SET UP – Print content area tent cards and place them on tables in the room. As participants enter the room, direct them to sit in the content area with which they are most likely to work. Introduce the topic of the workshop and yourself Have participants sit according to content area if possible. 3.Opening Activity – Have everyone stand up ask them to sit down if you say something that applies to them. Read these statements one at a time: I differentiated my instruction I have given a pre-test or a diagnostic assessment. I have tutored a child I have analyzed similarities and differences in students’ test scores I have given students different books to read. I have taught students in a small group Hopefully at the end no one (unless they have not taught before) is left standing. Make the point that this proves that everyone already differentiates and gives them a lens through which to view differentiation. It’s not impossible. I do it intuitively. Now I just need to do it intentionally.
Introduction – We will cover what differentiated instruction is, why we use it, and a framework for it Differentiation Strategies – We will discuss commonly used differentiation strategies and look at some case studies Practice – We will use differentiation strategies to practice planning for instruction. PRACTICAL ISSUES Classroom Space and Organization - We will talk about how to set up your classroom to make it work Working Collaboratively – We will discuss special ed/general ed collaboration and working with instructional assistants in the classroom
This is a good place to give a personal example – of a classroom you’ve taught or seen that had students at multiple grade levels. The points on this slide can be mentioned briefly.
Main points to make while talking about this slide: To differentiate instruction is to recognize students’ varying background knowledge, readiness, learning styles, and interests and to react to that. The intent of differentiated instruction is to maximize each student’s growth and individual success by meeting each student where he or she is and designing instruction that matches students’ needs.
Go through and talk about each green box. Content – What is being taught. You can differentiate the actual content being presented to students. Process – How the student learns what is being taught. For example, some students need to interact with the material physically, some might prefer to read a book. Product – How the student shows what he/she has learned. For example, students can write a paper or they can present information orally. Readiness – Skill level and background knowledge of child. We try to stay away from the word “ability” because you don’t always know the ability level of a child if their readiness level is low. Interest – Child’s interest or preferences – these can be interests within the curricular area (for example, knowing a student’s favorite cartoon character or actor could allow you to tie that into an example and might motivate the student) Learning Profile – This includes learning style (is the student a visual, auditory, tactile, or kinesthetic learner), as well as preferences for environmental (such as level of distraction, exposure to light or noise) or grouping factors (small group, large group, or individual)
STUDENT DIFFERENCES In a traditional classroom these are addressed when they become a problem. In a differentiated classroom, differences become the basis for planning and instruction ASSESSMENT In a traditional classroom, assessment tends to be summative. It occurs at the end of a unit, week, year, etc. This misses the big picture – if you aren’t assessing until the end you are missing chances to reteach as you go so that skills are strengthened. In a differentiated classroom, assessment is diagnostic and formative so that instruction responds to the learner INTEREST/LEARNING STYLE In a traditional classroom, interest and learning style rarely inform instruction. In a differentiated classroom students are guided in making interest and learning profile-based choices and instruction is based around the ways in which students learn.
Have each participant turn to a neighbor and take two minutes to share the answer to this question with each other. When you call the group’s attention back, as 2-3 volunteers to share their answers. Validate the answers and/or add to them.
Start Slowly – begin with one subject and one technique – use it for a while then add more It will take students, as well as the teacher, time to adjust to a new way of learning. Organize your classroom space – think about how your room is arranged and whether it provides space and materials for students to work in various configurations Go to the next slide
One way a classroom can be set up The teacher station is for work with small groups. All needed materials are on the shelf behind the teacher so that teacher and students can stay in one place (not get up to get things) during that group work time. Desks can be manipulated so students can work independently, in small groups, or in pairs. Each student should, if possible, have a “home base” desk that they go to when they first come to class. Teacher station 2 can be used if there is a classroom aide or a co-teacher. If not – it can be used for student small group work or for a learning station. The inboxes can be used to store materials or as places where students turn in work. Think about labeling them by subject area for elementary school or by class period for secondary students. Color coding materials can also help students find things quickly without teacher assistance – for example, all math books are red or all 2 nd period journals are yellow. Organize things on the bookshelf this way as well. Always keep a schedule and group assignments posted. Kids should be able to figure out where they are supposed to be and who they are working with without having to ask the teacher. The red hexagons represent pillows – give students opportunities to work on the floor if it meets their learning profile. Create structure around this (for example, they pick one place and stay there for a defined time period), but allow students to be comfortable when they work. It will help motivate.
Student Files: Have a set of folders where you can easily place anecdotal notes about students or copies of completed assessments. Student portfolios: Have students keep work in portfolios or independent work folders that they monitor (see record keeping chart handout – kids can use it to monitor their work and it provides you with an easy way to see what they’re doing). Portfolios can also be examples of best work or of a progression of skills. If kids put writing samples in a portfolio every month then the teacher has a basis of assessment and can discuss with the student how his or her work has progressed over the months. This also helps teach students how to set their own goals. Clipboard: If you always carry a clipboard, kids get used to you writing on it. Carry goal tracking sheets on your clipboard so that you can keep track of what students are working on on a daily basis. You can also put blank index cards on your clipboard and take anecdotal notes throughout the day. Those note cards can then be placed in student files. Use of technology: Providing students with websites and other technology can allow them to work more independently. There are websites listed on the Resources handout that fall in this category. Start class with familiar tasks: this allows everyone to have a starting place (a warm-up question, for example) that can be completed while the teacher takes care of administrative tasks or moves students to groups. Task cards, tape recorder, or overhead for directions: give students ways to hear and review directions so that they do not need to interrupt instruction or a teacher’s work with a small group. Directions can be written on index cards, tape recorded, and/or posted on an overhead or chart paper in the room. System for student questions: Decide on steps that students should take before they ask the teacher a question. For example, first they use a set of pre-determined strategies (looking in their journal, skimming the textbook, looking online, etc.), next they ask a peer, finally they can ask the teacher. Then decide how students should ask the teacher questions if the teacher is working with a small group at the time (for example, they could write their question on an index card and place it by the teacher, who could write a response without interrupting much of the small group work.
Implementing district or school-wide differentiation requires a plan and a commitment to resources. Start with a committed staff – have a couple of teachers who are committed to trying differentiated instruction and re-trying when things don’t work. Support those staff members as much as possible and highlight achievements. Videotape them so that other teachers can see how it works. Existing Resources – look for ways to implement differentiated instruction within existing structures and resources at the school level. If teachers are co-teaching it may be an opportunity to do a lot of small group work, and therefore a good place to try differentiation. One or two strategies – Again, start small. Get teachers and students used to the process and then add on. Be willing to alter/extend – Don’t give up! Differentiated instruction is labor intensive and may take trial and error to implement. The results are worth it, though. Be willing to try new things. Also be willing to extend past one or two strategies or classrooms.
For last point, what can help staff bring on/implement change? What is motivating? What can sustain this type of instruction? Administrative support – teachers need to feel as though administrators are backing up their efforts, especially under the pressures of meeting AYP. Professional Development – teachers need time to attend trainings and to work with each other to find best practices and make differentiation truly effective Adequate planning time – if teachers aren’t given the time to plan, independently and with grade level teams, they will be less able to implement differentiated instruction in a meaningful way.
Point out that there is a handout about working with paraprofessionals Teachers and IAs must communicate about: roles – make sure classroom roles are very clear to both of you Student characteristics – IAs should be aware of IEPs and the needs of all students – keep folders where both people can place and access information about students Instructional methods – make sure that everyone has a clear understanding of the instructional methods being used Schedules – write out schedules for both the teacher and IA – so that each knows what the other is doing during the day or class period Share classroom experiences – IA should let teacher know what he/she observes about kids and what experiences he/she had with kids during the day. The teacher should do the same so that both people understand student progress and classroom dynamics. Share responsibility for students – Make sure that both people are working with all students equally. No student should only work with the teacher or IA.
Enhancing Your InstructionalSkills Through Differentiation Prof. Radhesham Sharma ‘A’ level Mathematics Faculty RIMS International School & Jr. College MUMBAI(INDIA)
Differentiation Strategy• Inspired and Guided by• Dr.Kishor R. Pillai(Honorable Principal of RIMS Int’l Scl Mumbai, INDIA)• Prof. Carolyn Tomlinson• (Innovator of Differentiated Instruction, University of Virginia)
Session Overview• Introduction• Differentiation Strategies• Practice• Collaboration• Next Steps
Why Differentiate?• It is realizing the fact that no two students are the same• One size does not fit all.• It is giving students, what they need to excel. Instead of just giving all students the same thing,
Why Differentiate?• Today’s classroom includes different ability level, like Average/Slow Learners/English Language Learner/Honors/Student with learning Disability.• Differentiation provides all students with access to all curriculum.
Why Differentiate?• There are 7 types of students in all classes of the world• (a.) Word smart Students:- enjoy using language like talking,writing,reading.• (b.) Logic smart students:- enjoy critical thinking and solve problems• (c.) Picture smart students:- special learners just learn by information, they need to see and make picture & diagram.
Why Differentiate?• (d.) Body smart students:- this is called KINESTHETIC students, means they need to move, they like to move their body, at teenage most of students fall in this category, so use their energy in positive way and allow them to move.• (e.) Music Smart students:- they have musical intelligence, they use music for learn information.
Why Differentiate?• (f.) People smart students;- they have interpersonal skill, they like to communicate and interact with others, there are students in classroom who are very cautious, use this type of intelligence for group discussion.• (g.) Self-smart students: enjoy working alone, they have ability to work for themselves and want to showcase it.
Why Differentiate?• ALL STUDENTS HAVE BAGGAGE: 1.We never know where student is coming from, just like adults, Children have problem too, it could be physical, sexual, and verbal abusive.2.They could be in charge of their home because there both parents are working. They might be completely alone at home because of some parental issues.
What is Differentiation?• Differentiation is the term used to describe how teachers provide learning opportunities for all learners. Differentiation is the process whereby all learners learn the content of curriculum.• The recognition of students’ varying background knowledge and preferences
When should we Differentiate? We can differentiate during•Mini lesson•Work session•Opening and closing•Reading and writing•Solving numerical•Remediation•As much as possible.
Traits of effective Differentiate instruction.• 1. Learner centered• 2. Planned proactively• 3. Flexible teaching and learning groups• 4. Varies classroom materials (resources)• 5. Variable pacing: pace of instruction should increase and decrease in the response of learner
What do we Differentiate? Content Process ProductAdapted from The Differentiated Classroom: Responding to the Needs of All Learners (Tomlinson, 1999)
What do we Differentiate?Content – What is being taught. You can differentiate theactual content being presented to studentsProcess – How the student learns what is being taught.Product – How the student shows what he/she haslearned
How do we Differentiate?• MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE• You can differentiate Content,Process,Product based on individual MI.• MI theory actively seeks to identify an individual’s potential and abilities in multiple area.• MI best for activity work session and project.
How do we Differentiate?• SCAFFOLDINGSScaffolding is best forReading and writing. Also solve numerical
How do we Differentiate?• JigsawsA puzzle consisting of a picture printed on cardboard and cut into numerous interlocking shapes that have to be fitted together.• taped material• anchor activities
How do we Differentiate?• varied texts, materials (incorporating a number of different types or element, showing variation or variety)• literature circles
How do we Differentiate?• tiered lessons• tiered centers• tiered products• (here show the standard template of tiered lesson/centers/products)
How do we Differentiate?• orbital studies• Orbital studies are short term, independent investigations that parallel the current classroom curriculum and enable GIFTED students to pursue more in depth study.•
How do we Differentiate?• interest centers• interest groups• varied homework• independent studies• questioning strategies• grouping activities
How to evaluate the Product ?• In a differentiated classroom, assessment is diagnostic and FORMATIVE so that instruction responds to the learner.• Don’t follow Summative Assessment.
What’s difference in Formative & Summative assessmentFormative Summative• The goal of formative • The goal of summative assessment is to monitor assessment is to evaluate student learning to provide student learning at the end ongoing feedback that can of an instructional unit by be used by instructors to comparing it against some improve their teaching and standard or benchmark. by students to improve their learning.
What’s difference in Formative & Summative assessmentFormative Summative• help students identify their • Examples of summative strengths and weaknesses assessments include: and target areas that need • a midterm exam work • a final project• help faculty recognize • a paper where students are • a senior recital struggling and address problems immediately
Comparing Traditional and Differentiated Classrooms• Addressing student differences• Use of assessment• Use of student interest and learning style
Discussion QuestionWhat are you already doingto differentiate instruction inyour classroom?
Where do I Go From Here? Some Tips for Implementing Differentiation in your Classroom• Start slowly• Organize your classroom space
Teacher Station 1 InboxesBookshelf Teacher Group Station Schedule 2 Assignments
Where do I Go From Here? Some Tips for Implementing Differentiation in your Classroom• Start student files• Start student portfolios• Use a clipboard• Use of technology• Start class with familiar tasks• Use task cards, a tape recorder, or an overhead for directions• Have systems for student questions
Implementing Differentiated Instruction in your District or School• Start with Committed Staff• Look for Existing Resources/Infrastructure• Start with One or Two Strategies• Try it and Be Willing to Alter and Extend
Implementing Differentiated Instruction: Additional Considerations• Administrative Support to Teachers• Professional Development• Adequate Planning Time
Collaborating EffectivelyTeachers and Instructional Assistants• Communicate• Schedules• Share classroom experiences• Share responsibility for students
FINAL QUOTE:“A classroom is very similar to a busstation. Student passengers arrive froma montage of backgrounds with verydifferent needs. They form a mosaic ofDiversity—academically, culturally,linguistically, economically, socially, andMotivationally. The road to their adultdestinations will demand differentroutes.”