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Motivation Cognition vpp16

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Why do people make decisions to engage in risky and unsafe actions? Is it motivation, cognition or both? Over the past several decades psychological research has been conducted to help us understand the relationship between our motives and our decisions. This presentation examines some of the Human Factors research that addresses these questions in an attempt to provide both answers and solutions to reducing risk taking in the workplace.

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Motivation Cognition vpp16

  1. 1. The Human Side of Safety Motivation & Cognition Ron D. Ragain, Ph.D.
  2. 2. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. HUMAN FACTORS What is it? Accounting for the interaction between humans and other elements of the system when designing an environment Human Factors
  3. 3. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. HUMAN FACTORS in SAFETY Leverages our understanding of cognition, social behaviors, biomechanics (etc.) to design environments in which people perform safely. Human Factors
  4. 4. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Historical Perspective WWII: New and highly complex weapons had to account for the “human limitations” of operators in their design. Human Factors
  5. 5. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Human Factors We Will Examine Two Components ‣ Motivation ‣ Cognition
  6. 6. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. mo·ti·va·tion ˌmōdəˈvāSH(ə)n/ The general desire or willingness of someone to do something. Motivation
  7. 7. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Motivation Approaches to Understanding Motivation ‣ Attributional ‣ Competency
  8. 8. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Motivation Attributional Explanation of Behavior ‣ Dispositional Attributes ‣ Internal, personality related variables ‣ Situational Attributes ‣ External, environmental variables
  9. 9. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. The Problem with the Attributional Approach: The Actor-Observer Cognitive Bias & The Fundamental Attribution Error (FAE) Motivation
  10. 10. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Motivation Competency Explanation of Behavior ‣ Actively attempting to understand and successfully engage the environment/context ‣ Intrinsic desire to be competent & successful
  11. 11. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Motivation Increasing Intrinsic Motivation ‣ Autonomous, successful accomplishment ‣ Increases self-worth & desire to take initiative
  12. 12. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Motivation People Don’t Want to Get Hurt! ‣ They are intrinsically motivated to be safe ‣ How do we capitalize on this? ‣ Increase autonomy ‣ Explain the reasons for safety procedures ‣ Allow involvement in decision making
  13. 13. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Motivation People Don’t Want to Get Hurt! ‣ Edward Deci (1995) ‣ The more controlled people feel, the more risk they are likely to take! ‣ Your Safety Program?
  14. 14. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. A Very “Heady” Topic cog·ni·tion käɡˈniSH(ə)n/ The mental action or process of acquiring knowledge, understanding through thought, experience, and the senses, and making decisions based on interpretation of those mental actions. Cognition
  15. 15. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. What in the world were they thinking? Cognition
  16. 16. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Decision Making • Daniel Kahneman (2011), “Thinking, Fast & Slow” • System 1 (Fast) • System 2 (Slow) Cognition
  17. 17. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Cognition System 1 (Fast) ‣ Operates automatically, rapidly and with very little latency, effort, voluntary control or “thought” ‣ Depends on past experience with similar events
  18. 18. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Cognition System 2 (Slow) ‣ Functions as an Executive ‣ Involves active concentration and choice ‣ Involves the active retrieval of information from long- term memory into working memory where it can be evaluated and compared to current perceptual information to make “thoughtful”, calculated decisions
  19. 19. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Cognition Utilization of Systems 1 & 2 ‣ We use System 1 the most often. ‣ Why? ‣ Why not? ‣ Why don’t we use System 2 more often? ‣ Effort ‣ Cognitive Biases, e.g. Actor-Observer Bias
  20. 20. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. Cognition Decision Making ‣ Can be driven by either System 1 or 2. ‣ Rational or Irrational? ‣ Almost aways rational to the person making it. ‣ Often irrational to outside observers. ‣ Right or Wrong? ‣ Usually determined by the outcome.
  21. 21. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. What in the world were they thinking? •Was he engaged in System 1, System 2 or both? •What was he attending to? What was salient? •What was his motivational state & could it be a factor in his decision? •What aspects of his past experience/LTM could have influenced his cognitive processing including his decisions? •Was his decision “locally rational”? Motivation & Cognition
  22. 22. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. What in the world were they thinking? •What impact do the answers to these questions have on prevention? Motivation & Cognition
  23. 23. © 2016, The RAD Group, LLC. All Rights Reserved. Unauthorized reproduction or distribution, in part or in whole, is forbidden unless permitted in writing by The RAD Group, LLC. The Human Side of Safety Questions?
  24. 24. Resources for You theradgroup.com/vpp-16 Access Slides Ask Questions Michael Allen 17th @ 11:30 18th @ 2:45 Mike Allen 17th @ 1:45 & 3:00 18th @ 10:00 & 1:15 Ron Ragain 17th @ 11:30 & 1:45 Phillip Ragain 18th @ 1:15 & 2:45
  25. 25. The Human Side of Safety Motivation & Cognition Ron D. Ragain, Ph.D.

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