From Rob Simpson, The Cherwell School, Oxford (Thank you Rob!)
The vast majority of answers to this question centered on the fact that using the language for a real purpose will involve being able to talk spontaneously. The obvious conclusion to be drawn is that if they are therefore a) not doing any spontaneous speaking in their lessons or b) not feeling that they are getting better at speaking 'without a script' then they are not in their lesson time learning what they need to know to use language in the real world. The implications for motivation are apparent! Other interesting responses - the link between speaking spontaneously and getting more confident plus the the other element of 'real' - students feel that what they can do without notes/preparation is what they 'truly' know. The suggestion is that what they can only do either from notes or after having a week to memorise is NOT real knowledge.
1) Around 2/3 students answered this question by stating something like: &quot;They would cope really well because they would speak confidently and spontaneously really easily' (no idea/unrealistic) 2) Of those that did answer more usefully, there was still not a clear sense of 'how' i.e. strategy use 3) Most answers stress fluency as key 4) Fewer mention accuracy 5) Top set students most likely to mention accuracy AND fluency together 6) A few mention quality of language, including range of vocabulary, tense use, opinions, extended answers - particularly Year 10 learners and 9 top sets 7) Attributes of a confident learner mentioned were: risk-taking, not afraid of mistakes, responds readily, good pronunciation 8) Strategies mentioned (very few answers but very good!) were: listen carefully to pick out key words and understand the question, take time to think, use words and structures they know, ignore mistakes and keep going, use gestures and facial expression to help support meaning
Year 7 Talking frame
Year 7 Talking frame
Year 8 Talking frame
Year 9 Talking frame – looks more sparse than the year 8 one but this is because there is less supporting structure and more freedom, which increases the difficulty.
Rather than do this as a ‘wander around the class’ task which can become a bit aimless (at least with my own classes this has been the case!) the suggestion would be to do it as a class speaking line activity. For the first ‘round’ of 3 minutes the questions could be displayed for reference on the white board. Students have a small slip with the 5 categories from slide 2 next to which they can note the name of the first person who says ‘yes’ to the question. The teacher decides when the group moves on, as usual with speaking lines, but making sure that it is brief enough to only give enough time either for the whole 5 questions or fewer than 5, and not to give longer than this or students will run out of questions.
Pupils have just learnt um..zu… and wenn clauses in the context of learning about Austria. This exercise also revises all tenses and modals as well as question-forming.
Try to actually let them go on for as long as they can- some in my class managed 12 minutes of discussion in German and were really pleased with themselves. This is a good one for building confidence as they are not restricted- they can say what they can and want to.
The conditions or ‘targets’ can be many and varied. It ALMOST doesn’t matter as the point of putting a condition there is to cause students to think their sentences through carefully as they build them. It makes them much more aware of what they’re saying. And making a sentence of exactly 8 words will involve usually a very short clause with ‘weil’ or two clauses linked with ‘und’ or additional details like when and where. So they focus on different ways to make their sentences longer. It also works well to set >9 words or <5 words at times too.
Pictures and task taken from ASSET Breakthrough speaking task – grade 3
Picture A is Asturias - picture B is Almería in Andalucía. Would be useful to ask students to guess where these photos were taken. I would imagine that most would think that B is Spain but not A. Good to dispel myths that Spain is all like it is on the south coast!
As soon as learners have done the preterite, this sort of talking task is good for developing talk in the past. Again, switching to ask learners where they didn’t go, how they didn’t travel etc.. will make the task much more spontaneous and give more scope for learners to give different answers
This routine of 7 questions is one that I think will help prepare students to be able to respond more spontaneously particularly in Picture-based discussion tasks in the new GCSE (and obviously also in the other types of task too) There are not meant to be right answers to all, if any, of these questions and a couple of the questions might seem a bit odd but they do help to draw out a lot of different ideas, using a variety of structures and time frames that can be readily adapted to any picture.
Task setting The awarding bodies will provide tasks, but you may customise these and make them more relevant to your own students. Alternatively you may devise tasks of your own, in line with awarding body guidelines. You could, for example: base a task on a particular topic or theme that interests your students (see the examples Pippa, Trishna, Sarah, Alex and Alfie) relate a task to your local community or to a geographical area with which the students are familiar (see the examples Finn, Rachel) refer to actual events or experiences that are of interest to your students (see the examples Micha, Emma, Sushma) draw on cross-curricular links and cultural aspects so that the maturity level of the task is appropriate for your students (see the examples Tim, Kevin, David, Tom and Vithuran) set a task in a work-related context (see the examples Mateusz, Kirandeep, Meera and Sareena). When selecting, adapting or designing tasks, consider these points: Is the task something that will engage my students? Does the task arise naturally from the work my students are doing, or might it feel like a ‘bolt-on extra’? Does the task provide appropriate challenge for my students? For higher attaining students, you can customise tasks to make them more demanding and improve access to higher grades. The same tasks can be adapted to ensure accessibility for lower attaining students, so that they are able to do their best. Is the task accessible to all students, including any students with disabilities? (Your awarding body can advise on access arrangements for students with special needs.) Am I making good use of opportunities to customise tasks, for example by referring to local circumstances, or topical issues or aspects of the culture, life and traditions of target language countries or communities? Is the task manageable for me? Would it be possible to record it if necessary? Should I provide a stimulus in English or in the target language? What are the pros and cons of these? For example, an English stimulus may, initially, appear accessible, but may require unfamiliar or complicated vocabulary. A target language stimulus may, initially, appear demanding, but may actually be supportive because it provides key words and ‘pointers’. On the other hand, students won’t gain credit for material that they merely ‘read’ from the stimulus. You’ll need to decide what is best for you and your students. (Note that your awarding body may have specific requirements relating to the language, length and nature of any stimulus used.) Does the task allow my students to meet the marking criteria laid down by the awarding body? For example, does it let them demonstrate the ability to engage in dialogue, to show fluency, spontaneity, a range of linguistic structures, and so on? Read your awarding body’s marking criteria carefully to make sure that your tasks allow your students to provide the right kind of evidence and to attain the highest mark bands that reflect their linguistic ability. Under the new regulations, teachers will mark the speaking assessments, so it will be important to make sure that your tasks can be readily assessed using your awarding body’s mark scheme. Consider whether the marking criteria fit your tasks, and whether you can apply the mark scheme without undue difficulty.
Task taking Timing of assessments The awarding bodies allow for assessments to be taken at various points throughout the GCSE course. Make sure you’re aware of the guidelines and requirements of your awarding body, and choose the best times for assessments. The number of students assessed at one time This DVD contains examples of students being assessed in pairs or groups as well as individually. Consider carefully the comments from students, teachers and examiners in the examples on this DVD before deciding how to set up each task. Your awarding body may have specific requirements in this respect. Location for assessments Tasks can take place in a location away from the classroom, but could also be conducted as part of a lesson. You will need to consider the pros and cons of each arrangement. Most students find speaking assessments stressful, so try to put them at their ease as far as possible. If you’re conducting the assessment away from the normal lesson, think about the seating arrangement, and try to make any recording equipment as inconspicuous as possible. If you’re thinking of doing it as part of a lesson, make sure that students have had previous experience of this kind of activity. If there’s a choice, let students decide what they’d prefer. Watch the students’ comments and read the commentaries for the views of students featured on this DVD. Release of stimulus material to candidates Awarding bodies give guidance about how far in advance of an assessment a candidate may see the stimulus material. You should consider what kind of preparation you need to do with students before giving them the actual stimulus, how much preparation they need to do on their own, and how much time this will take. In the examples on this DVD, inadequate preparation was the most common reason students didn’t always perform as well as they might have. Length of assessments Awarding bodies give guidance on this, including setting a minimum duration. In the examples on this DVD, some activities were too short, limiting the evidence on which to judge students’ performance. You need to make sure that each student has enough opportunity to demonstrate what they can do, so that they get a mark that reflects their ability.
Task marking You should refer to the specific marking guidance provided by your own awarding body and familiarise yourself with the marking criteria. You can use the examples on this DVD to practise applying the marking criteria. Marking ‘live’ or from a recording? In some of the examples on this DVD, the students were recorded and the marking was done later; in others, the teacher marked at the same time as conducting the test, with or without making a recording. You can decide what’s best for you, but bear in mind that you’ll need some recordings for standardisation purposes (and, possibly, for external moderation). Your decision will depend partly on the nature of the task and the extent to which you’re an active participant. With some tasks, it may be possible to assess at the same time as conducting the test; with others your own involvement in a discussion or interaction may mean that it’s better to mark later from a recording. Some teachers feel that, if they mark all their assessments from recordings in a single ‘sitting’, they can be more consistent in applying the marking criteria. Some like to mark as soon as possible after the assessment; others prefer to come back to the marking later. Standardisation If more than one teacher assesses students in your school, you’ll need to build in time for internal standardisation before you send off samples to your awarding body. Standardisation shouldn’t mean one teacher imposing their standard on others, but should be a professional dialogue in which you listen to a number of your students, covering a range of attainment, and reach a consensus. The aim is that all teachers have a common understanding of the marking criteria and how to apply them consistently. Feedback from the awarding bodies should, over time, enable teachers to develop their skills in this important area. External moderation The awarding bodies will provide guidance about submitting samples for external moderation. Find out at the start of the course what their requirements are, and make sure that you make the necessary recordings.
http://orderline.qcda.gov.uk/bookstore.asp?FO=1169415&Action=Book&ProductID=9781847219251&From=SearchResults In March 2009, all state secondary schools were sent a QCA DVD entitled GCSE Modern Foreign Languages: controlled assessment of speaking – Guidance for teachers . Free copies of the DVD can be obtained via www.orderline.qca.org.uk (order reference: QCA/09/4138). As part of your preparation you may wish to consult the DVD's 'Guidance' section, reproduced in Appendix A of this document
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Teaching spontaneity!?! The new GCSE speaking exam Joined Up! Bringing it all together Rachel Hawkes [email_address] www.rachelhawkes.typepad.com/linguacom
<ul><li>To give a brief overview of the main changes to the GCSE specification </li></ul><ul><li>To look at implications for the way we teach speaking </li></ul><ul><li>To listen to a sample GCSE speaking test and assess using new criteria </li></ul><ul><li>To share ideas and practice for curriculum planning and assessment organisation and management </li></ul>Aims of this session Rachel Hawkes
“ Across all phases speaking is the least well developed of all the skills. Students’ inability to be able to say what they want to say in a new language has a negative impact on their confidence and enthusiasm .” ‘ When required to speak at greater length or in new situations, [students’] accuracy and fluency deteriorate, partly because their grasp of structure is usually less secure than their retention of vocabulary .’ “ ...it was much rarer for reading or listening to be used to stimulate discussion and communicative activities .” “ A further hindrance to speaking fluently was that sound-spelling links not been taught well .” “ Overall, there was insufficient emphasis on helping students to use the language spontaneously for real situations . Consequently, too few students could speak creatively, or beyond the topic they were studying, by making up their own sentences in an unrehearsed situation . Several students said that being able to say what they wanted to say would improve their enjoyment.” The changing landscape of languages Rachel Hawkes
Reasons to focus on speaking new Ofsted framework new secondary curriculum re new ed framework new GCSE “ Employers want conversational ability, which will give a good impression, help to build relationships and make new contacts.” Extract from a House of Lords Debate, 3 December 2009 Are there other things that you would like to be able to say in an unplanned situation which you either haven’t learned in class yet or have not fully understood? I just want to talk fluent Spanish Rachel Hawkes
<ul><li>Strengthening of requirement that contexts and purposes should be relevant to candidates’ likely interests, correspond to their level of maturity and relate to the culture of countries where the target language is spoken </li></ul><ul><li>Some choice of context or purpose for speaking and writing tasks, including the possibility for centres to propose a context or purpose of their own </li></ul><ul><li>Controlled assessments 60%: speaking and writing with up to 10% allowed for listening/reading </li></ul><ul><li>Range for weighting of Assessment Objectives (20-30%) </li></ul><ul><li>No limit on proportion of marks for responses in English in listening and reading comprehension tests </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions to candidates can be in English </li></ul><ul><li>Tiering to be retained </li></ul><ul><li>Short courses for either L&S or R&W </li></ul><ul><li>Some changes to grade descriptions (to be confirmed) </li></ul><ul><li>Some changes to grammar lists for French, German & Spanish </li></ul>GCSE: revised subject criteria for MFL taken from Chris Maynard presentation 2008
<ul><li>GCSE subjects will have 0%, 25% or 60% CA </li></ul><ul><li>Percentage fixed for each subject, not optional </li></ul><ul><li>MFL has 60% CA, covering S & W with up to 10% allowed for L/R </li></ul><ul><li>Minimum two tasks for each component (S & W) </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks must require candidates to use language for different purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Three possibilities for schools: </li></ul><ul><li>- Use exemplar tasks provided by awarding body </li></ul><ul><li>- Adapt awarding body tasks </li></ul><ul><li>- Design your own tasks within defined parameters </li></ul>GCSE controlled assessment (1) taken from Chris Maynard presentation 2008
<ul><li>Writing </li></ul><ul><li>“ Informal supervision” of preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Awarding body indicates what teacher support is allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates must complete work independently under controlled conditions </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates are permitted access to a dictionary and may refer to limited notes (but not to an earlier draft) </li></ul><ul><li>Awarding body indicates required length (min & max) </li></ul><ul><li>Awarding body marks all candidates’ work </li></ul>GCSE controlled assessment (2) taken from Chris Maynard presentation 2008
<ul><li>Speaking </li></ul><ul><li>“ Informal supervision” of preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Awarding body indicates what teacher support is allowed </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates must provide an individual response, but they may work with others, eg in a conversational group </li></ul><ul><li>Candidates may refer to limited notes </li></ul><ul><li>Awarding body indicates required length (min & max) </li></ul><ul><li>Teachers to assess using awarding body mark scheme </li></ul><ul><li>A sample of candidates to be recorded for external moderation purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Exemplification and Training to be provided </li></ul>GCSE controlled assessment (3) taken from Chris Maynard presentation 2008
<ul><li>60% GCSE now under teacher control </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Active’ knowledge to be tested can be determined by the teacher </li></ul><ul><li>Timing of assessments flexible </li></ul><ul><li>Content of assessments can be centre-devised or chosen from ‘best-fit’ themes </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to tailor KS4 to follow on from KS3 </li></ul><ul><li>60% untiered – differentiation by outcome </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity for learner choice in assessment </li></ul>Benefits of new GCSE Rachel Hawkes
Challenges of controlled assessment Rachel Hawkes <ul><li>What are the implications of controlled assessment for teachers? </li></ul><ul><li>We will need to: </li></ul><ul><li>re-think how we teach and assess speaking </li></ul><ul><li>consider what sorts of tasks will be motivating for students </li></ul><ul><li>decide how best we can take advantage of the opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>choose, adapt or design tasks that will give our students the best opportunity to show what they can do </li></ul><ul><li>ensure that we teach learners in the optimum way </li></ul>
Changing how we teach Rachel Hawkes <ul><li>Preparing students to respond to questions effectively </li></ul><ul><li>Embedding questioning </li></ul><ul><li>Adapting key phrases </li></ul><ul><li>Move from memorising -> manipulating language readily </li></ul><ul><li>Developing spontaneous talk in the classroom </li></ul><ul><li>Building on learning at KS3 </li></ul>
Rachel Hawkes NEW secondary curriculum (speaking related PoS) 1.1 Linguistic competence a. Developing the skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing in a range of situations and contexts. b. Applying linguistic knowledge and skills to understand and communicate effectively. 1.2 Knowledge about language a Understanding how a language works and how to manipulate it. 1.3 Creativity a Using familiar language for new purposes and in new contexts . b Using imagination to express thoughts, ideas, experiences and feelings . 2.2 Developing language skills c respond appropriately to spoken and written language d use correct pronunciation and intonation e ask and answer questions f initiate and sustain conversations k deal with unfamiliar language, unexpected responses and unpredictable situations.
Year 7 Framework - speaking Year 8 Framework - speaking Year 9 Framework – speaking 1.4 Talking together Y7 Construct and generate language, using a stock of words, phrases and sentences for social communication and to talk about their work Y7 Make effective use of simple verbal or visual prompts in order to take part in conversations and discussions 1.5 Presenting and narrating Y7 Plan and present a short talk or narrative, speaking clearly, audibly and with accurate pronunciation Y7 Engage listeners’ attention through expression and non-verbal techniques 4.4 Sentence structure Y7 Use knowledge of word order, high-frequency words and punctuation to understand and build simple and compound sentences 4.6 Questions and negatives Y7 Understand and use confidently some common question types in different contexts Y7 Understand and use confidently some common negative forms in different contexts 1.4 Talking together Y8 Initiate and participate in unrehearsed pupil-teacher and pupil-pupil exchanges Y8 Plan and carry out unscripted conversations and discussions, taking into account the views, preferences and ideas of each group member 1.5 Presenting and narrating Y8 Use some complex language in a prepared but unscripted talk or narrative Y8 Add authenticity through use of simple idioms 4.4 Sentence structure Y8 Develop and improve sentences by adding, rearranging or replacing elements 4.6 Questions and negatives Y8 Understand and use a range of question types Y8 Understand and use a range of negative forms 1.4 Talking together Y9 Make extended and/or frequent contributions to classroom talk Y9 Deal effectively with unexpected responses in order to sustain conversations and discussions 1.5 Presenting and narrating Y9 Respond quickly and appropriately to audience comments or questions following a talk or narrative Y9 Add interest through extended sentences, rhetorical devices and imaginative use of vocabulary 4.4 Sentence structure Y9 Use knowledge of word order, phrases and clauses to understand and build a wider range of extended sentences 4.6 Questions and negatives Y 9 Make confident use of question types with simple and compound tenses Y9 Make confident use of negative forms with simple and compound tenses
NEW GCSE Assessment criteria (speaking component - Edexcel) Communicates comprehensive and detailed information related to chosen stimulus Interacts very well Speaks very confidently and with spontaneity . Frequently takes initiative and develops elaborate responses . No difficulty in expressing and explaining a range of ideas and points of view. Very little or no hesitation . Able to deal with unpredictable elements without difficulty. 16-18 Communicates detailed and relevant information related to chosen visual/topic/stimulus. Interacts well. Speaks confidently . Takes initiative and develops more elaborate responses . Has little difficulty expressing and explaining ideas and points of view. Little hesitation and little or no prompting necessary. Able to deal with unpredictable elements with some success. 12-15 Communicates relevant information related to the chosen stimulus but with some obvious omissions. Some interaction. Able to participate in familiar, straightforward discussion and conversation, but experiences problems with more complex question forms. Conveys opinions, but rarely expands . Some hesitation Able to deal with some unpredictable elements. 8-11 Limited communication related to chosen visual/topic/stimulus. Some coherence in unambiguous presentation of simple information and opinions, but responses very limited. Very hesitant and reliant on teacher-examiner prompting. Able to deal with isolated unpredictable elements. 4-7 Minimal description of chosen stimulus. Conveys little relevant information in minimal responses (mainly one word) Largely disjointed and unconnected ideas. Very limited comprehension of basic questions. Wholly-reliant on teacher-examiner prompting.. 1-3
Open Interaction GCSE Example: Spanish Rachel Hawkes
NEW GCSE Assessment criteria (speaking component - Edexcel) Communicates comprehensive and detailed information related to chosen stimulus Interacts very well Speaks very confidently and with spontaneity Frequently takes initiative and develops elaborate responses No difficulty in expressing and explaining a range of ideas and points of view Very little or no hesitation Able to deal with unpredictable elements without difficulty 16-18 Uses wide range of appropriate vocabulary and structures, including complex lexical items Consistently competent use of different tenses. 6 Very accurate, with only isolated and usually insignificant errors. Consistently good pronunciation and intonation. 6 Communicates detailed and relevant information related to chosen visual/topic/stimulus. Interacts well. Speaks confidently. Takes initiative and develops more elaborate responses. Has little difficulty expressing and explaining ideas and points of view. Little hesitation and little or no prompting necessary. Abe to deal with unpredictable elements with some success. 12-15 Good variety of appropriate vocabulary and structures. Unambiguous use of different verb tenses. Generally at ease with subordination. 5 Some errors, especially in more complex structures, but generally accurate. Pronunciation and intonation generall y good. 5 Communicates relevant information related to the chosen stimulus but with some obvious omissions. Some interaction Able to participate in familiar, straightforward discussion and conversation, but experiences problems with more complex question forms. Conveys opinions, but rarely expands . Some hesitation Able to deal with some unpredictable elements. 8-11 Adequate but predictable range of vocabulary and structures. May include different tenses or time frames, perhaps with some ambiguity Some examples of subordination 3-4 A fair number of errors made, including some basic, but communication overall unaffected. Pronunciation and intonation generally accurate. 3-4 Limited communication related to chosen visual/topic/stimulus. Some coherence in unambiguous presentation of simple information and opinions, but responses very limited. Very hesitant and reliant on teacher-examiner prompting. Able to deal with isolated unpredictable elements. 4-7 Limited and/or repetitive range of vocabulary or structures. Predominantly uses short sentences 2 Many basic errors, but main points communicated. Simple ‘pre-learnt’ stereotypes correct. Pronunciation generally understandable. 2 Minimal description of chosen stimulus. Conveys little relevant information in minimal responses (mainly one word) Largely disjointed and unconnected ideas. Very limited comprehension of basic questions. Wholly-reliant on teacher-examiner prompting.. 1-3 Very limited range of basic structures Frequently resorts to non-target language Rarely offers complete sentences. 1 Consistently inaccurate language and pronunciation frequently impede communication Only isolated examples of accurate language. 1
Rachel Hawkes Edexcel GCSE 2010 Units 2 & 4 Speaking and Writing Unit Grade A* A B C D E F G Maximum Uniform mark = 90 81 72 63 54 45 36 27 18 Uniform mark as percentage 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 Suggested raw mark boundaries based on percentages 28 25 22 18 14 11 8 5 GROUP : Task: STUDENT NAMES Tutor group Content & Response (18) Range of language (6) Accuracy (6) Total mark (30) projected grade 1 0 U 2 0 U 3 0 U 4 0 U 5 0 U 6 0 U 7 0 U 8 0 U
How do you teach ‘spontaneous talk’? Rachel Hawkes
What do you think we mean by unplanned or spontaneous speaking? a) Lack of prior preparation b) Absence of written support c) The immediacy of the experience d) Like a conversation e) Not knowing the questions/answers in advance 289 students from Years 7 – 10 from 5 different secondary schools were asked.
Why do you think unplanned or spontaneous speaking is an important focus in language learning? "Because in real life you don't know what the other person is going to say." 2/3 students asked equate spontaneous speaking with ‘real life’ activity. "To make sure you definitely know it and are able to have conversations without reading off a sheet." Students feel that what they can do without notes/preparation is what they 'truly' know. They also mention the link between spontaneous speaking and increased confidence.
Define a confident language learner - how would he/she cope in an unplanned speaking situation? "They would cope really well because they would speak confidently and spontaneously really easily' 2/3 answers are unrealistic and do not mention strategies or attributes of a language learner in unrehearsed speaking situations. 1) Most answers stress fluency as key 2) Fewer mention accuracy 3) Top set students most likely to mention accuracy AND fluency together 4) A few mention quality of language, including range of vocabulary, tense use, opinions, extended answers - particularly Year 10 learners and 9 top sets 5) Rare answers mention attributes of a confident learner mentioned were: risk-taking, not afraid of mistakes, responds readily, good pronunciation 6) Very few mentioned these strategies: listen carefully to pick out key words and understand the question, take time to think, use words and structures they know, ignore mistakes and keep going, use gestures and facial expression to help support meaning
<ul><li>Speaking targets </li></ul><ul><li>Give detailed information </li></ul><ul><li>Express personal opinions </li></ul><ul><li>Justify points of view </li></ul><ul><li>Use longer sequences of speech </li></ul><ul><li>Use a variety of vocabulary and structures </li></ul><ul><li>Use time references </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to the past </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to the future </li></ul>Do these speaking targets work for spontaneous talk? Can learners have these sorts of targets in their heads in an unplanned speaking situation? If not, what targets or strategies would we give to learners who are trying to hold a 'conversation' in the target language?
<ul><li>Listen to the question VERY carefully – work to make sense of it </li></ul><ul><li>Buy yourself time with a ‘hesitation’ word </li></ul><ul><li>Think of something you know you can say quickly – e.g. Repeat back a couple of words of the question with raised intonation - ¿Todos los días? </li></ul><ul><li>Use what you know how to say when you put your answer together (not necessarily exactly what you want to say) </li></ul><ul><li>Keep talking for as long as you can – it’s always easy to add in a ‘por ejemplo’ or an opinion </li></ul><ul><li>When you are beginning to run out of flow, ask a question! (¿Y tú?) </li></ul><ul><li>Use other ‘help’ to get your message across well – i.e. expression, emotion – sound like you mean it + facial expressions + body language + gestures </li></ul>“ A confident language learner wouldn't panic, would listen carefully for key words to respond to and take time to think about answer.” “ A confident learner would use the words they do know to turn the conversation to what they are comfortable to speak about - use heavy facial expression and body language.” “ A confident learner would be able to use what they know already to come up with appropriate responses - and maybe even ask new questions.”
A ver... Pues... Bueno.. Entonces.. Para mí.. En mi opinión... Por ejemplo ... O sea... Es decir ...
Developing talking routines for all students Rachel Hawkes
Asking questions <ul><li>Group talk routines </li></ul><ul><li>Find someone who </li></ul><ul><li>Speaking lines </li></ul><ul><li>What are the questions? </li></ul><ul><li>Free conversation tasks </li></ul>
X Es ist toll! ¡Es ist schrecklich! Ich mag das (nicht) ! Wie findest du das? Ja, das stimmt! ¡Nein, das stimmt nicht! Ich auch! Ich nicht! Du bist verrückt! Ich denke... X X Gracias @ Greg Horton
X ¡Es fenomenal! ¡Es fatal! ¡ (No) me gusta! ¿Qué piensas? ¡Sí, es verdad! ¡No, no es verdad! ¡Yo también! ¡Yo tampoco! ¡Estás loco/a! Pienso que... X X Gracias @ Greg Horton
¿Qué piensas? ¡Yo también! ¡Yo tampoco! ¿Por qué? ¿Por qué? Porque... Porque... ¡Sí, es verdad! ¡No, no es verdad! Pienso que... porque Prefiero.. porque X ..es mejor que.. ..es peor que.. ..es más..que.. ..es menos..que. ¿Qué piensas? Sí, tienes razón No, no tienes razón ¡Ni hablar! ¡Qué va! (no) estoy de acuerdo ¡ (No) me gusta! X X
Has dicho que.... pero yo pienso que. (No) me gusta porque ... Pienso que... Sí, tienes razón No, no tienes razón X Por una parte..pero por otra parte.. Sí, yo también No, yo tampoco X ¿Qué piensas? ¡Ni hablar! ¡Qué va! (no) estoy de acuerdo
Findet eine Person, die…………. 1. den Geburtstag im Februar hat 2. nicht in England geboren ist 3. mehr als eine Schwester hat 4. keine Haustiere hat 5. Deutsch als Lieblingsfach hat
Was sind die Fragen? 1. Wann hast du Geburtstag? 2. Wo bist du geboren? 3. Hast du Geschwister? 4. Hast du Haustiere? 5. Was ist dein Lieblingsfach?
Was sind die Fragen? 1. Es donnert und blitzt. 2. Die Hauptstadt von Österreich ist Wien. 3. Nein. Und du? 4. Ich fahre nach Schottland, um Nessie zu sehen. 5. Er geht ins Kino. 6. Gestern bin ich zu Hause geblieben. 7. Man kann Skifahren 9 .Vielleicht 8 . Ich werde die Burg besichtigen
Meine Schule <ul><li>Wann? Was? Wo? Wie? Warum? Wie oft? </li></ul>Discuss school life with your partner for a minimum of 5 minutes. You will need to ask and answer questions. Try to keep the conversation going! Und du?
Rachel Hawkes Target talk Odd one out Spot the difference 5 Ws? Reading images Extensions Then & now Tell a story Say something else Understanding & responding
Was wirst du heute abend machen? Now make sure your answer contains EXACTLY 8 words! Now make sure your answer contains 4 words of 3 letters! This time make sure your answer contains the word NICHT!
Odd One Out - Model Plays an individual Sport Only blond person Only woman Professional Sportsmen Not brilliant at their chosen careers! Married Couple British Celebrities Jackie Howis AST Bennett Memorial Diocesan School
¡Pilla al intruso! Rachel Hawkes desayunar comer merendar cenamos descansar leche pan zumo té café queso jamón mermelada fruta golosinas despierta desayuna energía come cena agua tostadas cereales queso uvas frutas verduras hortalizas cereales dulces
Rachel Hawkes Pienso que/Creo que I think that La excepci ón/el intruso es.. the exception is porque.. because/for es femenino/masculino It’s feminine/masculine es la única cosa que It’s the only thing that es la única palabra que It’s the ony word that un verbo – un adjetivo – un sustantivo a verb - an adjective - a noun …… .tiene que ver con…. …… ..has to do with/is all about…….. por ejemplo …tiene que ver con los deportes e.g. …….has to do with sport por ejemplo for example …… .es diferente …… .is different termina con… ends with.. empieza con… starts with es un tipo de... it’s a sort of (el) hidrato de carbono (la) carne (la)grasa (la)fruta y (las)verduras (la) proteína alto en colestero alto en azúcar bajo en fibra alto en calorías rico en vitaminas una fuente de calcio (el)dulce
<ul><li>Menciona 2 diferencias </li></ul><ul><li>2) Responde a 2 preguntas </li></ul><ul><li>3) Haz 2 preguntas </li></ul>A B Rachel Hawkes
Sitges Cataluña, Spain 2009 Rachel Hawkes Hace 50 años, había más rocas en la playa. Hoy no hay rocas en la playa.
Me gusta jugar al f útbol pero no me gusta/prefiero jugar con los videojuegos porque (no) es (muy) divertido con = with y= and pero = but porque = because La pirámide opini ón + actividad (infinitivo) + pero + opini ón opuesta/ complementaria + actividad (infinitivo) + raz ón Rachel Hawkes
¿Dónde estamos? ¿Qué o quién hay en la foto? ¿Qué se puede ver? ¿Qué no se puede ver? ¿Cuándo se hizo la foto? ¿Qué acaba de pasar? ¿Qué va a pasar ahora?
¿Dónde estamos? ¿Qué o quién hay en la foto? ¿Qué se puede ver? ¿Qué no se puede ver? ¿Cuándo se hizo la foto? ¿Qué acaba de pasar? ¿Qué va a pasar ahora?
¿Dónde estamos? ¿Qué o quién hay en la foto? ¿Qué se puede ver? ¿Qué no se puede ver? ¿Cuándo se hizo la foto? ¿Qué acaba de pasar? ¿Qué va a pasar ahora?
Task: Picture-based discussion <ul><li>Generate as many questions as you can that you could ask about this picture </li></ul><ul><li>Assume that the learner will present for 1 minute to introduce the picture </li></ul><ul><li>Think about how you can make use of previous classroom routines , both to enable the student to answer spontaneously and use a range of language </li></ul>Rachel Hawkes
Me encanta la natación – es mi deporte preferido. Empecé a nadar cuando tenía cinco años y llevo siete años nadando por un club. Es el club de natación basado en la piscina de Parkside en Cambridge. Me encanta porque puedo entrenar para mejorar. Mi entrenadora se llama Beth y es super simpática. Siempre me anima y me apoya. Lo malo es que tengo que madrugar porque tengo que entrenar tres veces a la semana antes de ir al colegio. Pero no me importa eso porque me gusta la natación. También participo en competiciones regionales algunos fines de semana que me encantan. 1 minute introduction 1. Bueno, dime primero,¿ Dónde estamos en esta foto? 2. Y descríbeme la foto un poquito, ¿ qué se puede ver ? 3. ¿ Quiénes hay en la foto? ¿Estás tú en la foto? 4. Y esta piscina – parece que en la foto está abierta al público - ¿ Hay también clases de natación allí para los alumnos? 5. Y el agua, ¿no está fría? Porque la piscina está al aire libre ¿no? 5. ¿ Cuándo se hizo esta foto ? 6. . ¿Y la natación es un deporte muy popular aquí en el instituto? 7. Y ¿ qué va a pasar en el futuro? ¿Qué planes tienes para el futuro? ¿Piensas seguir nadando como profesión? Discussion questions Rachel Hawkes
Task setting Rachel Hawkes <ul><li>Is the task something that will engage my students? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the task arise naturally from the work my students are doing? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the task provide appropriate challenge for my students? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the task accessible to all students, including any students with disabilities? </li></ul><ul><li>Am I making good use of opportunities to customise tasks, for example by referring to local circumstances, or topical issues or aspects of the culture, life and traditions of target language countries or communities? </li></ul><ul><li>Is the task manageable for me? Would it be possible to record it if necessary? </li></ul><ul><li>Should I provide a stimulus in English or in the target language? </li></ul><ul><li>Does the task allow my students to meet the marking criteria laid down by the awarding body? </li></ul><ul><li>Can I see how the exam board’s marking criteria can be used to assess performance on this task? </li></ul>
Task taking Rachel Hawkes <ul><li>Timing of assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Number of students assessed at one time </li></ul><ul><li>Location of assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Release of stimulus material to students </li></ul><ul><li>Length of assessments </li></ul><ul><li>Recording of assessments </li></ul>
Olympus WS-321M Digital Voice Recorder ( www.amazon.co.uk ) £56.47 Logitech USB Desktop Microphone ( www.amazon.co.uk ) £17.65 Free software to download: http://audacity.sourceforge.net/ NB: must download LAME Encoder too or won’t save as MP3 http://audacity.sourceforge.net/help/faq?s=install&item=lame-mp3 Easi Speak Digital Voice Recorder ( www.easi-speak.org.uk ) £25 Rachel Hawkes
<ul><li>Prepare a list of all possible questions on the theme that you think could be answered well spontaneously </li></ul><ul><li>Make a copy of this sheet so that you have one per student </li></ul><ul><li>Use this list as you listen to the student presentation and or picture-based introduction and highlight questions that you could ask to follow up on (but not repeat) the material </li></ul><ul><li>Allow yourself more leeway at the start of the day as the first few take longer </li></ul><ul><li>Try out the recording equipment yourself in good time before the exams to familiarise yourself and become confident </li></ul><ul><li>Before each recording say: Candidate Name & Number, Centre Name, the task type and topic and the date </li></ul><ul><li>When you save the sound file, name it usefully (see Audacity instructions) to when your sample is requested (months later!) you can find the material easily. </li></ul>Top tips so far….. Rachel Hawkes
Task marking Rachel Hawkes <ul><li>Marking ‘live’ or from recording </li></ul><ul><li>Standardisation / Internal moderation </li></ul><ul><li>External moderation </li></ul>
To support controlled assessment Rachel Hawkes <ul><li>'GCSE modern foreign languages: controlled assessment of speaking - guidance for teachers’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>free copies of this DVD obtainable via http://orderline.qcda.org.uk/ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>order reference: QCA/09/4138 </li></ul></ul>
Joined up thinking! Rachel Hawkes Comberton Village College AST Former Regional Subject Advisor SSAT Lead Practitioner www.rachelhawkes.typepad.com/linguacom [email_address] Rachel Hawkes Save the date! Monday 29 November Joined Up Conference Comberton Village College, Cambridgeshire