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  1. 1. Rachel Martin, Leah Bordenga, Heather Kamback, Rachel Kehoe, Lauren Lyons, Rachel Bernstein OUT OF THE BOX 1
  2. 2. genetically modified foodTopic Statement: Since we live in the age of technology it is not surprising that some of our food is genetically modified. But what most people dont know are the positive and negative effects it has on our bodies and onsociety. This project will explore both sides of the argument, "Is Genetically Modified Food harmful or helpful?" 2
  3. 3. What is genetically modified food?Genetically modified foods (GM foods, or biotech foods) are foodsderived from genetically modified organisms (GMOs)•GMOs have had specific changes introduced into their DNA bygenetic engineering techniques.•Organisms are exposed to radiation or chemicals to create a non-specific but stable change.Other techniques by which humans modify food organisms include:•selective breeding•plant breeding•animal breeding•somaclonal variationThe term GM foods or GMOs is most commonly used to refer tocrop plants created for human or animal consumptionThese plants have been modified in the laboratory to enhancedesired traits such increased resistance to herbicides or improvednutritional content. 3
  4. 4. Why is it done?According to the World Health Organziation, Genetically-modified foods have the potential tosolve many of the worlds hunger and malnutrition problems. The initial objective for developingplants based on GM organisms was to improve crop protection.GM foods are developed and marketed because there is some perceived advantage either to theproducer or consumer of these foods.This is meant to translate into a product with a• lower price•greater benefit, in terms of durability or nutritional value.Initially GM seed developers wanted their products to be accepted by producers, so they haveconcentrated on innovations that farmers, and the food industry more generally, would appreciate. 4
  5. 5. How is it accomplished ?• Genetically modified foods are created using biotechnology to change their genetic materialTechniques include... o Benign bacterial or viral infection o Gene splicing o Gene "silencing" o Biolistics o Calcium phosphate precipitation o Electroporation 5
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  7. 7. Most common genetically modified foods-have you eaten any? Did you know that over 30,000• In 2010, 93% of Americas soybean products in yourcrops were modified to make them herbicide local grocery store are GM foods?resistant. Soy foods include: dressings,mayonnaise, soy flour & oil, breads, etc.Also, 93% of cotton crops(oil), and 75% rapeseed(canola) were modified to make them pesticide resistant. Other common foods include: Honey Papaya Squash Rice tomatoes Corn Tobacco PEAS Meat Potatoes 7
  8. 8. Benefits• Farmers benefit greatly from genetically modified food. • Spend less money on pesticides. • Crops are stronger. • Farmers gain more profit from GM food. • Before GM crops, farmers crops suffered from • Harsh weather conditions • Weeds • Bugs/animals 8
  9. 9. Benefits cont...• Surprisingly GM Food has health benefits!• Crops are modified to be more nutritional. o In developing countries, where nutrition is lacking, crops can be modified to contain the needed nutrients.• Example: Golden Rice o Enhanced with carotene to prevent Vitamin A deficiency in children in developing countries. o Vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness. 9
  10. 10. Benefits Video 10
  11. 11. • Antibiotic Health Risks HarmsHuman Resistance: • GM foods are often developed to fight off certain pesticides and herbicides-> higher risk that people who eat GM foods may be more resistant to antibiotics• New Diseases: • Viruses and bacteria are used in the process of modifying foods-> possibility that they could lead to the development of new diseases• Allergens and Toxins: possibility that those genetically modifying food crops •may unintentionally create a new allergen • ex-Soy Plant 11
  12. 12. Harms Environmental/Ecological Problems• Gene transfer to non-target species o transgenes may transfer from engineered crops into nearby plants-pollen is carried by wind, bees, and other pollinators o crop plants engineered for herbicide tolerance and weeds will cross-breed->”superweeds” • Unintended harm to other organisms o Transgenic pollen harms monarch larvae-laboratory study• Loss of biodiversity: o GM food can potentially cause damage to other organisms in the ecosystems where they are grown o If these organisms are killed off, it will lead to a loss of biodiversity in the environment and will put other organisms at risk by creating an unstable ecosystem 12
  13. 13. Government and regulationProposition 37Proposition 37 would: -Require labeling on raw or processed food sold to consumers if made fromplants or animals with genetic material changed in specific ways.-Prohibits labeling or advertising such food, or other processed food, as"natural," "naturally made," naturally grown," and "all natural."Similar proposals are also being formed in other states such as Vermont,Connecticut and Washington.Labeling of genetically modified foods has already been acted upon in over 60countries worldwide including most of Europe, Japan, China and India.In California there is a movement currently underway for the labeling of genetically engineered foods titled Proposition 37. 13
  14. 14. Government and regulationArgument in Favor -You have a right to know what is in your food-Food will be labeled accurately-Protecting your health as well as your familys will beeasier-There are no long-term health studies that have proventhat genetically engineered food is safe for humans-Prevents the misleading word "natural" on products thatare genetically engineered 14
  15. 15. Government and regulationArgument Against-Many believe it would mean higher food costs for both farmers and consumers-Opens the door for various lawsuits to ensue if labeling is incorrect or consumers come to harm from a product that was genetically modified. 15
  16. 16. How are genetically modified foods labeled Pros • Current Labeling Policy: FDA requires •Consumers right to know a GM food to be labeled if it contains a what they are eating different nutritional property, such as •Informed about health and environmental concerns allergins, or contains a toxicant beyond acceptable limits. •9 out of 10 Americans support it • The USA has proposed laws in over 10 states, but not enacted. Cons •Labeling would raise prices for all consumers •They already have an option: buy certified organic foods •For vegetarian consumers, no GM food on shelves contain animal genes 16
  17. 17. Bibliography "Genetically Modified Foods - Techniques." Home. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Oct. 2012.<>. GM Science Review First Report, Prepared by the UK GM Science Review panel (July 2003). Chairman Professor Sir David King, Chief Scientific Advisor to the UK Government, P 9 Disabled World News. "Genetically modified foods information including list of GM foods" by Mavis Butcher. 22September 2009. Web Oct. 20 2012. <> Colorado State University Extension.. "Labeling of Genetically Engineered Foods" by P. Bryne. September 2010.Web Oct. 19, 2012. <> Whitman, Deborah B. "Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful or Helpful?" Genetically Modified Foods: Harmful orHelpful? N.p., Apr. 2000. Web. 15 Oct. 2012. <>. Ackerman, Jennifer. "Food: How Altered?" National Geographic. N.p., n.d. Web. 23 Oct. 2012.<>. Henshaw, Ashley. "Pros And Cons Of Genetically Modified Foods." N.p., 21 Mar. 2012. Web. 20 Oct.2012. <>. Palfreman, Jon. "Harvest of Fear." PBS. N.p., 24 Apr. 2001. Web. 18 Oct. 2012.<>. 17
  18. 18. • "California General Election." Proposition 37 Arguments and Rebuttals. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2012.Bibliography continued.. <>. • General, Attorney. "California General Election." Proposition 37 Title and Summary. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Oct. 2012. <>. • • • • 18