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INTEGRATED SERVICE
MARKETING
COMMUNICATION
SERVICE MARKETING COMMUNICATION
• Service marketing communication is all about promoting yourself and the service of your
company.
• It has direct impact on the communication gap, in Gap model of Service marketing
• Integrated Services Communications
• a strategy that carefully integrates all external and internal communication channels to
present a consistent message to customers
• This means coordination across:
• sales and service people
• print
• Internet
• other forms of tangible communication including the servicescape
CUSTOMER
COMPANY
External
Communications
to CustomersGAP 4
Service Delivery
Provider GAP 4
Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 4
Best Practices for Closing the Communication Gap (Gap 4)
• Employing integrated services marketing communication strategies
around everything and everyone that sends a message or signal.
• Manage customer expectations effectively throughout the
experience.
• Develop mechanisms for internal communication to avoid over-
promising and ensure successful delivery.
• Position and differentiate the service
• Helps Customers to evaluate Service Offerings
• Promote the Contribution of the Service Personnel
• Add Value through Communication Content
• Facilitate Customer Involvement in Production
• Stimulate or Dampen Demand to match Capacity
Role of Marketing communications
How is this done in services?
• Create memorable images of specific companies and their brands
• Build awareness/interest for unfamiliar service/brand
• Compare service favorably with competitors’ offerings
• Build preference by communicating brand strengths and benefits
• Reposition service relative to competition
• Reduce uncertainty/perceived risk by providing useful info and advice
Common Educational and Promotional
Objectives in Service Settings
• Provide reassurance (e.g., promote service guarantees)
• Encourage trial by offering promotional incentives
• Familiarize customers with service processes before use
• Teach customers how to use a service to best advantage
• Stimulate demand in off-peak, discourage during peak
• Recognize and reward valued customers and employees
Common Educational and Promotional
Objectives in Service Settings
• Build awareness, inform, persuade, and remind
• Challenge: How stand out from the crowd?
• Effectiveness remains controversial
• Research suggests that less than half of all ads generate a positive
return on their investment
Messages through Marketing Channels:
Advertising
 PR/Publicity involves efforts to stimulate positive interest in an organization and its
products through third parties
 e.g., press conferences, news releases, sponsorships
 Corporate PR specialists teach senior managers how to present themselves well at
public events, especially when faced with hostile questioning
 Unusual activities can present an opportunity to promote company’s expertise
Messages through Marketing Channels: Public
Relations
• Mailings, recorded telephone messages, faxes, email
• Potential to send personalized messages to highly targeted
micro segments
• Need detailed database of information about customers and
prospects
Messages through Marketing Channels: Direct
Marketing
• Advance in on-demand technologies empower consumers to decide how
and when they prefer to be reached, and by whom
• e.g. email spam filters, pop-up blockers, podcasting
• Permission Marketing goal is to persuade customers to volunteer their
attention
• Enables firms to build strong relationships with customers
• e.g., People invited to register at a firm’s website and specify what type of
information they like to receive via email
Messages through Marketing Channels: Direct
Marketing
 Defined as “Communication that comes with an incentive”
 Should be specific to a time period, price, or customer group
 Motivates customers to use a specific service sooner, in greater volume with
each purchase, or more frequently
Messages through Marketing Channels: Sales
Promotion
• Interpersonal encounters educate customers and promote preferences for particular brand
or product
• Common in B2B and infrequently purchased services
• Many B2B firms have dedicated sales force to do personal selling
• Customer assigned to a designated account manager
• For services that are bought less often, firm’s representative acts as consultant to help
buyers make selection
• Face-to-face selling of new products is expensive— telemarketing is lower cost alternative
Messages through Marketing Channels:
Personal Selling
• The web is used for a variety of communication tasks
• Creating consumer awareness and interest
• Providing information and consultation
• Allowing two-way communication with customers through email and chat rooms
• Encouraging product trial
• Allowing customers to place orders
• Measuring effectiveness of advertising or promotional campaigns
• Innovative companies look for ways to improve the appeal and usefulness
of their sites
Messages through Internet:
Company’s Website
• Banner advertising
• Placing advertising banners and buttons on portals such as Yahoo, Netscape
and other firms’ websites
• Draw online traffic to the advertiser’s own site
• Web sites often include advertisements of other related, but non competing
services
Messages through Internet:
Online Advertising
• Search engine advertising
• Reverse broadcast network: search engines let advertisers know exactly what consumer
wants through their keyword search
• Can target relevant messages directly to desired consumers
• Several advertising options:
• Pay for targeted placement of ads to relevant keyword searches
• Sponsor a short text message with a click-through link
• Buy top rankings in the display of search results
Messages through Internet:
Online Advertising
• There used to be a difference between personal and impersonal
communication
• Technology has created a gray area between the two
• Direct mail and email can be personalized
• Electronic recommendation agents can also personalize
communications
• With advances of on-demand technologies, consumer are
increasingly empowered to decide how and when they like to be
reached
Moving from Impersonal to Personal
Communications
• Frontline employees
• Communication from frontline staff can be for the core service or
supplementary elements
• New customers in particular need help from service personnel
• Service outlets
• Can be through banners, posters, signage, brochures, video screens, audio
etc.
• Self-service delivery points
• ATMs, vending machines and websites are examples
• Customer Training
Messages through Service Delivery Channels
• Word of Mouth (WOM)
• Recommendations from other customers viewed as more credible
• Strategies to stimulate positive WOM:
• Having satisfied customers providing comments
• Using other purchasers and knowledgeable individuals as reference
• Creating exciting promotions that get people talking
• Offering promotions that encourage customers to persuade their friend to purchase
• Developing referral incentive schemes
Messages Originating from Outside the
Organization
• Blogs – A new type of online WOM
• Becoming increasingly popular
• Communications about customer experiences influence
opinions of brands and products
• Some firm have started to monitor blogs as form of market
research and feedback
• Media Coverage
• Compares, contrasts service offerings from competing
organizations
• Advice on “best buys”
Messages Originating from Outside the
Organization
• Advertising, selling, and sales promotion all lend themselves easily to misuse
• Communication messages often include promises about benefits and quality of
service delivery. Customers are sometimes disappointed
• Why were their expectations not met?
• Poor internal communications between operations and marketing personnel concerning
level of service performance
• Over promise to get sales
• Deceptive promotions
• Unwanted intrusion by aggressive marketers into people’s personal lives
Ethical Issues in Communication
Marketing Communications
Planning
• Who is our target audience?
• What do we need to communicate and achieve?
• How should we communicate this?
• Where should we communicate this?
• When do communications need to take place?
The ‘5 Ws’ Model
• Prospects
• Employ traditional communication mix because prospects are not known in
advance
• Users
• More cost effective channels
• Employees
• Secondary audience for communication campaigns through public media
• Shape employee behavior
• Part of internal marketing campaign using company-specific channels
Target Audience: 3 Broad Categories
Five Major Approaches to Overcome Service Communication
Channels
(1) Approaches for Addressing Service
Intangibility
• Use narrative to demonstrate
the service experience
• Present vivid information
• Use interactive imagery
• Focus on the tangibles
• Use brand icons to make the
service tangible
• Use association, physical
representation,
documentation, and
visualization
• Feature service employees in
communication
• Use buzz or viral marketing
• Leverage social media
• Aim messages to influencers
• Create advertising that
generates talk because it is
humorous, compelling, or
unique
• Feature satisfied customers in
the communication
• Generate word-of-mouth
through employee
relationships
Services Advertising Strategies Matched with Properties of
Intangibility
(2) Approaches for Managing Service Promises
• Create a strong service brand
• Coordinate external communication
Goal:
Delivery
greater than
or equal to
promises
Offer
Service
Guarantees
Create
Effective
Services
Communications
MANAGING SERVICE PROMISES
Make
Realistic
Promises
Coordinate
External
Communicatio
n
Service Branding Model
(3) Approaches for Managing Customer Expectations
• Make realistic promises
• Offer service guarantees
• Offer choices
• Create tiered-value service offerings
• Communicate the criteria and levels of service effectiveness
(4) Approaches for Managing Customer Education
• Prepare customers for the service process
• Confirm performance to standards and expectations
• Clarify expectations after the sale
• Teach customers to avoid peak demand periods and to seek slow
demand periods
(5) Approaches for Managing Internal Marketing
Communication
• Create effective vertical communications
• Sell the brand inside the company
• Create effective upward communication
• Create effective horizontal communications
• Align back-office and support personnel with external customers
through interaction or measurement
• Create cross-functional teams of sales, service, and operations people
when developing new services or engaging in service improvements
• Maintain a customer focus throughout all functions
Interactive Imagery: Travelers
Service Brand Icon: The GEICO Lizard
Focusing on Tangibles Associated with the Service: The Sierra
Club
THE MOST TOP RATED BOUTIQUE HOTEL IN AMERICA
“Little Island, Big Escape”
“Where Modern Comfort Meets Historical Charm”
Taglines
INTERNAL COMMUNICATION
• MARISOL Management Training Program (MMTP)
• MARISOL Management Training Program (MMTP)
• Operations / Food Production
• Hotel Operations Management Trainee Program (HOMT)
• Service employees must be well versed in what ads are promising
• Knowledge of services offered across the organization
• call centers
• web design
• e-mail response mechanisms
• InSight (new service offered)
• Cross-functional communication
• operations
• public relations/marketing
INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION
• Digital Marketing
• Trip Advisor
• Website
• Facebook
● Website
● Cross-marketing
● Public Relations
● Direct Marketing
● Internet Marketing
● Social Media
● Event Marketing
● Print Media
● Soft Opening
Media Tools
Timeline of Media Tools
• Launch new site - May
• Streamline the User Experience
• To be maintained all year long
• Easy and accessible reservation system
• Updated photos and content
• Link the website to social media platforms
• Optimize the Website’s Content (SEO- also to be maintained all year)
• Keywords, descriptions, site map
Website
● Ongoing initiative
● Helps to attract more customers with local businesses while satisfying
services and amenities Hotel Marisol cannot directly deliver
● Ability to successfully expand using other business’ customer base
● Chance to introduce and market itself in an inexpensive way,
● Ideal local businesses to cross-market with would include gyms,
restaurants, and spas.
Cross-marketing
Cross-marketing: Gyms
Cross-Marketing: Restaurants
Cross-Marketing: Spas
● Press Releases:
o UT San Diego
o WHERE Magazine
o Coast Magazine
o San Diego Magazine
o CoastalLiving.com
● PR NewsWire - iReach
o Per release/bundle
Public Relations
● Direct mailers to be sent out bi-annually
July ‘14 & January ‘15
● Utilize email opt-ins on website
● Create an inquiry-based direct marketing plan
● Creates the ability to send personalized mailers
● Easy to track as far as ROI and effectiveness
Direct Marketing
● SEO(search engine optimization)
o Keywords: Hotels in Coronado, Hotels in San Diego, Romantic Hotels in Coronado,
Boutique Hotels in Coronado
o Optional: SEM if organic leads need to be supplemented
● Hotel Review Sites/Business Listings
o Yelp, TripAdvisor, Hotels.com, Travelocity,
o SanDiego.Org, GreatSmallHotels.com, i-escape.com
● Banner Ads
o Targeted on TripAdvisor, Expedia
● Online Event Calendars
o DiscoverSD, SanDiegoReader, UT San Diego
● E-Newsletters
Internet Marketing
Peak times - June, July, August, March (Banner Ads)
Keywords: “Hotels in Coronado”
Social Media
● Del Mar Village Summer Solstice
● Estimated attendance 700-800
● June 19th 5-8pm
● Bronze Sponsorship
Event Marketing
• Seasonal Packages
• “Summer Fun in the Sun”
• “Valentine’s Romantic Getaway”
• Spring Special Wedding Group Rates”
Sales Promotion
● Magazines aimed at target market
o June ‘14, July ‘14, January ‘15
Print Media
Soft Opening
● May 2014
● Extend invitations to influentials
o Coronado Chamber of Commerce Members
o Local Business Owners and Managers
 Co-marketing partners
o Travel Bloggers and Travel vloggers
o Budget: $10,000
● Drop-down menu of referrals upon booking online
o “How did you hear about us?”
 Cross-Marketing
 Event Marketing
● Clipping Service
○ Third Party
Measuring Effectiveness
● Promotional code redemption upon booking online
o from direct mailers and various ads
● Click-through metric platforms from online efforts
o Google Analytics
Measuring Effectiveness
Challenges of Service
Communications
• Intangibility creates 4 problems:
• Generality
• Items that comprise a class of objects, persons, or events
• Non-searchability
• Cannot be searched or inspected before purchase
• Abstractness
• No one-to-one correspondence with physical objects
• Mental impalpability
• Customers find it hard to grasp benefits of complex,
multidimensional new offerings
Problems of Intangibility
• To overcome intangibility
• Use tangible cues in advertising (showing physical
evidence)
• Use metaphors to communicate benefits of service
offerings
Overcoming Intangibility
Integrated service marketing  communication with example

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Integrated service marketing communication with example

  • 2. SERVICE MARKETING COMMUNICATION • Service marketing communication is all about promoting yourself and the service of your company. • It has direct impact on the communication gap, in Gap model of Service marketing • Integrated Services Communications • a strategy that carefully integrates all external and internal communication channels to present a consistent message to customers • This means coordination across: • sales and service people • print • Internet • other forms of tangible communication including the servicescape
  • 4. Key Factors Leading to Provider Gap 4
  • 5. Best Practices for Closing the Communication Gap (Gap 4) • Employing integrated services marketing communication strategies around everything and everyone that sends a message or signal. • Manage customer expectations effectively throughout the experience. • Develop mechanisms for internal communication to avoid over- promising and ensure successful delivery.
  • 6. • Position and differentiate the service • Helps Customers to evaluate Service Offerings • Promote the Contribution of the Service Personnel • Add Value through Communication Content • Facilitate Customer Involvement in Production • Stimulate or Dampen Demand to match Capacity Role of Marketing communications
  • 7.
  • 8. How is this done in services?
  • 9.
  • 10. • Create memorable images of specific companies and their brands • Build awareness/interest for unfamiliar service/brand • Compare service favorably with competitors’ offerings • Build preference by communicating brand strengths and benefits • Reposition service relative to competition • Reduce uncertainty/perceived risk by providing useful info and advice Common Educational and Promotional Objectives in Service Settings
  • 11. • Provide reassurance (e.g., promote service guarantees) • Encourage trial by offering promotional incentives • Familiarize customers with service processes before use • Teach customers how to use a service to best advantage • Stimulate demand in off-peak, discourage during peak • Recognize and reward valued customers and employees Common Educational and Promotional Objectives in Service Settings
  • 12. • Build awareness, inform, persuade, and remind • Challenge: How stand out from the crowd? • Effectiveness remains controversial • Research suggests that less than half of all ads generate a positive return on their investment Messages through Marketing Channels: Advertising
  • 13.  PR/Publicity involves efforts to stimulate positive interest in an organization and its products through third parties  e.g., press conferences, news releases, sponsorships  Corporate PR specialists teach senior managers how to present themselves well at public events, especially when faced with hostile questioning  Unusual activities can present an opportunity to promote company’s expertise Messages through Marketing Channels: Public Relations
  • 14. • Mailings, recorded telephone messages, faxes, email • Potential to send personalized messages to highly targeted micro segments • Need detailed database of information about customers and prospects Messages through Marketing Channels: Direct Marketing
  • 15. • Advance in on-demand technologies empower consumers to decide how and when they prefer to be reached, and by whom • e.g. email spam filters, pop-up blockers, podcasting • Permission Marketing goal is to persuade customers to volunteer their attention • Enables firms to build strong relationships with customers • e.g., People invited to register at a firm’s website and specify what type of information they like to receive via email Messages through Marketing Channels: Direct Marketing
  • 16.  Defined as “Communication that comes with an incentive”  Should be specific to a time period, price, or customer group  Motivates customers to use a specific service sooner, in greater volume with each purchase, or more frequently Messages through Marketing Channels: Sales Promotion
  • 17. • Interpersonal encounters educate customers and promote preferences for particular brand or product • Common in B2B and infrequently purchased services • Many B2B firms have dedicated sales force to do personal selling • Customer assigned to a designated account manager • For services that are bought less often, firm’s representative acts as consultant to help buyers make selection • Face-to-face selling of new products is expensive— telemarketing is lower cost alternative Messages through Marketing Channels: Personal Selling
  • 18. • The web is used for a variety of communication tasks • Creating consumer awareness and interest • Providing information and consultation • Allowing two-way communication with customers through email and chat rooms • Encouraging product trial • Allowing customers to place orders • Measuring effectiveness of advertising or promotional campaigns • Innovative companies look for ways to improve the appeal and usefulness of their sites Messages through Internet: Company’s Website
  • 19. • Banner advertising • Placing advertising banners and buttons on portals such as Yahoo, Netscape and other firms’ websites • Draw online traffic to the advertiser’s own site • Web sites often include advertisements of other related, but non competing services Messages through Internet: Online Advertising
  • 20. • Search engine advertising • Reverse broadcast network: search engines let advertisers know exactly what consumer wants through their keyword search • Can target relevant messages directly to desired consumers • Several advertising options: • Pay for targeted placement of ads to relevant keyword searches • Sponsor a short text message with a click-through link • Buy top rankings in the display of search results Messages through Internet: Online Advertising
  • 21. • There used to be a difference between personal and impersonal communication • Technology has created a gray area between the two • Direct mail and email can be personalized • Electronic recommendation agents can also personalize communications • With advances of on-demand technologies, consumer are increasingly empowered to decide how and when they like to be reached Moving from Impersonal to Personal Communications
  • 22. • Frontline employees • Communication from frontline staff can be for the core service or supplementary elements • New customers in particular need help from service personnel • Service outlets • Can be through banners, posters, signage, brochures, video screens, audio etc. • Self-service delivery points • ATMs, vending machines and websites are examples • Customer Training Messages through Service Delivery Channels
  • 23. • Word of Mouth (WOM) • Recommendations from other customers viewed as more credible • Strategies to stimulate positive WOM: • Having satisfied customers providing comments • Using other purchasers and knowledgeable individuals as reference • Creating exciting promotions that get people talking • Offering promotions that encourage customers to persuade their friend to purchase • Developing referral incentive schemes Messages Originating from Outside the Organization
  • 24. • Blogs – A new type of online WOM • Becoming increasingly popular • Communications about customer experiences influence opinions of brands and products • Some firm have started to monitor blogs as form of market research and feedback • Media Coverage • Compares, contrasts service offerings from competing organizations • Advice on “best buys” Messages Originating from Outside the Organization
  • 25. • Advertising, selling, and sales promotion all lend themselves easily to misuse • Communication messages often include promises about benefits and quality of service delivery. Customers are sometimes disappointed • Why were their expectations not met? • Poor internal communications between operations and marketing personnel concerning level of service performance • Over promise to get sales • Deceptive promotions • Unwanted intrusion by aggressive marketers into people’s personal lives Ethical Issues in Communication
  • 27. • Who is our target audience? • What do we need to communicate and achieve? • How should we communicate this? • Where should we communicate this? • When do communications need to take place? The ‘5 Ws’ Model
  • 28. • Prospects • Employ traditional communication mix because prospects are not known in advance • Users • More cost effective channels • Employees • Secondary audience for communication campaigns through public media • Shape employee behavior • Part of internal marketing campaign using company-specific channels Target Audience: 3 Broad Categories
  • 29. Five Major Approaches to Overcome Service Communication Channels
  • 30. (1) Approaches for Addressing Service Intangibility • Use narrative to demonstrate the service experience • Present vivid information • Use interactive imagery • Focus on the tangibles • Use brand icons to make the service tangible • Use association, physical representation, documentation, and visualization • Feature service employees in communication • Use buzz or viral marketing • Leverage social media • Aim messages to influencers • Create advertising that generates talk because it is humorous, compelling, or unique • Feature satisfied customers in the communication • Generate word-of-mouth through employee relationships
  • 31. Services Advertising Strategies Matched with Properties of Intangibility
  • 32. (2) Approaches for Managing Service Promises • Create a strong service brand • Coordinate external communication Goal: Delivery greater than or equal to promises Offer Service Guarantees Create Effective Services Communications MANAGING SERVICE PROMISES Make Realistic Promises Coordinate External Communicatio n
  • 34. (3) Approaches for Managing Customer Expectations • Make realistic promises • Offer service guarantees • Offer choices • Create tiered-value service offerings • Communicate the criteria and levels of service effectiveness
  • 35. (4) Approaches for Managing Customer Education • Prepare customers for the service process • Confirm performance to standards and expectations • Clarify expectations after the sale • Teach customers to avoid peak demand periods and to seek slow demand periods
  • 36. (5) Approaches for Managing Internal Marketing Communication • Create effective vertical communications • Sell the brand inside the company • Create effective upward communication • Create effective horizontal communications • Align back-office and support personnel with external customers through interaction or measurement • Create cross-functional teams of sales, service, and operations people when developing new services or engaging in service improvements • Maintain a customer focus throughout all functions
  • 37.
  • 39. Service Brand Icon: The GEICO Lizard
  • 40. Focusing on Tangibles Associated with the Service: The Sierra Club
  • 41. THE MOST TOP RATED BOUTIQUE HOTEL IN AMERICA
  • 42. “Little Island, Big Escape” “Where Modern Comfort Meets Historical Charm” Taglines
  • 43. INTERNAL COMMUNICATION • MARISOL Management Training Program (MMTP) • MARISOL Management Training Program (MMTP) • Operations / Food Production • Hotel Operations Management Trainee Program (HOMT) • Service employees must be well versed in what ads are promising • Knowledge of services offered across the organization • call centers • web design • e-mail response mechanisms • InSight (new service offered) • Cross-functional communication • operations • public relations/marketing
  • 44. INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION • Digital Marketing • Trip Advisor • Website • Facebook
  • 45. ● Website ● Cross-marketing ● Public Relations ● Direct Marketing ● Internet Marketing ● Social Media ● Event Marketing ● Print Media ● Soft Opening Media Tools
  • 47. • Launch new site - May • Streamline the User Experience • To be maintained all year long • Easy and accessible reservation system • Updated photos and content • Link the website to social media platforms • Optimize the Website’s Content (SEO- also to be maintained all year) • Keywords, descriptions, site map Website
  • 48. ● Ongoing initiative ● Helps to attract more customers with local businesses while satisfying services and amenities Hotel Marisol cannot directly deliver ● Ability to successfully expand using other business’ customer base ● Chance to introduce and market itself in an inexpensive way, ● Ideal local businesses to cross-market with would include gyms, restaurants, and spas. Cross-marketing
  • 52. ● Press Releases: o UT San Diego o WHERE Magazine o Coast Magazine o San Diego Magazine o CoastalLiving.com ● PR NewsWire - iReach o Per release/bundle Public Relations
  • 53. ● Direct mailers to be sent out bi-annually July ‘14 & January ‘15 ● Utilize email opt-ins on website ● Create an inquiry-based direct marketing plan ● Creates the ability to send personalized mailers ● Easy to track as far as ROI and effectiveness Direct Marketing
  • 54. ● SEO(search engine optimization) o Keywords: Hotels in Coronado, Hotels in San Diego, Romantic Hotels in Coronado, Boutique Hotels in Coronado o Optional: SEM if organic leads need to be supplemented ● Hotel Review Sites/Business Listings o Yelp, TripAdvisor, Hotels.com, Travelocity, o SanDiego.Org, GreatSmallHotels.com, i-escape.com ● Banner Ads o Targeted on TripAdvisor, Expedia ● Online Event Calendars o DiscoverSD, SanDiegoReader, UT San Diego ● E-Newsletters Internet Marketing
  • 55. Peak times - June, July, August, March (Banner Ads) Keywords: “Hotels in Coronado”
  • 57. ● Del Mar Village Summer Solstice ● Estimated attendance 700-800 ● June 19th 5-8pm ● Bronze Sponsorship Event Marketing
  • 58. • Seasonal Packages • “Summer Fun in the Sun” • “Valentine’s Romantic Getaway” • Spring Special Wedding Group Rates” Sales Promotion
  • 59. ● Magazines aimed at target market o June ‘14, July ‘14, January ‘15 Print Media
  • 60. Soft Opening ● May 2014 ● Extend invitations to influentials o Coronado Chamber of Commerce Members o Local Business Owners and Managers  Co-marketing partners o Travel Bloggers and Travel vloggers o Budget: $10,000
  • 61. ● Drop-down menu of referrals upon booking online o “How did you hear about us?”  Cross-Marketing  Event Marketing ● Clipping Service ○ Third Party Measuring Effectiveness
  • 62. ● Promotional code redemption upon booking online o from direct mailers and various ads ● Click-through metric platforms from online efforts o Google Analytics Measuring Effectiveness
  • 64. • Intangibility creates 4 problems: • Generality • Items that comprise a class of objects, persons, or events • Non-searchability • Cannot be searched or inspected before purchase • Abstractness • No one-to-one correspondence with physical objects • Mental impalpability • Customers find it hard to grasp benefits of complex, multidimensional new offerings Problems of Intangibility
  • 65. • To overcome intangibility • Use tangible cues in advertising (showing physical evidence) • Use metaphors to communicate benefits of service offerings Overcoming Intangibility

Editor's Notes

  1. Taj wants it’s employees to succeed. Through their world class training and development programs, they ensure employees are constantly learning and continuously growing. they provide the tools necessary to become successful. And with these tools and a host of developmental options, how you grow with the Taj is only limited by your imagination. TMTP: This intensive MTP prepares young people as thorough professionals with the Taj. Each year, the Taj fortifies its Operations functions with raw talent from the best hotel and graduate schools in the country. They offer the TMTP comparable to an MBA in hospitality that moulds young budding hotel professionals into future business managers. A typical career path could include joining as a Taj Management Trainee and attaining the position of a General Manager of a Hotel by lateral movements through various functions such as Human Resources, Sales, Food & Beverage and Front Office.