mobile handset. It is therefore no wonder that more than 4 million people are ac've mobile banking app users. Social net- works also seem to support this thesis: More than 30 million Turks have a Facebook ac- count, according to the Superintendence of Banking. Turkey’s posi;on within the European con- text. In the European context, fintech innova'on is happening fastest in countries like Spain, Turkey and Poland. Which have radically revamped their banking systems over the last decade to overcome the limita'ons of their legacy plaforms, according to American Banker. In the specific case of Turkey, this reality is Garan' Bankasi released Bonus Flas – its version of BBVA Wallet – last November, just as BBVA announced that it had reached the million down- loads in the other markets where it had rolled out the banking app. Today, BBVA Wal- let has already been downloaded three million ;mes. In The other markets where BBVA Wallet -is available, users keep downloading the app at increasingly fast rates. In Turkey it broke the 1 million download mark in a ma4er of weeks. What makes Turkey different? Of all the factors that contribute to this phe- nomenon, the key may very well be its young popula'on: 50% is aged under 30. But Turks are not only young, they are also well con- nected: More than 84% of the popula;on In the Turkish market, new mobile banking apps are downloaded millions of 'mes very quickly a`er launching. But, how did the country become the perfect market for new fintech solu9ons? Not by chance: Turkey’s geographic loca'on and economic situa'on have helped turn the country into the perfect breeding ground for innova'on and technology adop'on. The rate at which BBVA Wallet is being down- loaded in the country is a good example. Technology, Turkey’s new passion “BBVA Wallet has already been downloaded three million 9mes” NEW TECHNOLOGY INNOVATIONS IN SPAIN Page 10 Erast@gram
  11. 11. undeniable: fintech companies a4racted the third-highest volume of investments in 2015, as there is a collabora7on rela- 7onship between tradi7onal banks and fintech companies, The effect of this connec7on between both sectors is fur- ther amplified by a highly-developed credit card market, within a mature banking sector, and facilitated by the fact that 97% of trans- ac7on volume happens domes7cally. That’s it. But, obviously, there had to be a downside to this story. According to experts, Turkey – like other technologically advanced countries – faces one pressing challenge: the lack of regula7ons. Once the country manages to overcome this pifall, its passion promises to reach new levels of intensity. Crni rižot is a seafood delicacy with squid as the main ingredient. The black color from the squid inc gives this dish its dis7nc7ve Mediterranean flavor. then covered with hot coal. They are le` to cook slowly in their own juices. Paš9cada is a dish with beef. The meat is first marinated for 24 hours in red wine, garlic and various herbs such as rosemary and sage.During the cooking you can add dry plums, carrots, onions and cloves. Tradi7onally paš%cada is served with homemade gnocchi. Dalma7an cuisine is characterized by its sim- plicity and diversity. Healthy and delicious meals, simple flavoring olive oil and fresh fish are best for our health. Dalma7an cuisine for the most part consists of fish and seafood. It also includes meat special7es such as Dalma- %an smoked ham and Dalma%an paš%cada. In Dalma7a the most famous drink is wine. Dalma'an special'es Pršut is a Croa7an word for salted, dry-cured ham. The best domes7c pršut is made with a liWle help of nature. Bura (cold, dry northern wind) is responsible for its texture and taste. Peka is actually a word describing a method of food prepara7on. All ingredients (lamb or octopus, paired with seasoned potatoes) are put under peka, a heavy iron lid, which is Dalmatian Cuisine Dalma%an cuisine for the most part consists of fish and seafood Page 11Volume 1, Issue 3 Delicious food to taste
  12. 12. ’Szalagos’ Doughnut’Szalagos’ Doughnut’Szalagos’ Doughnut’Szalagos’ Doughnut Prep. Leavening Bake 15 min. 30 min. 10 min. Approx. cost 8 Pounds Ingredients (for about 20 doughnuts): • 500 g flour • 220 ml milk • 40 g yeast • 50 g sugar • 60 g bu4er • 5 db egg-yolk • a pinch of salt • oil for baking • icing sugar • apricot jam Prepara7on 1. Mix the yeast and the 50 g sugar in the lukewarm milk and put this mixture to a warm place. Wait un7l it swells. 2. Put the flour in a large bowl. Add the melted buWer, the egg-yolks, the yeast and a pinch of salt to the flour and knead the mixture well. 3. Cover the dough, place it in a warm place and let it rest and rise un7l doubled for about half an hour. 4. Roll the dough out to ¼ inch thickness. With a floured cookie cuWer, cut into 2 inch rounds. 5. Heat oil in a deep fryer to 175 degrees C. Fry one layer of doughnuts as they rise to the surface un7l golden brown, about 2 to 3 minutes. Remove from oil, being careful not to poke doughnuts. Drain onto paper towels and toss with sugar and apricot jam, if desired. Another well-known Italian dish is obviously pizza, that mixes a lot of things. Italian food is also characterized by the use of many vegetables, such as tomatoes, carrots, leWuces and legumes. All the people who come here fall in love Italian food is famous all around the world. The main point of its success is its simplicity, in fact Italian chefs prefer to concentrate on the quality rather than on the quan7ty of ingredients used. A typical example of Italian food is pasta, which can be prepared in many different ways. The most common, especially in Rome are “carbonara”, “al ragù” and also “lasagna”. with our food, and in the same way we love our food each 7me we eat it. Italian food „Heat oil in a deep fryer to 175 degrees C” Hungarian traditional Carnival sweets in February Page 12 Erast@gram
  13. 13. A very joyful spring feast-Shrove6de (Pancakes Day) is widely celebrated in Lithua- nia. On that day people have to make some tradi6onal dishes and one of them are panca- kes. Yeast pancakes are maybe the most popular kind of pancakes. People like to eat them for dinner because these pancakes are quite sa6ated. So we want to share with you a recipe of these delicious pancakes! You need: • 2 cups of flour. • 20g of yeast. • 2 eggs. • 2-3 glass of milk. • Some sugar and salt to taste. • Grated orange peel. • Some raisins. • Fat or oil for frying. One-third of flour pour with boiling milk, sprinkle the top with flour and leave it for a half an hour to freeze.Mix yeast with sugar, unscrew yolks with salt and put in dough. Pour warm milk, mix it and put in a warm place to rise. Put raisins into risen dough, add Lithuanian favourite Shrovetide—Pancakes Spain, land of wine and cheese where coun- trymen enjoy some of the most characteris6c dishes or dis6nguished drinks like wine. If you’re a gourmet looking for classic but also delighful flavours then we can assure you this country is one of your best op6ons. Here, at the beginning of your journey you can taste some tapas such as gruel, crumble, spicy potatoes, pintxos or jamon iberico to prepare your tongue and stomach. In summer you can enjoy some fresh dishes like gazpacho, accompanied by sangria, or eat paella in company while all of you are having an horchata for dessert. But if you’re more of a hot dishes person then we recom- mend you callos a la madrileña, bacalao al pil pil, stew or cocido madrileño. Spanish Cousine “A very joyful spring feast- Shrove(de (Pancakes Day) is widely celebrated in Lithuania” Page 13Volume 1, Issue 3
  14. 14. BAKLAVA Material manufacturer Home Baking Ingredients • 3 egg • 1 glass of water Milk • 1 water glass measure of oil • 1 piece of baking powder • 1 sweet spoon vinegar • Half tea spoon salt • Flour • Walnut or hazelnut as you wish • 200 grams of margarine or buer Turkish Cousine And if you’re s6ll hungry then some of our best desserts will leave you with full stom- ach. For example some leaflets, a hornazo or a nougat made in Spain. And don’t forget to book at some of our many eminent restaurants spread through the country, especially if you’re a fan of pizza, meat or innovaBve dishes never seen before. So, what are you waiBng for? A land full of gastronomic opportuniBes is waiBng for you! Page 14 Erast@gram
  15. 15. • Celery corn starch Ingredients for Baklava Syrup • 5 glasses of water • 4 cups of powdered sugar • A few drops of lemon juice • 4 cups of sugar • 5 glasses of water • A few drops of lemon juice In order to prepare an easy home baklava, first empty the egg, milk, liquid oil, nectar, baking powder and salt in the kneading con- tainer and knead un'l the dough is so`ened by adding the flour as much as possible. The dough you prepare is divided into 30 equal pieces. Spread these pieces one by one over the size of the plate, sprinkle some starch between them, and put them on top of each other. Bring each of these three parts we grouped together into a tray size with the help of a roller. Pour half of the melted fat, taking care to make sure you get exactly as you want it, and come on all the way evenly. When preheated 180 ° C rinse, change the light color and take the oil from the flour, run the remaining oil and rinse it again in the oven. Construc'on of Home Baklava Şerbe'n; 4 cups of sugar and 5 glasses of water into a pot and boil for 15 minutes then add a few drops of lemon into the syrup and boil for 1-2 minutes. Bon Appe't The tradi'onal folk music of Croa'a is of a cappella singing that first appeared in li4oral Croa'a during the middle of the 19th cen- tury. The mo'fs in general celebrate love, wine (grapes), country (homeland) and sea. The main elements of the music are harmony and melody, with rhythm very rarely being very important. Although klapa is a cappella music, on occasion it's possible to add a gentle guitar and a mandolin. Klapa is usually associated with Dalma'a, coastal region. Most of the present-day ac'vi'es are the result of the establishment of ins'tu'ons over a century ago and a musical heritage that extends back to the Middle Ages. When talking about music and musical life in Croa'a since 1991, it is obvious that the country possesses a very ac've musical cultu- re with different kinds of music genres. Since its independence in 1991, Croa;a has maintained a very ac;ve and vital musical culture. Music of Croatia “Spread these pieces one by one over the size of the plate, sprinkle some starch between them, and put them on top of each other” Page 15Volume 1, Issue 3 Music for the senses
  16. 16. (summer) fes'vals, For example music fes'- vals such as Balaton Sound , Volt fes'- val,Fishing on Orfű and the biggest is the Sziget fes'val. Lots of people come from other countries of all ages and from all walks of life. Some informa'on about Sziget fes'val. It started in 1993 and it has gradually become one of the biggest fes'vals in Europe. In 2016 Nowadays music is essen'al for everyone because it helps to relax and we forget all our problems. Our country is famous for almost 500.000 people visited the fes'val. Several worldwide famous musicians per- formed there. The most renowned ones are Rihanna, Tom Odell, Sia, Twenty One Pilots, Mar'n Garrix, Eminem. And one of our most famous Hungarian band is Punnany Massif. This is a boy band that consists of 10 boys. Their most enjoyable music is ÉLVEZD/Enjoy Hungarian island of freedom such as euro disco and eurodance. Dino Dvornik is one of the pioneers of electronic music in Croa'an. The dance female singers of Croa'a are Vanna and Vesna Pisarović. The band Colonia is perhaps the only one that rode the dance wave of the '90s and today is one of the most popular most popu- lar pop-folk singers and mainstream Rozga. As you could no'ce, the music of Croa'a is full of diversity, but croa'an music industry has been non-stop growing since 1991, and although it's not as popular worlwide as in the country itself, popular music isn't neces- sary quality music. As everywhere, pop music is unavoidable. Croa'an mainstream pop ar'sts include: Oliver Dragojević, Gibonni, Dino Dvornik, Toni Ce'nski,Petar Grašo, Thompson and others. Some of the most successful and long-las'ng rock music acts include Parni valjak and Prljavo kazalište. A highly acclai- med singer- songwriter is the chanson-inspired Arsen Dedić. Dance music in Croa'a was an offspring of the local pop music and more Western in- fluences. It developed during the late 1980s and early 1990s, picking up on the trends “Dance music in Croa(a was an offspring of the local pop music and more Western influences” Page 16 Erast@gram https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=2-6NB2SEgLk https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=UrGS9EARHRc
  17. 17. Fes'val of Sanremo is a popular compe''on of Italian music that is born in Liguria, Sanremo, in 1951. At this event had parteci- pated a lot of the most important singers of Italian light and pop music. Fes'val rap- present one of the most important media'c Italian event with a good media coverage because is trans- mi4ed live broad- cast, Eurovision and on the radio. De- spite this edi'on has been object of many polemics and cri'cs , also this year it has reached a lot of listen- ers. The event consists in a compe'ton be- tween song selected in the privies month by an apposit juries of persons. Those songs must be composed in italian by Italian autors with text and never been pubblished and played before the show is completated with the partecipa'on of a lot of famous star. Compe'tors are devided in two categories: the first is composed by young singer and the second one is the category of the famous singer. The singers has judged both an ex- perts jury and by the popular televo'ng. In the compe''on has assigned other specials rewards, between that the reward of the cri'que “Mia Mar'na”. Statue of the lion of Sanremo is the most pres'gious recogni'on for the Italian musician. San Remo—Italy ethnographical regions: monophony, mul'- voiced homophony and polyphony. Monop- hony mostly occurs in southern (Dzūkija), southwest (Suvalkija) and eastern (Aukštai'ja) parts of Lithuania. Mul'-voiced homophony, widespread in en're Lithuania, is the most archaic in Samogi'a. Tradi'onal vocal music is held in high esteem on a world scale: Lithuanian song fests and sutar'nės mul'part songs are on the UNESCO's repre- senta've list of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. Today I'm going to tell about Lithuania folk music. Lithuanian folk music belongs to Bal'c music branch which is connected with neoli- thic culture. In Lithuanian territory meets two musical cultures: stringed (kanklių) and wind instrument cultures. These instrumental cultures probably formed vocal tradi'ons. Lithuanian folk music is ar- chaic, mostly used for ritual purposes, contai- ning elements of paganism faith. Vocal music has three ancient styles of sin- ging in Lithuania connected with Lithuanian folk music https://www.youtube.com/watch ?v=9kVqipJbsgU Page 17Volume 1, Issue 3
  18. 18. Spanish music is something very important for the culture of Spain. There are many different styles developed through the differ- ent moments of history. Since the first mani- festa'on of art before the own existence of Spain, un'l now. The la'n culture has a very important influ- ence into pop music. Most of the popular songs in Spain at the moment are la'n ar'sts with their songs. That is because we share the same language and most of the tradi- 'ons. Some Spanish ar'sts are, for example: Melendi, Malu, Álvaro Soler, Mónica Naranjo, Fangoria, Alejandro Sanz, etc… On the top of Spanish current popular music we can see: Despacito by Luis Fonsi, Chantaje by Shakira and Malu- ma, Traicionera by Sebas'an Yatram and Safari by J Balvin. This is a picture of the coaches of our own “The Voice” program. two daughters and a son. The couple divor- ced a`er ten years of marriage BARIŞ MANÇO Mehmet Barış Manço (born Tosun Yusuf Mehmet Barış Manço 2 January 1943 – 1 February 1999), known by his stage name Barış Manço, was a Turkish rock musician, singer, songwriter, composer, and television producer.Beginning his musical career while a4end- ing Galatasaray High School, he was a pio- neer of rock music in Turkey and one of the founders of the Anatolian rock genre. Manço composed around 200 songs and is among the best-selling and most awarded Turkish ar'sts to date. Many of his songs were trans- lated into a variety of languages includ- ing English, French, Japanese, Greek, Italian, Bulgari- an, Romanian, Persian, Hebrew, Urdu, Arabic, and German, among others. Through his TV program, 7'den 77'ye ("From 7 to 77"), Manço traveled the world and visited most countries on the globe. He remains one of the most popular public figures of Turkey. first marriage and two younger sisters, Ayşe and Nadiye. His mother Döne also died early, and his father married again, to Arzu. From this third marriage four sons, Ekrem, Ali, Muharrem and Cemal, were born Neşet married Leyla, a singer from Bolu, in 1960 in Ankara, where the two had met whi- le performing at a night club. She bore him NEŞET ERTAŞ Neşet Ertaş was born in 1938, in Kıryllar, a village in Kırşehir. His father, Muharrem Er- taş, was also a folk poet his mother, Döne Koç, was Muharrem's second wife, his first wife, Ha'ce, having died early. Neşet was the second eldest of four children; he had an older half-brother, Neca', from his father's Turkish http://los40.com/lista40/ http://los40.com/lista40/lista40_numeros1.html https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kJQP7kiw5Fk&feature=youtu.be Spanish music Page 18 Erast@gram
  19. 19. Fun with SPORT Ka'nka Hosszú (pronounced [ˈkɒ'nkɒ ˈhosːuː]; born 3 May 1989) is a Hungarian compe''ve swimmer, who specializes in individual medley events. She is a three-'me Olympic champion and a five-'me long- course world champion. She is the first swimmer to hold world rec- ords in all five individual medley events at the same 7me. She competed at four Sum- mer Olympics: 2004, 2008, 2012 and 2016. She currently swims for the Vasas SC, under head coach Shane Tusup, who is also her husband. She is one of the most versa7le swimmers in the world, and was nicknamed the "Iron Lady" which she has since turned into a fast growing Interna7onal brand. She is the first race-prize dollar millionaire in swim- ming history. The Hungarian Iron Lady ship, Croa7a took 4th place. We played an amazing game and are extremely happy about it. Croa7a, a country known by the beau7ful sea and coast but also known as the winner of some important and significant sports events. With lots of great athletes it's hard to choose the best. Janica Kostelic is considered to be one of the greatest female skiers of all 7me, just like her brother Ivica Kostelic. From individual athletes we also need to men7on Blanka Vlasić. She is the European and World high jump champion. Team sports are more popular in this country especially handball, football, basketball and water polo. Recently in 2017 Worlds Men's Handball Champion- Croatian Sport “in 2017 Worlds Men's Handball Championship, Croa(a took 4th place” Page 19Volume 1, Issue 3
  20. 20. At the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Hosszú won the gold medal and broke the world record in the 400-meter individual medley, won the gold medal and broke the Olympic record in the 200-meter individual medley, and won a third gold med- al in the 100-meter backstroke. She also won a silver in the 200-meter backstroke behind American Maya DiRado. With 3 gold medals and 1 silver, Hosszú won more medals in individual events than any other swimmer in the 2016 Summer Olympics. Her coach is her husband: Shane Tusup and their rela-onship has been admired by many. Their rela-onship, prepara-on, training tech- niques and successes even inspired New York Times, who published a long report about them. The ar-cle emphasizes that Ka-nka, running away from the failure in London, took on a completely new approach when she started working with her husband as her trainee. The bond Ka-nka and Shane have seems to be working out just perfect. ball has made us a tradi-onal force of the sport in Europe. Basketball is the most popular sport in Lithuania. Lithuanian American coaches and players in the 1930s helped Lithuania men's na-onal basketball team win the last Euro Basket tournaments before World War II, in 1937 and 1939, causing a massive impact in Lithuanian society and a basketball popula- rity spike. Since then, despite Lithuania's small size, with a popula-on of just almost 2.9 million the country's devo-on to basket- Na-onal basketball tem players and staff members in 1937 a<er winning the cham- pionship. During the Soviet period Lithuanian players frequently formed the core of the Soviet na-onal team, and the Lithuanian people strongly supported local club BC Žalgiris. A<er the restora-on of Lithuanian indepen- dence in 1990 the na-onal team was formed Basket in Lithuania One of the best teams in our country is Ro- ma, which is supported by the majority of the Erasmus Italian team. In this team plays Fran- cesco To@: this footballer can be considered as the symbol of the Italian passion for this sport. In fact To@ has played for this same team since he started playing this sport de- spite the fact that he has received lots of offers from many other teams from all over the world. He’s worldwide famous not only as a player of A.S.Roma but also as a great player of the Na-onal team, who led Italy to win the World Championship in 2006. In Italy you have the chance to prac-ce every kind of sport, but the most played and supported is foot- ball, by far. There isn't scandal that can change the love that Italian people have for this sport. It is simple, easy to play and fun, especially with friends. In our na-on you can't find someone who hates football, everyone loves it! And if you don't play it as your main sport, you will s-ll play it with friends and whenev- er you want! Sport in Italy “In our na-on you can't find someone who hates football, everyone loves it! “ Page 20 Erast@gram
  21. 21. with their first official tournament being the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona, where they won bronze medals. The Lithuanians have since won two other bronzes at the Olympics, won the EuroBasket for the third 'me in 2003 and also bronze medals in the World Cham- pionship in 2010 . The most known basket- ball players are Arvydas Sabonis. Šarūnas Marčiulionis, Modestas Paulauskas, Žydrūnas Ilgauskas, Jonas Valančiūnas, Šarūnas Jasikevičius. Mindaugas Kuzmins- kas. last 6 years.Spain is also one of the most im- portant countries in basket. Spain is currently the european champion and at the last olimpics games of rio it won the bronze medal. According to the ABC news Spain and United States of America are the two best teams in the world in the last decade, followed by Serbia. Other sports are: -tennis; Rafa Radal and Marc López won the gold medal at the olympic games. also Rafa Nadal is the man who has won more 'mes Rolland Garros. -Motorbikes; in the 500 cc compe''on. Spanish drivers have been champions for the The most important sport in spain is football. Spanish football is very important worldwide because the Real Madrid fc is the champion of the world clubs and at european level the Spanish clubs have been champions in the last three years in the champions league and UEFA. The last champions league final had 350 mil- lions of viewers around the world. bea'ng the superbowl record in 200 million. The league has a dura'on of about 9 months and each league has 700 matches. The “clásico” is one of the most important sports event with the two teams best in the Spanish league (FC Barcelona and Real Madird). The league 2015/16 was won by FC Barcelona Sport in Spain “FC Barcelona won the Spanish League 2015/16. European Champions League, that same season, was won by Real Madrid. Page 21Volume 1, Issue 3
  22. 22. TURKEY NATİONAL BASKETBALL TEAM. We have very big basketball team.Also know- ing ‘TBF’.We have very cool nickname.In turkey we call them 12 giant man.We have great successfull jobs since 2002.They are impersonate us in global very well.We proud fort hem.Our basketball team imperstone us the USA right now. In september,2010 we compete USA for FIBA award.We lose but we be second team in the FIBA.İt is most important success in the all basketball history. Also we won two medal in olympic games .We Show off our them in 1949 interna'onal egypt tournamet but now we are second winner of FIBA. We thanks them because they are imperstonate us in very successfully Ra`ing in Köprüçay Ra`ing is very popular in Turkey right now.If you want ra`ing,you must going kö- prüçay.Köprüçay is in Antalya.People came to there compete to each other.Ra`ing played with six people. Köprüçay have very strong stream,you need to be strong an energic.Also you need shavel and boat,but people usually do ra`ing for fun not compete.We have very successful athlets at ra`ing. Ra`ing is very good for your healthy but ra`ing is so dan- gerous you need to be carefully.A lot of peo- ple doing ra`ing in köprüçay.Köprüçay have very cold water some'mes it is very hard for athlets. Some athlets in turkey says ıf you want to be good at in ra`ing ,turkey is best place to do it. “people usually do ra6ing for fun not compete” Sport in Turkey Page 22 Erast@gram
  23. 23. The Ecumenical Charity has set up temporary shelters for people in need and the Menhely Founda'on said on Saturday that there are s'll places available in the homeless shelters they operate. A severe cold warning was issued for the whole country due to the weather condi'ons, especially for Nograd, where the warning reaches the highest (red) level. 2017 has started with big freeze in Hungary. According to the Hungarian Meteorological Service (OMSZ), even -27 degrees were measured. The temperature in January fell to an all-'me record low for this 'me at -28.1 C measured in the village of Tésa in northern Hungary. The previous record for this date was -26.5 C in 1985. However, many people took advantage of the freezing weather and visited Lake Balaton and other lakes of Hungary for a ska'ng trip. Also, several beau'ful photos were taken during this cold period. Unusually cold Winter in Hungary problems with frozen pipes, lack of water, and electricity. Some older people say that temperatures like these haven't been meas- ured in Hvar for a very long 7me. in Croa7a and winters are mild. People were surprised with such low temperatures and they were not prepared so there were many Croa7a is divided into two predominant cli- mate regions - Con7nental and Mediterrane- an although there are some varia7ons within those climate zones. Croa7a's coast and islands are governed by a Medi- terranean climate. The winters in Dalma7a are usually not as cold as in the rest of the country but this year it was quite cold. On the island Hvar there was wind, rain, snow and temperatures were around 0 de- grees, which is unusual for this area because Hvar is the sunniest island Weather in Croatia “Croa(a is divided into two predominant climate regions - Con(nental and Mediterranean” Page 23Volume 1, Issue 3 A whale of a time… with European weather
  24. 24. Winter: The weather in winter is quite cold. DayBmes temperatures usually around -5 ° C. But in some cases winter months can be colder , especially when an6cyclones from east or north bring sunny but cold weather. The air temperature then rises to - 7 ° C or slightly to -11° C during a day and cools down to -20° C , -30° C or even -35° C at night. Heavy snowfall or even snowstorms are even possible on some days. Spring: In April air temperature rises from 10 ° C to 15-20 ° C at the end of the month. Nature is green, dandelions and other plants begin to grow. May is the driest month. The air temperature rises to 22 ° C, some6mes up to 28-30 ° C. Weather in che completely destroyed an important hotel in Abruzzo (central Italy) causing 29 vic6ms and only 11 people survived the tragedy. In Northern Italy there was very lile snow, and all the skiers could only enjoy ar6ficial snow, meanwhile in the South the tempera- ture drop- ped and there were more rainfalls. In Italy the climate is Mediterranean so there are many differences between the South and the North. In the South summers are very warm and dry and winters are moderate, while in the North summers are usually cool and winters are extremely cold, in fact it snows every year. This year something extraordinary happened. In Central Italy there were big snowfalls; there the popula6on had already suffered an earthquake in August and the snow and the cold made the opera6on of rescue and re- building of the damaged structures really hard. More over, in January, a huge avalan- Weather in Italy “Are those some of the effects of the climate changes the scientists have been talking about??? Page 24 Erast@gram Lilafüred and Lake Balaton
  25. 25. Summer: Lithuanian summer is the ho4est 'me of the year. The average temperature in July is about 17 ° C, some'- mes the air temperature rises to 25 ° C during the day. There are 'mes when air warms up to 30 ° C. In most of the 'me it is dry weather with sunny spells, rain o`en falls with some'mes heavy thunderstorms that can occur at the end of the day. In the middle of August a li4le cooler weather, more rain falls. The air temperature rises just to 5 ° C some days. Generally, the weather is best May- September, when days are warm and the nights are cool, although it rains more in spring than in summer. Autumn: In autumn the weather gradually cools. The air temperature in early Septem- ber some'mes rises to 20 ° C. In late Septem- ber we have a period called Indian summer. Then the weather usually gets colder. In Oc- tober and November the air temperature is about 10 ° C, it o`en rains. In November rain is o`en replaced by sleet. Autumn and winter are usually a li4le chilly and wet, some'mes snowy and o`en foggy. Aegean and Coast Mediterranean climate, this region seen. Black Sea Climate. Each season has rainy climate. Summers are cool, winters are mild. Eastern Black Sea region is the Turkey's most rainy region. Wooded area is this region of our country Terrestrial climate- Summers are hot and dry, winters are cold.It [Turkey is in the northern hemisphere, tem- perate climate. There are usually four rea- sons. However, the impact of sea and moun- tain climate doesn't the same in every region. Three major climate type seen in Turkey.] Mediterranean Climate. In this climate, sum- mers are hot and dry, winters are mild and rainy. In Turkey, Southern Marmara, Coast rains a lot in springs and springs are very bea'ful around here Turkey’s weather features mum and mínimum level of warning, forecast of the day , twi4er… And finally in the West and in the central zone we have con'- nental weather; very dry and without rain. However as Spanish say, an image is be4er than a thousand words, so travel to Spain and see with your own eyes our wonderful weather. In Spain it is very popular to get regular info about the weather forecast and there is a State Agency to inform about : Alerts, máxi- The weather in Spain is very changeable, we have from deserts to green zones like emeralds. If we start according to the orienta'on of the clock needles: in the North we discover a Cantabric weather; very wet and upper level. If we look to the East and to the South we can enjoy mediter- ranean weather; very hot like coastal zones. Spanish Lovely weather http://www.aemet.es/en/portada Page 25Volume 1, Issue 3
  26. 26. The declara'on of 9th May 1950 is belie- ved to be the founding text of European integra'on. Delivered by Robert Schu- man, the French Foreign Minister, in the Salon de l'Horloge at the Quai d'Orsay in Paris, this declara'on, inspired by Jean Monnet, the first Planning Commissio- ner, lays out a European organisa'on that would be responsible for pooling the French and German produc'on of coal and steel. World peace cannot be safeguarded without the making of crea've efforts propor'onate to the dangers which threaten it. The contribu'on which an organised and living Europe can bring to civilisa- 'on is indispensable to the mainte- nance of peaceful rela'ons. In taking upon herself for more than 20 years the role of champion of a united Eu- rope, France has always had as her essen'al aim the service of peace. A united Europe was not achieved and we had war. Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan. It will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto solida- rity. The coming together of the na- 'ons of Europe requires the elimina- 'on of the age-old opposi'on of France and Germany. Any ac'on taken must in the first place concern these two countries. With this aim in view, the French Government proposes that ac'on be taken immediately on one limited but decisive point : It proposes that Franco-German pro- duc'on of coal and steel as a whole be placed under a common High Authority, within the framework of an organisa'on open to the par'ci- pa'on of the other countries of Euro- pe. The pooling of coal and steel produc- 'on should immediately provide for the seUng up of common founda- 'ons for economic development as a first step in the federa'on of Europe, and will change the des'nies of those regions which have long been devo- ted to the manufacture of muni'ons of war, of which they have been the most constant vic'ms. The solidarity in produc'on thus established will make it plain that any war between France and Germany becomes not merely unthinkable, but materially impossible. The seUng up of this powerful produc've unit, open to all countries willing to take part and bound ul'mately to provide all the member countries with the basic elements of industrial produc- 'on on the same terms, will lay a true founda'on for their economic unifica'on. This produc'on will be offered to the world as a whole without dis'nc'on or excep'on, with the aim of contri- bu'ng to raising living standards and to promo'ng peaceful achievements. With increased resources Europe will be able to pursue the achievement of one of its essen'al tasks, namely, the development of the African con'- nent. In this way, there will be realised simply and speedily that fusion of interest which is indispensable to the establishment of a common econo- mic system; it may be the leaven from which may grow a wider and deeper community between coun- tries long opposed to one another by sanguinary divisions. By pooling basic produc'on and by ins'tu'ng a new High Authority, whose decisions will bind France, Germany and other member coun- tries, this proposal will lead to the realisa'on of the first concrete foun- da'on of a European federa'on in- dispensable to the preserva'on of peace. To promote the realisa'on of the objec'ves defined, the French Go- vernment is ready to open nego'a- 'ons on the following bases : The task with which this common High Authority will be charged will be that of securing in the shortest possi- ble 'me the modernisa'on of pro- duc'on and the improvement of its http://www.robert-schuman.eu/en/declaration-of-9-may-1950

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