Embroidery Abla : Embroidery done in Gujarat and Rajasthan using mirror glass. Bandhan i: Fabric wrapped tightly with thin thread in some places, then dyed. Threaded places remain white and produce a pattern of little white circles. Batik : Part of cloth is coated with wax, its is then dyed and wax removed. Waxed areas keep original color, dyed and undyed areas, thus, making a pattern.
Chikankari : Shadow-work type of embroidery done by white yarn on colorless muslins, originated around Lucknow-Avadh. Kashida : Done in Karnataka, West Bengal and Kashmir. Design made with threads by counting threads of cloth. Typical design patterns of its own. Kashmiri : Usually done with white thread and long stitches, capturing various natural motifs leaves, flowers etc.
Kantha : Local Bengali tradition applying small stitches to create motifs and figures with series of dotted lines, filled with long, decorative floats on the reverse. Pashmina : Pashm, in Persian means "wool" of certain Tibetan goats. It is commonly used for the making of shawls in Kashmir, thus called Pashmina. Phulkari : Literally means flowering. Simple and sparse design over shawls and dupattas done in Punjab. Zardozi : Use of laid stitch with golden thread (Zari), carried out in Delhi, Hyderabad and Uttar Pradesh.
Jewellery Meena : Art of colorful enamel work on metal surface by fusing pieces of different mineral substances with it. It was introduced in Rajasthan by the Mughals. Kundan : This is a technique of combining gold with precious and semi-precious stones on the core of an ornament made out of “lac”, a natural resin. Theva : A thin sheet of gold is cut and freehand sketch is made on it, by special tools. A red, blue or green glass is then semi fused and the pattern in gold is pressed onto the surface of the glass.
Navaratna (Nine precious gems) : Ruby (Maanik): Sun Emerald (Pannaa): Mercury Pearl (Moti): Moon Diamond (Heera): Venus Red coral (Moonga): Mars Zircon (Gomedha): Rahu Blue sapphire (Neelam): Saturn Yellow sapphire (Pushkaraaj): Jupiter Cat's eye (Vaidurya): Ketu
Painting Thanka : Created by Buddhists in India. These paintings revolve around the life of Buddha and themes pertaining to Tantric Buddhism. Madhubani : The main themes are cycle of life, deities and mythical figures, animals etc. They are done with mineral pigments. Waarli : Folk paintings done with color obtained from grounding rice. Created on mud walls of tribal houses and depict social life.
Tanjore : Base for these ornate paintings is cloth pasted on wood. Figures of deities are decorated with semi-precious stones, gold-leaf and bright colors. Kalamkaari : Kalam or pen is used to trace outlines, patterns and images with burnt tamarind twigs dipped in molasses and iron fillings. The vegetables dyes of deep shades are used to color. Kangra : The paintings are naturalistic and employed cool, fresh colors extracted from minerals, vegetables and possess enamel-like luster.
Metalwork Bidri : Base material is an alloy of zinc and copper with non-ferrous material on which the Silver wire is encrusted. Treating the article with common salt, saltpeter, copper sulfate and salammonac turns the alloy jet-black thus setting the shimmering silver in sharp relief to its background. Brassware : Statues, carvings, and castings still continue to be made in the attractive copper alloys like bronze and brass mainly in Pembarti. They are done either by sheet-work or wax-casting.
Silverware : Each region has its particular and unique traditions. Rajasthan: Intricately carved animals, chariots etc. Orissa and Andhra Pradesh: Silver filigree work with intricately twisted strands of silver are braided together, hammered into gentle lattice patterns. Kashmir: Etched and engraved samovars, trays, bowls and plates. Lucknow: Silver plated items, which are created by the repousse method.
Woodwork Sandalwood : The inner wood or heartwood of “Chandan” or Sandalwood is used for carving. Cane : Cane and bamboo are used for making furniture items, baskets and mats. Tribal societies of Assam, Tripura, West Bengal, Mizoram, Manipur, Madhya Pradesh are involved in this craft. Sankheda : It is made in very distinctive colors of golden, orange and brown with ornate designs in silver on Teakwood with a brush made of squirrel's tail.
Miscellaneous Crafts Jute Weaving : Articles like baskets, mats, bags, footwear etc. are woven out of fibers of Jute tree. Glassware: Artistic items for everyday use are made out of plain and colored glass by process of glass- blowing. Ivory & Stone Carving : Elephant tusks and stones of different kinds are carved to make various daily-use as well as decorative art-pieces.
Gemwork : Vast variety of semi-precious stones and gems available in India are used to give rise to exquisite works of art. Footwear : “Mojadi” from North India and “Kolhapuri Chappal” from state of Maharashtra are two of the most famous and arty examples of the footwear industry of India. Papier Mache : Typical art of Kashmir involves wet paper pulp shaped in moulds and then dried. Intricate deigns are painted mainly with golden and other vibrant colors. Papier Mache