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  1. 2. <ul><li>at least in the early stages of the country's history shows the substantial influence of that of English architecture , and to an extent United States architecture . At best, Australian architects sought to be early adopters of imported styles and to put local interpretations on them. Contemporary Australian architecture post World War II reflects the multiculturalism of Australian society and an emerging identity as a melting pot of ideas. </li></ul>Architecture of Australia
  2. 3. <ul><li>A 19th century engraving of an indigenous Australian encampment, representing the indigenous mode of life in the cooler parts of Australia before the arrival of Europeans </li></ul>History A typical Queenslander house in New Farm, Queensland . A unique regional style influenced by location and climate.
  3. 4. <ul><li>Collins Street, Melbourne . 19th century &quot;boom style&quot; buildings contrast with 20th century corporate skyscrapers in urban Australia. </li></ul>History
  4. 5. <ul><li>In the period before european settlement of Australia in 1788, evidence of permanent structures built by Indigenous Australians in Australia is limited, much of what they built was temporary for housing and other needs. As a British colony , the first European buildings were derivative of the European fashions of the time. Tents and wattle and daub huts preceded more substantial structures. Georgian architecture is seen in early government buildings and the homes of the wealthy. With the Australian gold rushes of the mid-19th century major buildings, largely in Sydney and Melbourne and to a lesser extent in regional capitals such as Ballarat and Bendigo were built in the style of Victorian architecture . Other significant architectural movements in Australian architecture include the Federation style of the turn of the 20th century, which Australia began to play with the idea of a &quot;style of our own&quot;, and the modern styles of the late 20th century which sought to reject historicism. </li></ul>History
  5. 6. <ul><li>Walter Burley Griffin was an American architect and landscape architect who played a key role in designing Canberra , Australia's capital city. A legacy of his unique building designs remains in a small number of Melbourne buildings and the Sydney suburb of Castlecrag . Castlecrag was planned by Griffin and also features a number of houses designed in his signature Organic Modernist style. </li></ul><ul><li>Like elsewhere in the world, socio-political factors have played their roles in shaping Australian architecture. During the early 20th Century, cities across Australia had placed building height limits, typically 150 feet (45 m), thus hampering the development of American-style skyscrapers until the limits were lifted in the late 1950s. Likewise the popular notion of the &quot; Australian Dream &quot;, in which families seek to own their free-standing houses with backyards, meant that high-density housings were rare in Australia until the end of the 20th Century. </li></ul>History
  6. 7. <ul><li>Significant concern was raised during the 1960s, with green bans and heritage concerns responding to the destruction of earlier buildings and the skyscraper boom, particularly in Sydney. Green bans helped to protect historic eighteenth century buildings in The Rocks from being demolished to make way for office towers, and prevented the Royal Botanic Gardens from being turned into a carpark for the Sydney Opera House . In Melbourne a battle was fought to preserve historic Carlton, Victoria from slum reclamation for public housing , while gentrification played a big part in the suburb's salvation. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 21st century, many Australian architects have taken a more Avant-garde approach to design, and many buildings have emerged that are truly unique and reflective of Australia's culture and values. As a result, many Australian practices are beginning to expand their influence overseas rather than the reverse which was often the case. </li></ul>History
  7. 8. <ul><li>Internationally, the Sydney Opera House is the most recognised symbol of Sydney </li></ul>Australian architectural styles The Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne, built for the 1880s World's Fair is on the World Heritage Register
  8. 9. Australian architectural styles Parliament House Canberra: The main entrance and the flag
  9. 10. Australian architectural styles <ul><li>Architectural styles have been basically exotic and derivative. Only recently have climate and environment played a major role. </li></ul><ul><li>During the nineteenth century, Australian architects were inspired by developments in England . From the 1930s on, North American and International influences started to appear. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 2 main categories: &quot;Residential&quot; and &quot;Non-Residential&quot;. Residential styles are the most prolific and account for the majority of the buildings constructed in Australia. </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings were often heavily influenced by the origins of their patrons, hence while the British would like to be reminded of their Gothic churches and Tudoresque cottages of a perfect England , the Dutch , German , Polish , Greek , Italian and other nationalities would also attempt to recreate the architecture of their homelands. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Australian architects <ul><li>Significant architects include: </li></ul><ul><li>Harry Seidler </li></ul><ul><li>Robin Boyd </li></ul><ul><li>Roy Grounds </li></ul><ul><li>Francis Greenway </li></ul><ul><li>Glenn Murcutt </li></ul><ul><li>Joseph Reed </li></ul><ul><li>John James Clark </li></ul><ul><li>Nonda Katsalidis </li></ul><ul><li>Significant firms include: </li></ul><ul><li>Bates Smart </li></ul><ul><li>Denton Corker Marshall </li></ul>
  11. 12. Notable structures <ul><li>the Sydney Opera House (the original design being by Jorn Utzon ) </li></ul><ul><li>the Royal Exhibition Building in Melbourne </li></ul><ul><li>Federation Square , Melbourne </li></ul><ul><li>Parliament House, Canberra . </li></ul>
  12. 13. Samples: (Victoria) <ul><li>Melbourne </li></ul>Ormond College, Melbourne University Melbourne GPO Olderfleet Building
  13. 14. Samples: (Victoria) <ul><li>Melbourne </li></ul>The Rialto Government House The Block shopping arcade
  14. 15. Samples: (Victoria) <ul><li>Melbourne </li></ul>Shops in Inter-War Old English style, Toorak Como, Como Park, South Yarra Rippon Lea Hotel Victoria, St Kilda
  15. 16. Samples: (Victoria) <ul><li>Melbourne </li></ul>Parliament House Shrine of Remembrance Lycon Buildings (1888) Flinders Street Station
  16. 17. Samples: (Victoria) <ul><li>Melbourne </li></ul>Home Exhibition Building
  17. 18. Samples: (Victoria) <ul><li>Ballarat </li></ul>Ballarat Trades Hall Ballarat Town Hall Ballarat Post Office
  18. 19. Samples: (Victoria) <ul><li>Ballarat </li></ul>Commercial buildings Commercial buildings Old Colonists' Hall Commercial buildings
  19. 20. Samples: (Victoria) <ul><li>Sale </li></ul>Court House, Princes Highway
  20. 21. Samples: South Australia <ul><li>Adelaide </li></ul>Adelaide Town Hall Carclew Greek Orthodox Church, Salisbury
  21. 22. Samples: South Australia <ul><li>Adelaide </li></ul>St Peter's Cathedral Carrick Hill St Clement's Church, Enfield
  22. 23. Samples: South Australia <ul><li>Adelaide </li></ul>Ayre's House State Library of South Australia St Peter's College St Peter's College
  23. 24. Samples: South Australia <ul><li>Adelaide </li></ul>Old Government House, Bel Air Park Hackney Hotel (1883) Botanic Hotel, North Terrace Festival Centre
  24. 25. Samples: South Australia <ul><li>Adelaide </li></ul>Eynesbury House Home,Glenelg Tea Rooms, Semaphore
  25. 26. Samples: South Australia <ul><li>Gawler </li></ul>Commercial Building Commercial Building House
  26. 27. Samples: South Australia <ul><li>Gawler </li></ul>The Mill Town Hall
  27. 28. Samples: South Australia <ul><li>Barossa Valley </li></ul>Hotel building, Tanunda Lutheran Church, Tanunda Arts and Crafts Museum, Tanunda
  28. 29. Samples: South Australia <ul><li>Kangaroo Island </li></ul>Home, Penneshaw
  29. 30. Samples: QUEENSLAND <ul><li>Brisbane </li></ul>Land Administration Building Town Hall
  30. 31. Samples: QUEENSLAND <ul><li>Brisbane </li></ul>Former Town Hall, South Brisbane General Post Office State Parliament House Customs House
  31. 32. Samples: QUEENSLAND <ul><li>Brisbane </li></ul>house house house house
  32. 33. Samples: QUEENSLAND <ul><li>Rockhampton </li></ul>Home, Rockhampton Home, Rockhampton Restored building, Rockhampton Customs House, Rockhampton
  33. 34. Samples: QUEENSLAND <ul><li>Townsville </li></ul>Great Northern Hotel Customs House Customs House