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Data Visualisation on Smart Watches

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A research presentation given at The University of St Andrews. The study is imperfect, but prompted discussion, which was great. Thanks for having me @SACHI.

Published in: Data & Analytics

Data Visualisation on Smart Watches

  1. 1. Data Exploration on Smart Watches Dr. Rachel Menzies University of Dundee
  2. 2. About Me Human Computer Interaction / UX • Interface design for Autism Spectrum Conditions and Intellectual Disabilities • Participatory design methods Technologies for Education • To support education • To innovate @Rachel_Menzies 1
  3. 3. The Explosion of Mobile 2
  4. 4. Challenges of designing for small screens • Small screen • “Fat-finger problem” • Limited screen real estate • Poor battery life • Less than one day of solid use • One handed interaction 3
  5. 5. Designing for Data Visualisation • Overview General context • Zoom and Filter Limit the amount of info displayed • Details on Demand Interactive, maintain context 4
  6. 6. Current Uses Timer Stocks Runtastic Nike+ 5
  7. 7. Current Uses 6
  8. 8. Background Increased use of smart watches 7http://www.eetimes.com/document.asp?doc_id=1326427 http://www.statista.com/statistics/271405/global-mobile-data- traffic-forecast/ Increased use of mobile data 1 EB= 1 billion GB
  9. 9. Future Uses • Smart home alerts • When alerted, can I explore the data and decide how to respond? • Places control in the hands of carers. • Biology labs • Providing info to lab technicians • Sports tracking • Elite and casual athletes 8
  10. 10. How can we explore data on a very small screen? 9
  11. 11. Exploring Data on a Large Screen Must data exploration mean a dashboard? Novice dashboard users prefer visualisations they are familiar with (bar charts, pie charts). Grammel, Tory & Storey (2010). How information visualization novices construct visualizations. Visualization and Computer Graphics, IEEE Transactions on, 16(6), pp943- 952 10
  12. 12. Moving to smaller screens Tablet http://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2014/07/01/sports/worldcup/usa- belgium.html?smid=tw-share&_r=2 11
  13. 13. Moving to smaller screens Mobile Phone http://www.brightpointinc.com/d3-mobile-web-application/ 12
  14. 14. Moving to smaller screens Smart Watches 13 ?
  15. 15. Where to focus first? • Focus on Bar Charts • Simple visualisation already used on smartphones • Variations available on smart watches, e.g. Activity by Apple 14
  16. 16. Focus Group • Some sketches drawn and presented to participants • n=5 • All used bar charts regularly • All used touch screen devices at least daily • What is the most suitable interaction? • Why? • …any new ideas? 515
  17. 17. 6 Initial Solutions One-by-One (Horizontal) Scrolling One-by-One (Vertical) Scrolling 616
  18. 18. 6 Initial Solutions 17 “Horizontal scrolling is most natural. It’s the same as scrolling through my photos” “Vertical would be useful if the bars are flat. Otherwise it doesn’t really make sense.” “How many bars are there? I don’t want to be scrolling all day. Can I set the number of bars I want to see?
  19. 19. 6 Initial Solutions Free Zoom 18 “This is most familiar… but it’s boring. Smartwatches should be cool and interactive and new”. “I don’t like that I can’t see the top of the bar. It’s meaningless”
  20. 20. 6 Initial Solutions Free Zoom with Fixed Axes 719 “This is good. I can presumably zoom in fairly far if I have bad eyesight … and I see the axes.”
  21. 21. 6 Initial Solutions Grid Zoom 20 “Too confusing I think. You’d need to remember stuff rather than maybe just look at it.” “I don’t like that second section. I don’t know what bar it is and what the value is.”
  22. 22. 6 Initial Solutions Fish Eye 821 “I guess it’s good that I can see everything, but is it something I can actually use in my job? Not a chance. Everything will get distorted.”
  23. 23. Focus Group Results • Unanimous favourite was One-by-One (Horizontal). • Small overview of the chart was useful. • Suggested “Favourites” for easy comparison. • Also favoured Free Zoom with Axes • Favoured being able to set custom zoom, but asked for overview. 922
  24. 24. Focus Group Results Overview: • Being able to view the entire chart at all times. Context: • Knowing what the data you can currently see actually means, i.e. what value does it have? 23
  25. 25. Initial Study • Three conditions rated most highly by focus group: • One-by-One (Horizontal) • Grid Zoom • Free Zoom with Fixed Axes • Control condition: • Free Zoom • Measures: • Time to complete tasks • Accuracy • NASA TLX 24
  26. 26. Initial Study • Participants: • n=14 (6 male, 8 female) • Average age = 24yrs • Materials: • Prototypes on iPhone (4cm screen width) • Bar chart was pre-determined 25
  27. 27. Initial Study Results 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 One-by-One Horizontal Grid Zoom Free Zoom Free Zoom w/ Fixed Axes Task 1 (maximum) Mean speed (sec) 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 One-by-One Horizontal Grid Zoom Free Zoom Free Zoom w/ Fixed Axes Task 2 (minimum) Mean speed (sec) 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 One-by-One Horizontal Grid Zoom Free Zoom Free Zoom w/ Fixed Axes Task 3 (average) Mean speed (sec) 26
  28. 28. Initial Study Results 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 One-by-One Horizontal Grid Zoom Free Zoom Free Zoom w/ Fixed Axes Task 1 (maximum) Accuracy 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 One-by-One Horizontal Grid Zoom Free Zoom Free Zoom w/ Fixed Axes Task 2 (minimum) Accuracy 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 One-by-One Horizontal Grid Zoom Free Zoom Free Zoom w/ Fixed Axes Task 3 (average) Accuracy 27
  29. 29. Initial Study Results 28
  30. 30. What does this mean? Tasks: • Best performing in tasks was One- by-One. • Worst in Tasks 1 & 2 was Free Zoom w/ Fixed Axes. • Worst in Task 3 was Grid Zoom. NASA TLX: • Best result was One-by-One. • Worst was Grid Zoom. 29
  31. 31. Bigger Questions / Next Steps Use a “better” bar chart. • All x axis labels. • More bars to increase complexity. Repeat study with greater participant range. 30
  32. 32. Bigger Questions / Next Steps • Addition of a “favourite” bar to aid comparison. • Comparison of different possibilities. 31
  33. 33. Bigger Questions / Next Steps Consider other chart types: • Are there additional challenges, e.g. for line charts? • What about multiple lines? • How to show trajectory? 0 20 40 60 80 100 0 20 40 60 80 100 32
  34. 34. Bigger Questions / Next Steps Do the zoom interactions transfer to other wearable devices such as Google Glass? 33
  35. 35. Conclusion / Recommendations • Overview and Context appear to be important in viewing bar charts on smart watches. • Do not include one without the other! The goal: • To create and evaluate a set of guidelines for exploring data visualisations on small screens. 34
  36. 36. Acknowledgements Thanks to: • Dr Alison Pease (Dundee) • Julia Roming (MSc UX Engineering) • All participants who took part in the studies 35
  37. 37. 36

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