Digestive System Terms<br />Robert Adams<br />Biology 120<br />
Colonoscopy<br />Procedure where a gastroenterologist examines the inner lining of the large intestine, colon, and rectum....
Colonoscopy<br />Considered to be a semi invasive procedure<br />Examines the entire length of the colon (5 feet)<br />Use...
Colonoscopy<br />Mostly painless procedure performed on an outpatient basis<br />Usually takes less than 45 minutes<br />E...
ColonoscopyBowel Prep.<br />Bowel prep takes place at least 24 hours before the procedure.<br />Sometimes the doctor presc...
Colonoscopy<br />Patient will be given a sedative by IV.<br />Patient must lie on left side with knees drawn to the chest....
Colonoscopy<br />The colonoscope allows the doctor to add or remove water and air for additional cleansing of the colon.<b...
Colonoscopy<br />Risks<br />Inform Doctor if…<br />Bleeding<br />Infection <br />Nausea<br />Intestinal perforation<br />A...
ColonoscopyWhy?<br />Colorectal caner screening<br />Used to diagnose inflammatory bowel disease<br />Crohn’s disease<br /...
Hematochezia<br />The passage of fresh blood through the anus.<br />This blood is usually contained in the stool.<br />
Hematochezia<br />The color of the blood during rectal bleeding is an indication of the location of the bleed.<br />Blood ...
Hematochezia<br />The black looking blood in stool is called melena.<br />Melena is caused by blood being in the colon lon...
HematocheziaCauses<br />Burst blood vessels<br />Dysentery<br />Hemorrhoids<br />Diverticulitis<br />Colorectal cancer<br ...
Hernioplasty<br />Hernia repair surgery<br />Surgical operation for the correction of a hernia.<br />A hernia is a bulging...
Hernioplasty<br />There are many surgical procedures to correct hernias.<br />Hernioplasty specifically uses a synthetic m...
HernioplastyProcedure<br />During inguinal hernioplasty a single long incision is made in the groin area.<br />Patches are...
Hernioplasty<br />Who is at risk?<br />Symptoms<br />Pregnant women <br />People with family history<br />Patients sufferi...
Hernioplasty<br />Possible Complications<br />Babies are at risk for heart and lung complications<br />Reaction to anesthe...
Hernioplasty<br />Other methods<br />Tension repair – the edges of the defect are sewn back together without any reinforce...
Serum Bilirubin<br />Bilirubin<br />Serum Bilirubin<br />Yellowish pigment found in bile<br />Fluid made and broke down by...
Serum Bilirubin<br />How is it formed?<br />Characteristics<br />A small amount of old red blood cells are replaced by new...
Serum Bilirubin<br />Why would I be tested?<br />Normal Levels<br />Jaundice is the most common reason to check bilirubin ...
Serum Bilirubin<br />Causes for abnormal result<br />Many drugs can change the bilirubin levels in your blood.<br />Erythr...
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Digestive system terms

  1. 1. Digestive System Terms<br />Robert Adams<br />Biology 120<br />
  2. 2. Colonoscopy<br />Procedure where a gastroenterologist examines the inner lining of the large intestine, colon, and rectum.<br />Doctor takes pictures and tissue samples.<br />
  3. 3. Colonoscopy<br />Considered to be a semi invasive procedure<br />Examines the entire length of the colon (5 feet)<br />Used as a means of visual diagnosis<br />Checks for polyps or abnormal growths<br />
  4. 4. Colonoscopy<br />Mostly painless procedure performed on an outpatient basis<br />Usually takes less than 45 minutes<br />Everyone should have a colonoscopy by the age of 50<br />Patients should have a colonoscopy every 10 years after the age of 50<br />African Americans and patients with a family history of colon cancer should be tested sooner and more frequently.<br />
  5. 5. ColonoscopyBowel Prep.<br />Bowel prep takes place at least 24 hours before the procedure.<br />Sometimes the doctor prescribes a laxative or an enema.<br />Nothing should be ingested 6 hours prior to the procedure.<br />Bowel prep is the removal of solid wastes from the digestive tract.<br />A clear liquid diet is mandatory.<br />Water , Gatorade, fat free broth, and strained fruit juices are permissible.<br />
  6. 6. Colonoscopy<br />Patient will be given a sedative by IV.<br />Patient must lie on left side with knees drawn to the chest.<br />Doctor will insert a thin flexible lighted tube or the colonoscope into the anus until it reaches the cecum.<br />
  7. 7. Colonoscopy<br />The colonoscope allows the doctor to add or remove water and air for additional cleansing of the colon.<br />It transmits an image to a computer screen.<br />The design also allows instruments to pass through the channel of the scope to remove tissue.<br />
  8. 8. Colonoscopy<br />Risks<br />Inform Doctor if…<br />Bleeding<br />Infection <br />Nausea<br />Intestinal perforation<br />Abdominal pain<br />Bloating<br />Gas<br />Fever<br />Require blood thinners<br />Hypertension<br />Diabetes<br />Heart disease<br />Arthritis medications<br />Pregnant<br />
  9. 9. ColonoscopyWhy?<br />Colorectal caner screening<br />Used to diagnose inflammatory bowel disease<br />Crohn’s disease<br />Ulcerative colitis<br />Used to investigate changes in bowel habits<br />Rectal bleeding<br />Abdominal pain<br />Unexplained weight loss<br />
  10. 10. Hematochezia<br />The passage of fresh blood through the anus.<br />This blood is usually contained in the stool.<br />
  11. 11. Hematochezia<br />The color of the blood during rectal bleeding is an indication of the location of the bleed.<br />Blood from the anus , rectum, and the sigmoid colon tends to be bright red.<br />Blood from the transverse colon and the right colon tends to be a dark red.<br />Blood from the upper GI tract tends to be dark black.<br />
  12. 12. Hematochezia<br />The black looking blood in stool is called melena.<br />Melena is caused by blood being in the colon long enough for bacteria to start breaking it down chemically.<br />
  13. 13. HematocheziaCauses<br />Burst blood vessels<br />Dysentery<br />Hemorrhoids<br />Diverticulitis<br />Colorectal cancer<br />Inflammatory bowel disease<br />Ulcerative colitis<br />
  14. 14. Hernioplasty<br />Hernia repair surgery<br />Surgical operation for the correction of a hernia.<br />A hernia is a bulging of internal organs or tissue through a defect in the body cavity.<br />
  15. 15. Hernioplasty<br />There are many surgical procedures to correct hernias.<br />Hernioplasty specifically uses a synthetic mesh patch to reinforce the surrounding tissues.<br />Hernioplasty is considered to be a tension free repair.<br />
  16. 16. HernioplastyProcedure<br />During inguinal hernioplasty a single long incision is made in the groin area.<br />Patches are sown over the weakened area in the abdominal wall after the hernia is posted back into position.<br />
  17. 17. Hernioplasty<br />Who is at risk?<br />Symptoms<br />Pregnant women <br />People with family history<br />Patients suffering from obesity<br />Bulge in area on the side of the pubic bone<br />Heavy feeling in the groin area<br />Pain in the groin area when coughing, lifting, or bending<br />
  18. 18. Hernioplasty<br />Possible Complications<br />Babies are at risk for heart and lung complications<br />Reaction to anesthesia<br />Infection and bleeding <br />Nerve damage<br />Loss of blood supply to the scrotum resulting in testicular atrophy<br />Damage to the cord that carries sperm from testicles to the penis that results in inability to father children<br />Damage to the femoral artery or vein<br />
  19. 19. Hernioplasty<br />Other methods<br />Tension repair – the edges of the defect are sewn back together without any reinforcement or prosthesis<br />Laparoscopic repair - a telescope attached to a camera is inserted through a small incision that is made under the patient's belly button. The hernia defect is reinforced with a mesh and secured in position.<br />
  20. 20. Serum Bilirubin<br />Bilirubin<br />Serum Bilirubin<br />Yellowish pigment found in bile<br />Fluid made and broke down by the liver<br />A liver function blood test<br />
  21. 21. Serum Bilirubin<br />How is it formed?<br />Characteristics<br />A small amount of old red blood cells are replaced by new blood cells daily<br />Bilirubin is left over after these older blood cells are removed<br />Bilirubin is tested for in the blood and wastes.<br />Broken down by light <br />Bilirubin is responsible for the yellow color of urine and the color of feces as well.<br />
  22. 22. Serum Bilirubin<br />Why would I be tested?<br />Normal Levels<br />Jaundice is the most common reason to check bilirubin levels<br />If suspected of having liver or gallbladder disease<br />0.3 to 1.9 mg/ dL<br />
  23. 23. Serum Bilirubin<br />Causes for abnormal result<br />Many drugs can change the bilirubin levels in your blood.<br />Erythroblastosis<br />Hemolytic anemia<br />Transfusion reaction<br />Cirrhosis<br />Hepatitis<br />Cancer of the pancreas and gallbladder<br />Gilbert’s disease<br />gallstones<br />

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