Augustus and Empire

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  • The Principate – 41 years Princeps – primus inter pares - First among equals – no shoes = military hero, no crown ever, descendant of Venus – really first Emperor Held power by making others feel he was sharing it – also became Tribune of the People – quelling divide citizens and senators Also Pontifex Maximus after Lepidus dies 12 BCE Used this power of religion to consolidate power Considered a god after death – Egyptian influence Wife Livia gave her own orders Rebuilt 82 temples in Rome alone Built other public facilities Instituted vigiles – police and firefighting squad Used art as political propaganda Temple of Mars Ultor Jesus – born in 5 BCE, died in 30 AD
  • Temple of Mars Ultor – Mars the Avenger, dedicated to Julius Caesar, now declared a god, in the Forum of Augustus Altar of Augustan Peace – Dedicated on Livia’s birthday in 9 BCE – his family procession, reliefs of Aeneas, mother earth, fertility and bounty Virgil’s Aeneid lends mythic weight to Augustus’ rule and makes Caesar, Augustus heirs of the gods, Aeneas and Romulus and Remus Mosaics develop with tesserae – very small glass squares
  • Tiberius – Augustus’ adopted son Killed many rivals – the purge Gaius Caligula Insane? Appointed horse as senator, war against Neptune Adulterous, incestuous affairs Written by Tacitus who discredited the Julio-Claudians Murdered January 41 CE by senatorial conspirators Claudius Family thought he was an imbecile but actually okay Began conquest of Britain in 43 CE Married younger first cousin Aggrippina who had a son, Nero Nero 61 CE tired of mother, had her killed Very unpopular, rumour he had started great fire of Rome in 64 CE He tried to blame the Christians – tied to poles, covered in pitch and lit for emperor’s party Assassinated 68
  • Vespasian and Titus right after Nero – Titus sent aid to Pompeii when Vesuvius erupted Domitian (81-96) Persecuted Jews and Christians Murdered in a conspiracy of wife and successor, Nerva Trajan Soldier and adminstrator in Iberia, Hungary and Rhineland Built many monuments celebrating victories – column depicts victory over Dacians (modern Romania) Huge expansion of empire Hadrian Trajan’s adopted son Travelled all over empire Founded cities, restored buildings Put down Jewish rebellion in Jerusalem in 135 CE Built a wall in northern Britain, Pantheon Marcus Aurelius Philosopher King Empire is strong but depends on a strong leader
  • Pax Romana No military needed to keep people in line because included in empire, feel culturally Roman Most emperors are not from Rome City is less important Citizens are made by the military postings – born in Iberia, posted to Britain, hook up with local girl and get moved to Morrocco. More Roman than wherever you were from in the first place
  • Augustus and Empire

    1. 1. Augustus 27 B.C.E. – 14 A.D. Primus Inter Pares Tribune of the People Pontifex Maximus
    2. 2. Propaganda in the Principate Temple of Mars Ultor Ara Pacis – Altar of Peace Detail from Ara Pacis Virgil’s Aeneid lends mythic weight to Augustus Mosaics
    3. 3. Nero 54 – 68 A.D. Caligula 37 – 41 A.D. Claudius 41 – 54 A.D. Tiberius 14 – 37 A.D. The purge Insane? Conquest of Britain Great fire, great cruelty
    4. 4. The Empire Expands under Good Emperors Trajan’s Arch Trajan’s Column Trajan 98-117 CE Hadrian 117-138 CE The Pantheon Marcus Aurelius 161 – 180 A.D.
    5. 5. Caracalla Citizenship to all free males 212 CE
    6. 6. The Praetorian Guard Hadrian’s Wall
    7. 7. Coliseum Pantheon

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