COMPOUNDING OF PLASTICS
MATERIALS FOR COMPOUNDING Resins Plasticizers Extenders/ Fillers Lubricants Catalyst/ Accelerators Stabilizers Colo...
RESINS Basic binding material 30 – 100% In plastics Two types of plastics          Thermoplastics   Thermoset plastics
PLASTICIZERS   Increase flexibility   Enhance Flow properties   E.g vegetable oil, camphor, esters of oleic, phthalic  ...
FILLERS/EXTENDERS/REINFORCEMENT To reduce the cost of finished plastics To improve hardness ,tensile strength ,water res...
LUBRICANTS   To impart the flawless glossy finish   Prevent plastic material from sticking   E.g waxes ,oils, soaps , s...
CATALYST/ACCELERATORS   Required only for thermosetting resins   Accelerates the polymerization reaction   E.g hydrogen...
STABILIZERS   Improve the thermal stability during processing   E.g White lead, Lead chromate, lead silicate
COLOURANTS/COLOURING AGENTS ORPIGMENTS   Imparts colour   Provide decorative appeal to the finished plastics   E.g Orga...
FABRICATION OF PLASTICS
DEFINITION   The process of making    various products of plastics    is known as fabrication of    plastics.
METHODS OF FABRICATION Compression Moulding Injection Mould Transfer Moulding Extrusion Moulding Blowing Thermoforming
COMPRESSION MOULDING                          P=100-500 atm                          T=100-200ºC                       ...
INDUSTRIAL METHOD
EXAMPLES
INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS
PROCESS CONDITIONS T=90-250ºC For Thermoplastics resin only
http://www.petervaldivia.com/technology/plastics/Injection-molding.php
EXAMPLES
TRANSFER MOULDING
EXAMPLES
EXTRUSION MOULDING                     The plastic granules are                     moved down by the feed                ...
The plastic extrusion iscooled by passing itthrough a water bath orjets of air.The extrusion continuesuntil it reaches its...
EXAMPLES
BLOWING
CONTD.. Bubble casting For thermoplastic materials only
EXAMPLES
THERMO FORMING   3 Dimensional articles   Combination of Extrusion and Compression    Moulding.   2 Steps: Heating & Fo...
VACUUM THERMOFORMING(HTTP://WWW.CUSTOMPARTNET.COM/WU/THERMOFORMING)
PRESSURE THERMOFORMING
MECHANICAL THERMOFORMING
EXAMPLES
CHEMISTRY OF THERMOPLASTICS &     THERMOSET PLASTICS
IMPORTANT PLASTICS Polyethylene Polystyrene Poly Vinyl Chloride Teflon Bakelite Nylon
POLYETHYLENE  Polymerization of ethylene                      1000 5000 atm                      150 250 C  n[CH 2     CH ...
PREPARATION (i) Hydrogenation Of Acetylene                         H 2 / Pd   CH          CH                    CH 2      ...
TYPES OF PE   LDPE                     BenzoylPeroxide                     80 250 C                     1500 atmn[CH 2   ...
Low Density PE             High Density PE Obtained at High P        Obtained at low P Branched Structure        Linea...
PROPERTIES OF PE   Rigid, waxy, white, translucent, non-polar material   Chemical resistance to strong acids, alkalis an...
ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
POLYSTYRENE Free radical addition polymerization Initiator is Benzoyl peroxide              Styrene           Polystyrene
PREPARATION              +   H2
PROPERTIES Transparent & light weight polymers Resistant to moisture Low M.P (90-100ºC) High electrical insulators Go...
APPLICATION
POLY VINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) Prepared by polymerization of VC Free radical chain polymerization Heated in water Emulsion w...
PREPARATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE                  60 80 C                  MetalChlorideCatalystCH   CH     HCl              ...
PROPERTIES OF PVC Colorless & odorless powder Chemically inert & nonflamable High resistance to light, Atmospheric Oxyg...
Polymers chem
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Polymers chem

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Polymers chem

  1. 1. COMPOUNDING OF PLASTICS
  2. 2. MATERIALS FOR COMPOUNDING Resins Plasticizers Extenders/ Fillers Lubricants Catalyst/ Accelerators Stabilizers Coloring Agent
  3. 3. RESINS Basic binding material 30 – 100% In plastics Two types of plastics Thermoplastics Thermoset plastics
  4. 4. PLASTICIZERS Increase flexibility Enhance Flow properties E.g vegetable oil, camphor, esters of oleic, phthalic acid
  5. 5. FILLERS/EXTENDERS/REINFORCEMENT To reduce the cost of finished plastics To improve hardness ,tensile strength ,water resistance, electrical insulating properties. Enhance mechanical strength E.g Asbestos-heat & corrosion resistance Carbon black-tensile strength in natural rubber Quartz ,mica -hardness Saw dust ,paper pulp ,wood flour, graphite, cotton fiber, pumice
  6. 6. LUBRICANTS To impart the flawless glossy finish Prevent plastic material from sticking E.g waxes ,oils, soaps , stearates, oleates
  7. 7. CATALYST/ACCELERATORS Required only for thermosetting resins Accelerates the polymerization reaction E.g hydrogen peroxide, benzoyl peroxide, metals like Cu,Pb, ammonia and its salts.
  8. 8. STABILIZERS Improve the thermal stability during processing E.g White lead, Lead chromate, lead silicate
  9. 9. COLOURANTS/COLOURING AGENTS ORPIGMENTS Imparts colour Provide decorative appeal to the finished plastics E.g Organic dyestuffs, opaque inorganic pigments
  10. 10. FABRICATION OF PLASTICS
  11. 11. DEFINITION The process of making various products of plastics is known as fabrication of plastics.
  12. 12. METHODS OF FABRICATION Compression Moulding Injection Mould Transfer Moulding Extrusion Moulding Blowing Thermoforming
  13. 13. COMPRESSION MOULDING  P=100-500 atm  T=100-200ºC  Thermoplastics as well as thermoset resins.
  14. 14. INDUSTRIAL METHOD
  15. 15. EXAMPLES
  16. 16. INJECTION MOULDING PROCESS
  17. 17. PROCESS CONDITIONS T=90-250ºC For Thermoplastics resin only
  18. 18. http://www.petervaldivia.com/technology/plastics/Injection-molding.php
  19. 19. EXAMPLES
  20. 20. TRANSFER MOULDING
  21. 21. EXAMPLES
  22. 22. EXTRUSION MOULDING The plastic granules are moved down by the feed screw and heated up. The molten plastic is forced through the series of dies.
  23. 23. The plastic extrusion iscooled by passing itthrough a water bath orjets of air.The extrusion continuesuntil it reaches itspredetermined length.It is then cut off tolength and the cycle ofoperations continues.
  24. 24. EXAMPLES
  25. 25. BLOWING
  26. 26. CONTD.. Bubble casting For thermoplastic materials only
  27. 27. EXAMPLES
  28. 28. THERMO FORMING 3 Dimensional articles Combination of Extrusion and Compression Moulding. 2 Steps: Heating & Forming Forming can be achieved by i) Vacuums Thermoformingii) Pressure Thermoforming iii) Mechanical Thermoforming
  29. 29. VACUUM THERMOFORMING(HTTP://WWW.CUSTOMPARTNET.COM/WU/THERMOFORMING)
  30. 30. PRESSURE THERMOFORMING
  31. 31. MECHANICAL THERMOFORMING
  32. 32. EXAMPLES
  33. 33. CHEMISTRY OF THERMOPLASTICS & THERMOSET PLASTICS
  34. 34. IMPORTANT PLASTICS Polyethylene Polystyrene Poly Vinyl Chloride Teflon Bakelite Nylon
  35. 35. POLYETHYLENE Polymerization of ethylene 1000 5000 atm 150 250 C n[CH 2 CH 2 ] [ CH 2 CH 2 ] Ethylene Polyethylene
  36. 36. PREPARATION (i) Hydrogenation Of Acetylene H 2 / Pd CH CH CH 2 CH 2 Acetylene Ethylene(ii) Dehydration of ethanol Dehydration Catalyst CH 3CH 2OH CH 2 CH 2 H 2O Ethanol Ethylene(iii) Dehydrogenation of ethane Dehydrogen ation Catalyst CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 H2 Ethane Ethylene
  37. 37. TYPES OF PE LDPE BenzoylPeroxide 80 250 C 1500 atmn[CH 2 CH 2 ] [ CH 2 CH 2 ]n HDPE Al ( C2 H 5 ) 3 120 C 6 7 atm n[CH 2 CH 2 ] [ CH 2 CH 2 ]n
  38. 38. Low Density PE High Density PE Obtained at High P  Obtained at low P Branched Structure  Linear structure Low density 0.91-0.925  High density 0.95- g / cm 3 0.97 g / cm 3 Low M.P(115ºC) Low Crystallinity  High M.P(135ºC) High Water & gas  High Crystallinity permeability  Low Water & gas Used for making toys , permeability mugs , carry bags.  For making milk bottles ,industrial containers , for domestic water & gas piping.
  39. 39. PROPERTIES OF PE Rigid, waxy, white, translucent, non-polar material Chemical resistance to strong acids, alkalis and salt solution Good electrical insulator Resistant to atmospheric conditions
  40. 40. ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
  41. 41. POLYSTYRENE Free radical addition polymerization Initiator is Benzoyl peroxide Styrene Polystyrene
  42. 42. PREPARATION + H2
  43. 43. PROPERTIES Transparent & light weight polymers Resistant to moisture Low M.P (90-100ºC) High electrical insulators Good chemical resistant Transmit light through curved section.
  44. 44. APPLICATION
  45. 45. POLY VINYL CHLORIDE (PVC) Prepared by polymerization of VC Free radical chain polymerization Heated in water Emulsion with catalyst under pressure.
  46. 46. PREPARATION OF VINYL CHLORIDE 60 80 C MetalChlorideCatalystCH CH HCl CH 2 CHCl Acetylene Vinyl Chloride
  47. 47. PROPERTIES OF PVC Colorless & odorless powder Chemically inert & nonflamable High resistance to light, Atmospheric Oxygen, Acids & Alkalis. Soluble in Chlorate

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