Captures vividly the courage of the Olympic runnner. The story makes the point far more vivid. Just like coming up with a story
Expert- can give student speeches credibilityPeer- more personal viewpoint on an issueQuote when it is brief, conveys speaker’s meaning or is eloquentParaphrase when wording of quote is obscure or longer than 2-3 sentences
Stand up and support your topic with either an example, testimony or statisticThe testimony and the statistic can be made up
• Specific case referred to inBrief examples passing to illustrate point Extended • Longer and more detailed examples to illustrate pointHypothetical • Describes an imaginary or examples fictitious situation
Changes in technology have made it possible fordoctors to work wonders that once seemedimpossible. Roger Charter, for example, lost bothhis feet when they were crushed in a truckaccident. Now he has new feet – made of aspringy plastic alloy that duplicates a normalarch.
In the history of the Olympic Games, there havebeen many shining stars. Among them was aEuropean girl. With the lapse of time, her namewas faded from memory, yet her unbendingspirit shall never perish. It was she whohighlighted the Olympic Creed…
It’s a brisk fall morning. The leaves arebeginning to fall and the smell of the grill is inthe air. You can hear the band playing faintly inthe distance and the sight of the crisp greenfield is on your brain. It’s college game day hereat Purdue and you could not be more excited.
As a group come up with an example for each of the points below:• Receiving the new iPhone can be quite the task.- extended example/narrative• Going to a carnival can be a fun experience. - hypothetical example• The food options offered at Purdue dining halls are less than ideal- brief example
Use to clarify Use to reinforce Use examples to personalize Make your examples vividPractice delivery so you can maintain eye contact
Can be stacked in Often cited inCan clarify and order to show passing tosupport ideas magnitude of an strengthen points issue
To show the dangers posed by running red lights: “According to the U.Sdepartment ofTransportation, 200,000 people are injured andmore than 800 are killed every year in the U.S. due to motorists who run red lights.”
To show the dangers of chewing tobacco aspeaker could site the American Cancer Society with a statistic of how many people receive cancer from doing so
Are the statistics representative?Are statisticalmeasures used correctly? Are the statistics from a reliable source?
Sample should be big enoughSample should represent the whole populationExample: A student chooses to randomly ask 10 other students if they favor oroppose the appointment of Governor Mitch Daniels as our new president. If 6approve and 4 oppose, could you state that 60% of students approve of Daniels?
Mean Mode Median Middle number in a Number that occursAverage value of a group of numbers most frequently ingroup of numbers (arranged highest a group of numbers to lowest)
Apply the mean, median and mode to both sets of numbers Group A Group B 7,500 5,400 6,300 5,400 5,000 5,000 4,400 2,300 4,400 1,700
• Group A – Mean:5,520 – Media: 5,000 – Mode: 4,400• Group B – Mean: 3,960 – Median: 5,000 – Mode: 5,400
Use statistics to quantify your ideas Use statistics sparingly Identify the source Explain your statistic Round off complicated statistics Use visual aides to clarifyStats can be found in many places
The quotations or paraphrases used to support a point Expert testimony Peer testimony Difference between quoting & paraphrasing Tips for using testimony
Testimony from people who are recognized experts in the their field Helpful to Important to students whouse when topic are rarelyis controversial looked at as experts
In Julia Wang’s speech about how to make Social Securitymore equitable for younger taxpayers, she want toconvince her audience to accept her ideas. As she is not anexpert on this subject, she quoted a wide range of expertswho agreed with her—Arizona Senator John McCain;Jeffrey Sachs, a Harvard economics professor; former U.S.Social Security Commissioner Dorcas Hardy, and so on. Byciting the views of these experts—some of whom might beexpected to disagree with her point of view—Julia madeher speech much more persuasive.
Testimony from Gives a more personalordinary people with viewpoint on an issuefirsthand experience Conveys feelings, knowledge and insight
Which testimony is more persuasive on the subject ofbarriers faced by people with physical disabilities?• “I believe that people with physical disabilities havetough life. They usually be discriminated by others andsuffer unequal experiences.” — from a doctor• “When you are in a wheelchair, people don’t talk to you.Perhaps they think crippled legs mean a cripples mind.But whatever the reason, they treat you like a thing.” —from a person whose legs are paralyzed
Quote- testimony that is presented word for word Paraphrasing- testimony that restates orsummarizes sources ideas
More effective More effective thenMore effective than paraphrasing than paraphrasing when the quoteparaphrasing when conveys is eloquent, when brief the speaker’s witty or meaning compelling
Use when Use when wording of quotation is quotation is longer than two obscure or or threecumbersome sentences
Quote or paraphrase Use testimony from accurately qualified sources• Don’t misquote • Example: not all• Do not violate the celebrities are meaning of your qualified to paraphrase endorse certain• Do not quote out of products context
Identify the people you Use testimony from are quoting/ unbiased sources paraphrasing• Careful listeners are • Name the person & suspicious of opinions sketch their from biased sources qualifications before• Using testimonies from presenting the credible, competent, testimony objective sources could • This is an important persuade your audience ethical responsibility
John Silber, Chancellor of Boston University andChairman of the Massachusetts Board of Education,remarks: “It is quite clear that remarkable competencein a language could be achieved in three years—if theseyears are the ages three, four, and five.”
Decide which points on the given hand out are examples, testimony or statisticsThere may be some points that are not a good use of example, testimony or statistic at all!
Each of the statements on your paper violates atleast one of the criteria for effective supporting materials discussed in the chapter. As a group, identify the flaws (or flaws) in each statement.
Examples – help Statistics – draw vivid numerical dataimages to ideas Effective way to Brief examples clarify & support ideas Make sure they are Extended representative, examples/narrative correct & reliable Hypothetical example
Testimony – quotations/paraphrases used tosupport a point• Expert testimony• Peer testimony• Quoting vs. paraphrasinghttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YTjaYaORCKo