A green-guide to better waste management


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A Compilation of Articles About Recycling, and the Processes Used by the Waste and Resource Management Industry to Divert Waste Away from Landfill

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A green-guide to better waste management

  1. 1. “Consigning Landfill to Consigningthe History Books Books” Steve Last IPPTS Associates
  2. 2. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012ContentsPreface ....................................................................................................................................... 3Disclaimer................................................................................................................................... 3New Waste Technologies: Recycling and Creating Energy from Waste on the Way to “ZeroWaste” ....................................................................................................................................... 4 Introduction............................................................................................................................ 4What is Recycling and Source Separation.................................................................................. 6 Source Separation .................................................................................................................. 6 Mechanical Sorting of Household Refuse .............................................................................. 7 Conclusion .............................................................................................................................. 8MRFs - Materials Recovery Facilities and the New Waste Technologies .................................. 9A Discussion of Advanced Thermal Treatment of Residual Municipal Waste by Gasificationand Pyrolysis ............................................................................................................................ 11The Selection of New Waste Technologies as an Alternative to Incineration......................... 13Energy From Waste by Incineration Now Acceptable Since EU WID Emissions Clean Up ...... 16Waste Management Jobs ........................................................................................................ 20Cover image: Paper ready for recycling or for use as fuel, after the plastic has beenseparated out from Tetrapak type food containers. 2www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  3. 3. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012PrefaceThis document is a compilation of articles I have written since 2007, andwhich have been published at the EzineArticles.com web site to promotethe IPPTS Associates web site www.waste-technology.co.uk .This eBook is offered as background reading for those that are new to thewaste and resource management business sector. I think that you willfind that the industry is as “green” in the sense of sustainability as theycome, and getting better all the time.The information is based on United Kingdom, and EU practise andexperience, but is also generally of interest worldwide.Steve LastDisclaimerReasonable care has been taken to ensure that the information presentedin this book is accurate. However, the reader should understand that theinformation provided does not constitute legal or professional advice ofany kind. The content shall be used for educational and light readingpurposes only.No Liability: this book is supplied “as is” and without liability. 3www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  4. 4. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012New Waste Technologies: Recycling and Creating Energy from Wasteon the Way to “Zero Waste”IntroductionMany governments, towns and communities throughout the Westernworld are making new rules concerning the treatment of Municipal Solidwaste (MSW). New concepts of waste management are needed in whichthe idea of recycling is of major importance.Incineration will be used for the easily burnable fraction of what cannot berecycled, and for some kinds of hazardous wastes such as hospital waste,while the left over will be disposed of in sanitary MSW landfills.Over time, more and more waste avoidance / minimisation, re-use,recycling and pre-treatment prior to landfill will take place, with “zerowaste” being the goal. The “rottable” (putrescible) organic content willalso be progressively reduced and regulations will increasingly ban manymaterials from being landfilled at all.The recycling of products is best done at source by the public when theyput their waste out for collection and this is called source separation.However, if the waste is mixed up when collected it can still be separatedagain by mechanical separation plants or by hand picking using humanlabour and a conveyor.The plants in which the separation of mixed wastes (and also nowadaysquite often on segregated waste as well) is carried out are usually calledMechanical Biological Treatment Plants, or MBTs. These plants cost a lotto build, are expensive to run. They also use a lot of power and addvehicle miles, which reduces the value of recycling by expending non-renewable energy in the process.The last decade has seen source separation introduced in many countries,especially in Scandinavia, Germany, the Netherlands, Switzerland, Austriaand Canada. Now, more recently source separation is being implementedin the United Kingdom and the rest of Europe now that European WasteRegulations require so much of the MSW produced not to be landfilled.The most important reasons to separate waste at the source are: 4www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  5. 5. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012 - The difficulty to find sites for new landfills and the negative attitude of the public towards landfilling and incinerating. - Source separation improves the quality of the products which will have to be recycled. The fact that the organic fraction is separated from the inorganic fraction means that the organic fraction will have a low concentration of heavy metals and will be free of metals, glass and stones, while the inorganic fraction will be drier and less dirty.The degree of recycling which can be achieved depends of the systemused for source separation but it is the highest if the separated waste ispicked up at the houses in separate containers.A high percentage of recycling can only be achieved though by recyclingthe organic fraction of MSW whereby anaerobic techniques such as theanaerobic digestion process are very promising since they not onlyproduce a humus-like residue, comparable to the compost produced inaerobic conversion techniques, but also a form of energy, biogas, whichcan be easily upgraded to several forms of valuable energy.So, by you source separating your waste you can make a difference -especially if there is an Anaerobic Digestion plant in your area.Why not find out more about waste technologies, and encourage yourfriends to recycle. Your children and later generations will benefit - dontthey deserve the same opportunities you had?Very many people wish there was “zero waste” but to achieve thateveryone will need to help their local authorities, by sorting and whereverpossible recycling, at home.Steve Last is a regular contributor of waste management related articles.Visit http://www.waste-technology.co.uk , the Waste Technology WebSite to find out more.Article Source:http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Steve_Last 5www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  6. 6. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012What is Recycling and Source SeparationWhat is recycling? It is the process by which materials are collected andused as "raw" materials for new products.There are three steps in recycling: 1. Materials are collected. 2. Materialsare processed and manufactured into new products. 3. Consumerspurchase the goods made with reprocessed materials.Materials are either source-separated and collected, or collected withoutsegregation. The latter is often called residual or “black-bag” waste, dueto the colour of the bags used in most countries.Before we go any further though, we should consider what the averagetypical analyses of household refuse in the UK might contain. Detailedlists are available on the web for the contents of these bins and wheelies,but in short, the components can be classified as putrescibles, paper,glass, plastics, metals, textiles, unsorted fines, and unclassified materialThe largest quantities are of paper (and card), and the putresciblefractions, and together these contribute most of the organic matter andmoisture content of the waste. Plastics make up a large and increasingproportion of the volume.Another contributor to waste is Household Recycling Centre or CivicAmenity Site waste. Civic amenity waste contains large and variableproportions of wood and garden wastes, building rubble, furniture andmiscellaneous large objects.Source SeparationSource separation recycling schemes are the lowest cost, and mostsustainable and are preferred. They are likely to concentrate on the easilyrecognisable metal, glass and plastics fractions to provide cleanfeedstocks for recycling. Together with household waste these can beassumed to comprise about a quarter of the wet weight and a similarproportion of the dry weight of the refuse.The paper fraction comprises mostly newsprint, which is easily separatedbut difficult to recycle economically as there tends to be more paperavailable from recycling than is used by industry. The glut which resultsdepresses the value of the recycled material. (Written in 2007 – not sotrue in 2012.) 6www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  7. 7. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012So, markets for recycled materials (recylates) are relatively limited andsource separation will only be effective for a proportion of the wastes, andit will not be suitable everywhere.Some inner city areas find that certain groups of people are reluctant toparticipate in recycling, no matter what incentives are given, and someproperty types make recycling harder. Older flats for example have only asingle rubbish chute.This means that in most areas if recycling is to be taken much above 15%to 20%, additional separation of the waste will be needed. This is calledmechanical sorting, and carried out in MRFs (Materials Recycling Facilities)and these may also be called MBT (Mechanical Biological Treatment)Plants when they include a method for biologically treating the putrescible(organic) content after mechanical sorting. (Just above 40% recycling iscurrently being achieved on average in the UK.)Mechanical Sorting of Household RefuseThis is usually done to increase the proportion of material which isseparated, and very many of these sorting plants will be needed in thenext few years to achieve EU targets for improved and much higherrecycling rates above 40%.Mechanical Sorting can also be undertaken to recover additionalrecyclable materials not already separated at source, or simply to providea better feedstock for incineration or production of refuse-derived fuel.Dry pulverising and screening is the most common to provide a crudeseparation into an oversize combustible "paper and plastics" fraction andan undersize "putrescible and glass" fraction for anaerobic digestion orconventional composting. Wet pulverising will direct more of the paperinto the "putrescible and glass" fraction.Density separations and air-classification techniques can further separateand concentrate the heavy glass and light plastics to provide improvedmaterials recovery and a wider range of recovered products, and there isa "trade-off" between product quality and the yield of any selectedfraction. 7www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  8. 8. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012ConclusionThere is a rapidly increasing demand for expansion of the waste industry,and even if the public do their best to recycle, we will have to carry outmore and more sophisticated waste separation as the target rates rise.This will be achieved by source separation and by mechanical separationtechniques in facilities called MRFs and MBT Plants. In fact these plantswill include a wide variety of processes of which we have only touched thetip of the iceberg in this article, and which are described in detail at WasteTechnology and Mechanical Biological Treatment (MBT).Another Waste Technology is Anaerobic Digestion. See our site at TheAnaerobic Digestion Community. http://anaerobic-digestion.comArticle Source:http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Steve_Last 8www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  9. 9. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012MRFs - Materials Recovery Facilities and the New Waste TechnologiesA MRF, which is in fact (when described in full), a Material Recovery(Recycling) Facility. It is a waste disposal facility that separates therecyclable material before it is sold on and recycled, and as far as possiblewaste is diverted away from landfill disposal.You can expect to hear about more and more Material Recycling Facilitiesbeing built. As MRFs come in many different shapes and sizes and areeach tailored to their local wastes and markets, they are described indifferent ways. This can be especially seen in press releases where theaim is to keep the statements simple.I recently saw this announcement:-“The MRF is the first automated paper sorting plant in the UK. High-techequipment is calibrated to produce only fibres which are acceptable to thenewsprint manufacturing industry, from such materials as cardboard, YellowPages and the Financial Times, and reject all others.”I would suggest that any Material Recycling Facility is more than that, andrecycle many more materials although the ability of this particular plant todo this is to be applauded.Any MRF must be able to accept what is collected from the public and/orindustry and separate “waste fractions” from it into individual streams ofrecycled materials before anything else can be done, as none of thesewastes will even closely approach just being pure recycled materials.This is the case even if they have been segregated at source byhomeowners or businesses, and there will be many "contrary" items to beremoved. Such wastes even if pre-sorted will usually also be “co-mingled”when picked up at the kerbside, for example glass with tin cans etc, tosimplify collection requirements and keep collection costs down.Recycling not only reduces the amount of rubbish we bury in landfill sites,it also makes better use of resources and raw materials. Much of what wethrow away will increasingly be used to make something else andmaterials such as glass, steel and aluminium can be recycled over andover again without losing any of their properties. 9www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  10. 10. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012Recycling uses much less energy and raw materials than making newproducts.More and more materials are becoming suitable for recycling as well. Forexample, plastic and polythene bags and mailing wrappers can be sent forrecycling in some areas. Did you know that plastic bottles end up asfleeces, or black plastic pipes and gutters!It is better known to the public that newspapers with 30% of magazinesin their content, (to provide the whitening clay needed,) go to make morenewspapers.Until recently black plastic could not be mechanically separated by thesensors in recycling equipment because they could not “see” black. Theseand many other advances are being developed month by month,unknown to the public.There are many more examples. But, dont forget that almost none of thiscan happen unless these materials pass through a Material RecyclingFacility. With such an un-romantic name the humble MRF can getforgotten, along with the dedicated and hard working staff which operatethem. If so, that would be a shame.Now you have read this article you will not be one of those ignorant of theimportant role of the MRF in your district. In fact waste management isfar from a boring subject, and there are rapid developments in thetechnology and large expansion plans taking place right now. There many new “ green” ideas and new opportunities to discoveryin the new Waste Technologies. Find out more about what MRFs are, plusyou will learn about many other types of waste technology at www.waste-technology.co.uk . These exciting new technologies will help ensure a sustainablefuture for society, and the health of future generations.Article Source:http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Steve_Last 10www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  11. 11. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012A Discussion of Advanced Thermal Treatment of Residual MunicipalWaste by Gasification and PyrolysisNew services and products are constantly coming online. Its hard to keepup with them all. Many of us are busy, and need to allocate our time toour daily lives.We do not have time to consider the many new products. To head offbeing bothered by the low-quality ones we very often just ignore them all,feeling theres little or nothing worthwhile at hand. Normally were right.There are exceptions, however...There are sometimes a very few that may be promising, might beworthwhile. For example, theres a product within the area of gasificationand pyrolysis for residual Municipal Solid Waste Treatment which is leftover after minimization of waste generated, re-use of waste, andrecycling. It is in the category, referred to as Advanced ThermalTreatment. Also, the technology is described as “advanced thermalconversion” but it essentially means a system that combines theprocesses of pyrolysis, gasification and high temperature oxidation, and itis one that shows quite a lot of promise.Its been dreamed-up and demonstrated by waste managementprofessionals and entrepreneurs along with other new waste technologiesby small new innovating companies such as Compact Power, inAvonmouth, UK. (2012 - Now sold and merged as part of a largerorganisation further developing such technologies.)So, what have advanced thermal treatment engineers been doing to buildawareness and extend its list of client customers? Well, generally it hasbeen especially difficult since 2008 to get further projects funded, due toa lack of government incentives to the industry to encourage innovativewaste technologies.Specifically, one can find three substantial benefits that set advancedthermal treatment, with pyrolysis, gasification and high temperatureoxidation apart from the competition, 3 particular benefits stand-out thatoriginators cite as being excellent.These 3 beneficial aspects are: 11www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  12. 12. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012 - that there is very little waste that needs to be landfilled after this process, - emissions are much more controllable from the smaller advanced thermal treatment plants that the supplier offers, and - low odour production, very good (high percentage) waste mass reduction, small footprints suitable for location on industrial estates.Listed below are the specifics on each: • odour is controlled by carrying out all odour producing activities in a covered building • high waste reduction is achieved because a high percentage of the material is combusted • small footprint local plants will be much easier to obtain planning permission for.O.K. So thats the positive side. What exactly is there regarding thenegative side for advanced thermal treatment? What type of weaknesses?The primary end-user complaint that weve noticed is high cost, and plantbreakdowns experienced with teething problems in such innovativeprototype plants.Finally, advanced thermal treatment (which is also described by some asadvanced thermal conversion) combines the processes of pyrolysis,gasification and high temperature oxidation.A lot of purchasers seem to have made the judgement that it is not reallyworth its cost. For anybody who has use for its capabilities though, and ifthere was more government encouragement and incentives, it wouldprobably be an excellent investment. It is worth many local authoritiestaking a closer look.Realize the best way to understand the large integrated wastemanagement investment projects now underway in the UK, to complywith EU waste management related regulations at this Advanced-Thermal-Technology web site at www.gasification4energy.com .Article Source:http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Steve_Last 12www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  13. 13. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012The Selection of New Waste Technologies as an Alternative toIncinerationTo have success its essential to prepare yourself well, set clearobjectives, work effectively and persevere. Whichever task or project youchoose, this tends to be true, but for new waste technology projects thisis particularly true, due to the difficult problems faced.But, its not that difficult really, if you break it into clear individual stepsas we have done in the article which follows.This is the one and only way to achieve success at your goal to promotenew waste technologies as an alternative to incineration, and suggest itcan be simplified to merely 5 simple steps:Step 1. For a UK alternative to incineration to be viable it will need to begood at the diversion of waste from landfill. Most importantly thediversion of organic/biological waste from landfill, to meet EuropeanUnion targets.You will need to consider what are these technologies and how will theyhelp to meet LATS regulation set for each local authority by centralgovernment to ensure that the UK as a whole will meet recycling targets.This will be a task of critical importance because the introduction of theLandfill Allowances Trading Scheme (LATS) in April 2005 has left all localauthorities with key decisions to make in terms of how they are going todivert enough biodegradable municipal waste (BMW) from landfill to meettheir LATS targets.Most UK local authorities have been using incineration after recycling anddiverting all but their residual waste, but alternatively they couldintroduce new waste technologies into their waste management processstream.However, as we have shown this type of solution brings with it a numberof questions. Not least, as we have already indicated we must ask whatare these technologies and how will they help to meet LATS?Make sure you do not overlook or by-pass this, because answering thesequestions is essential to select a viable new waste technology, and thestakes are high as unless the local authority meets its LATS target, it will 13www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  14. 14. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012be fined by the UK government. And, if nationally we do not meet thetargets overall, the EU will fine us as a nation.Step 2. Any adoption of a new waste technology must be able tosatisfactorily answer the question; What are the residuals and are theremarkets for these? This important step demands all your attention.Here is the way to do it right: Make sure that you select a new wastetechnology from which the residuals can be sold, if not at a profit, at aprice which helps pay for the extra cost of the waste technology which willprocess the waste.There are a few reasons this is often important. The principal one is nonew waste technology will be acceptable to the public and comply withLATS, or as a financial proposition, unless it produces residual materialswhich have a value and dont in the end have to be landfilled for the wantof an alternative disposal route.Step 3. Decide who will invest in the technologies. The reason for this willbe to that a private partner will be needed to implement any new wastetechnology, as the Council wont have the skills or money to go it alone.Additionally you will want to make sure that the partner is a solid andreliable company which holds the necessary skills and will pass thegovernments tests for the award of public investment, once the projectgets started.Step 4. Consider, whether the technologies receive planning permission,how long will this take and what are the issues likely to hinder thisprocess.That means, talking to the local authority planning experts and gaugingpublic opinion in the area.Step 5. How will the public perceive these technologies? Are they likely tocreate huge public debate? Also, will the preceding issues in combinationwith the last question all add up to a large list of unknowns which makeembarking upon the promotion of new waste technologies too risky forthe local authority to carry out. After all, it is not their role to speculate innew technologies that are largely unproven and may not work, potentiallydeveloping prototype plants and causing wastage of ratepayers money. 14www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  15. 15. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012Additionally, how do you get all those who are required to play a key rolein the decision-making process suitably informed to perform their roleseffectively?Finally, if you have followed the above suggestions closely, you canexpect to triumph over the down sides and achieve your goals. But, is itany wonder that many local authorities baulk at the difficulty of the taskof taking on an innovative new waste technology solution with all risks ofthe newness of these technologies, and instead go for incineration? Discover how to understand the waste technologies, existing, andproven like incineration and the new ways to process waste sustainablyby going to our Waste Technology site at www.waste-technology.co.uk .Article Source:http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Steve_Last 15www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  16. 16. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012Energy From Waste by Incineration Now Acceptable Since EU WIDEmissions Clean UpEnergy-from-Waste should no longer be coupled with outdated concernsabout pollution and in particular the discharge of trace quantities of toxicsubstances into the locality around an incinerator. In fact the WID, or togive it its true name, the European Union Waste Incineration Directive,acted as an important driver and milestone in the progress ofdevelopment of ever better clean-up processes for incineration plants.Modem Energy-from-Waste plants are equipped with state-of-the-art airpollution control systems (APC), and they do not any longer impose anyreal risk to the environment from emissions. The likes of the dioxin scaresof the sixties and seventies will not be repeated.EU emission regulations for incinerator have been in-place and strictlyenforced since the implementation of the WID toward the end of the1990, which was instrumental in setting stringent uniform EU wideemission limits.Now nobody can claim that any technological process will ever reach acompletely zero release, but negligible release of the relevant componentsin the emissions can be, and is being achieved.Let me explain a little about how this is being done.The first approach has been to install what might be called called front-end techniques. The purpose of these has been to greatly improve thecombustion process, control the cooling phase, and implement abatementtechnologies as early in the process as possible. So. modern incinerationtechnologies are now structured so that the first achievement has beenthe avoidance of the conditions, as far as is possible, which create thesetoxins within the combustion process.While some toxins are still produced the amount is greatly minimised. Thesecond achievement lies in the much improved technology used in thecleanup process on the flue gases after combustion, as they pass on theirway to the chimney. A wide range of micro-pollutants which areubiquitous in the environment and therefore present in all waste materialsare removed at this stage. 16www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  17. 17. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012Incinerator bottom ashes are of much reduced mass and volume, but it isimportant that these can be processed and disposed of sustainably, afterthe result of the combustion process. These contaminants in the ash needto be characterised carefully. Residual metals may be elevated, forexample. However, again by improving the combustion technology,modern incinerators do guarantee a very consistent and high quality ash.It has been most importantly the ability to achieve a reliably full burnoutof the waste, and better control other factors which determine the qualityof the bottom ashes, which has moved forward from the incinerators ofthe past, now no longer operating as a result of the WID.When we are looking at issues surrounding Energy from Waste plant ashquality and incinerator emissions generally it is also important to maintaina balanced perspective by considering normal practise and emissionslevels from industrial and domestic combustion. Incinerator emissionsmay actually now be much cleaner than their "natural" counterparts.Also comparing the uses to which todays bottom ashes are being put,against traditional sources of called "natural" building materials, showsthe superiority of incineration. Energy from Waste Plant bottom ashes arenow being be used, for example, as a substrate for road construction,where they replace what would otherwise be freshly quarried material.A number of countries which are known for their progressiveenvironmental policies have recognised that modern Energy-from-Waste(EfW) plants can be effective tools in reducing dioxins levels, and largenumbers of new EfW plants are planned and being built.Now, for any government or waste authority to put an over reliance onone waste treatment method would be dangerous. The other EU WasteDirectives recognise this and incineration clearly can and must only beimplemented as just one of the many waste technologies, which must bedeveloped in each area to implement the so called "waste hierarchy". Theintent of this is to ensure that options such as incineration, and ultimatelylandfilling as well, only come into play when all materials that can bedisposed by other more sustainable methods, such as re-use andrecycling, have already been applied to those parts of the waste flowwhich can be segregated out into those preferable waste streams.This is the ultimate solution (if good competitive markets becomeestablished in these materials), to the issue of handling MSW in aneconomical and sustainably sensible way. From this realisation, has in 17www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  18. 18. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012recent years, emerged the concept of Integrated Waste Management(IWM).IWM is the integration of different waste treatment methods to achievethe greatest combination of environmental and economic efficiency.Integrated Waste Management allows each of the established and manynew and emerging waste treatment and disposal methods to be usedwhen and where they are most valuable and can make the greatestcontribution.IWM endorses the major principles of waste prevention and itspractitioners value optimised recovery from what is in reality unavoidablewaste, by diversion from landfill such as by materials recycling,composting, and Energy-from-Waste, and finally but only as a last resort- the landfilling of waste.Landfill, which was for so long the accepted most likely destiny for wastehas now become firmly downgraded to being considered the least desiredoption, throughout the EU.In many EU member states the planning for waste management is withinthe legal authority of the regions, sub-regions and other devolved publicbodies. While at the turn of the twentieth century it would have been rareto find regions or even municipalities which had a fully integratedmanagement plan. Quite the reverse is now true.It is the case now that very ambitious targets have been set forincreasing the rate of recycling, and reducing the amount of waste sent tolandfill. Furthermore, strict targets have also been set for continuallyreducing the organic content of all wastes sent to landfill.Almost without exception, all local waste disposal authorities have beenforced to take action on waste. Furthermore, any that do fail to takeaction will soon incur heavy fines from the EU. These will be payable bythe local citizens, if they fail to meet the diversion targets in their area.Steve Evans is a waste management professional of more than 20 yearsexperience, working throughout the UK. The waste technologies which arecommonly used within integrated waste management policies are detailedon his leading web site which explains all the main waste technologies,such as mechanical biological treatment. 18www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  19. 19. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012Article Source:http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Steve_Last 19www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  20. 20. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012Waste Management JobsWaste management jobs are probably much more varied, and many areprobably better paid than you are probably aware. In the past wastemanagement jobs were synonymous with the "dustman" (refuse collectionoperative) and tip worker. If that is what you think, then you are a longway out of touch and I would suggest that you might want to consider ajob in the waste management industry.The old problem with waste management industry jobs in solid waste,that they were in the most part menial, mostly only suitable for youngmen, and low paid, is now a thing of the past due to the increasingamount of recycling and increasing use of other methods of diversionaway from landfill.The waste management industry workforce is expending fast to handlethe much more sophisticated methods now being used to recycle andwhen recycling is not possible to process and treat the waste peoplethrow out, to give it a value.If there is no way to make the waste more valuable due to its nature itnowadays will often be incinerated in technically complex incinerationplants and these demand skilled labor forces to operate and maintainthem.The waste management jobs being created in the many new wastetreatment facilities range from those that supervise the operation of theprocessing plant to the engineers and administrators that maintain theequipment and those that handle the many financial transactions inaccepting the waste processing it and being paid for the end productsproduced.Probably the lowest training requirement of all the waste managementjobs being created in these new waste treatment plants are for theoperatives needed to act as pickers on conveyors which carry the sourceseparated but still mixed (co-mingled) "clean" recycled materials that weall put in our recycling containers.Various types of paper are mixed when collected, glass may be collectedwith tins, and plastics arrive mixed in all sort of different type of plasticmaterials which have a much greater value once separated into separatetypes. That is where the pickers come in, and the job is simple and 20www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  21. 21. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012repetitive, lifting out the separate material off a conveyor as thehousehold recycled material moves past on the conveyor.The best paid and most sought after jobs will be those of the engineersand managers who run the operations at each Municipal Solid Waste, andCommercial and Industrial waste treatment plant whether this be a MRF(Materials Recycling Facility), an Incinerator (often also called a Energyfrom Waste (EfW) Facility, Waste to Energy Plant (WtE), or one of theother new waste technology plants which include: • Thermal and mechanical heat treatment plants including MSW autoclave facilities • Bio-waste plants including composting facilities and anaerobic digestion (AD) plants • Medical waste incinerators and autoclave facilities • Hazardous waste incinerators • Construction waste recycling depots • Commercial recycling plants.If you are considering a career in the waste management industry I wouldencourage you to find out more.I have worked in the waste management industry, both in the public andprivate sector, for over 20 years. I have found it to provide good stableemployment at reasonable pay.It is as such a rapidly developing industry you can expect newopportunities to develop and provide for your promotion. These newopportunities will come both in new ways of doing things, and also fromexpansion within the industry as more and more waste is diverted awayfrom landfills and processed for further use.I have found that waste management jobs are interesting, and that thepeople tend to be straightforward and very friendly. But, perhaps thebiggest recommendation for waste management jobs at present, with theeconomy suffering from recession, is that the industry is in generalremarkably well insulated from economic downturns.If you want to follow up on the idea of a waste management job but youare concerned that you lack confidence to attend an interview at whichyou will most likely be expected to know the basics of modern wastemanagement methods, I recommend that you visit my web site at 21www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  22. 22. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012Introduction to Waste Technology. This site is well worth a visit forEVERYONE planning to apply and be interviewed for a waste managementjob! Much more invaluable additional reading is available on that site.Article Source:http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Steve_LastWe hope that we have kindled your interest in the whole subjectof waste and resource management while reading this eBook.You are free to pass this eBook on to your friends, but NOT to sell it, andNOT to copy it and publish it.If you were charged for this eBook, you should not have been. If you paidfor this you should insist on being given your money back! 22www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com
  23. 23. A Green Guide to Better Waste Management 2012If you find this eBook interesting then we think that you are bound tofind our ebook even more so! "The Secrets Behind the New Waste Technologies Revealed"This ebook includes concise information on each of the most popular wastetechnologies, plus easy to understand "material flow charts" for each type ofwaste facility.This practical guide to what the technologies used in each type of wastefacility do, and how they do it, includes the pros and cons of each technology,and is ideal for anyone who needs a quick introduction to this rapidlyexpanding sector of the economy.Check out what’s on offer at: http://www.ebooks.waste-technologies.co.uk 23www.waste-technology.co.uk www.waste-technologies.co.uk www.gasification4energy.com