Sistem urinari

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Sistem urinari

  1. 1. Urinary System
  2. 2. Functions of Urinary System • Kidneys carry out four functions – Filter nitrogenous wastes, toxins, ions, etc. from blood to be excreted as urine. – Regulate volume and chemical composition of blood (water, salts, acids, bases). – Produce regulatory enzymes. • Renin – regulates BP/ kidney function • Erthropoeitin – stimulates RBC production from marrow. – Metabolism of Vitamin D to active form.
  3. 3. Urinary System • Two Kidneys – Perform all functions except actual excretion. • Two Ureters – Convey urine from Kidneys to Urinary Bladder • Urinary Bladder – Holds Urine until excretion • Urethra – Conveys urine from bladder to outside of body
  4. 4. Complete System
  5. 5. Kidney general info • Lie against posterior abdominal wall at level of T12-L3. • Right kidney is lower than left kidney due to the shape of the liver. • Lateral surface of kidney is convex while medial is concave. – Concave side has a cleft – Renal Hilus – Inside hilus is Renal sinus • Where kidneys receive renal vessels and nerves.
  6. 6. Kidney External Anatomy • Average size – 12cm x 6cm x 3 cm • Weights 150 grams or 5 oz • Surrounded by three membranes (deep to superficial) – Renal capsule – fibrous barrier for kidneys. – Adipose capsule – fatty tissue designed for protection / stability. – Renal fascia – dense fibrous CTP anchors kidneys/ adrenals/ membrane 1 and 2 to surroundings.
  7. 7. Kidney Anatomy • • • • • • • • • Renal arteries and veins Renal cortex Renal medulla Nephron Renal pyramids (6-10) Renal papilla Calyx (ces) Renal pelvis Ureter
  8. 8. Kidney- External Anatomy • Lateral surface- convex • Medial is concave– Renal Hilum • Opening to Kidney – Renal Sinus • Space within hilus • Kidneys receive blood vessels and nerves.
  9. 9. Kidney Internal Anatomy I • Renal arteries and veins – Bring blood in and out of kidney • Renal cortex – Outer layer of Kidney • Renal medulla – Inner layer of Kidney • Nephron
  10. 10. Kidney Internal Anatomy II • Renal Pyramids • Renal Columns – Space between pyramids within the medula • Renal Papilla – Narrow end of pyramid • Calyx (ces) – Collecting tubes • Renal Pelvis – Collecting vessel prior to ureter
  11. 11. Human Kidney
  12. 12. Nephron • Blood processing unit which serves to produce urine • 1 million per kidney • Consists of a glomerulus and tubules
  13. 13. Nephron: Vascular System • • • • Afferent arteriole Glomerulus Efferent arteriole Peritubular capillaries – Capillary beds reabsorb in cortex • Vasa recta – Capillary beds reabsorb in medulla
  14. 14. Nephron • Tubular system – Glomerular Capsule – Proximal convoluted tubule – Loop of Henle (nephron loop) • Descending limb • Ascending limb – Distal convoluted tubule – Collecting duct
  15. 15. Nephron
  16. 16. Dynamic Human Gross Anatomy Urinary system Kidney Nephron
  17. 17. Urine Formation I • Glomerular filtration • Water, ions, amino acids, and glucose get into capsular space from blood • Proteins stay in blood – too big to leave capillaries.
  18. 18. Urine Formation II • Proximal convoluted tubule and Peritubular capillary • Na+ goes down gradient and brings glucose, amino acids, etc. back into blood stream (cotransport). • Reabsorbs about 65% of filtrate.
  19. 19. Urine Formation III Countercurrent Multiplication in the Nephron Loop • Descending limb • Ascending limb • Goes into medulla - increasing salt gradient • Water leaves • Fluid concentrates • Goes up toward cortex - decreasing salt gradient • Na+ pumped out • Fluid relatively diluted
  20. 20. Nephron Loop
  21. 21. Urine Formation IV • • • • Collecting duct Travels down into medulla Water leaves tubule and enters blood Urine becomes concentrated and enters renal papilla • ADH controls water channel • ADH – Antidiuretic hormone
  22. 22. Collecting Duct
  23. 23. Dynamic Human Urine Formation
  24. 24. Micturition • Ureters – 25 cm long – Enters on the floor of bladder • Urinary Bladder – – – – Muscular sac on floor of pelvic cavity Muscle layer formed by detrusor muscle Average bladder volume is 500 ml Max capacity is 700-800 ml
  25. 25. Micturition • Urethra – – – – – – Conveys urine out of body Female urethra – 3 - 4 cm Opens into external urethral oriface Lies between vaginal oriface and clitoris Male urethra – 18 cm 3 regions • Prostatic urethra – 2.5 cm • Membranous urethra – 0.5 cm • Penile urethra – 15 cm
  26. 26. Micturition Reflex Bladder with >= 200 ml of urine Sensory input to parasympathetic system Contraction of detrusor muscle and relaxation of internal urethral sphincter Relaxation of external urethral sphincter
  27. 27. Micturition
  28. 28. Kidney Stones • A hard granule of calcium, phosphate, uric acid and protein. • Form in renal pelvis and get lodged in pelvis or ureter. • Caused by urinary tract infections, dehydration, pH imbalances, or an enlarged prostate gland. • Treated with stone dissolving drugs, surgical removal, or lithotripsy (ultrasonic vibrations)
  29. 29. Dynamic Human Visualizing the Urinary System Intravenous pyelography Ultrasound
  30. 30. Dissection • Be able to identify layers of the kidney on human material • Be able to locate kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra on cat.

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