Arts Elements       andVisual Principles
ELEMENTS OF ART• Are the visual, tactile, spatial (and sometimes the sonic)  sensory qualities used when creating or talki...
LINE  • Line is a mark on a    surface that describes    a shape or outline. It    can create texture    and can be thick ...
Ellsworth Kelly. From series of plant drawings.
Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres.             Alberto Giacometti. Se lf-Po rtrra it. 1954Po rtra it o f M e . Ha y a rd a nd ...
Rembrandt. Sketches for Chris t He a ling the Sic k. 1647-49
SHAPE  • Shape is a 2D line    with no fo rm or    thickness.  • Shapes are flat and    either ‘geometric’ (eg.    a squar...
Richard Serra     Jo e
Richard Serra     Jo e
SPACE• .     • There are 2 types of          space, positive and          negative.        • Positive space is the        ...
SPACE  •   Depth is created by a visual      perspective used to give the illusion      of depth or distance on a flat sur...
TEXTURE                                • There are 2 types of                                  texture used to talk       ...
VISUAL TEXTURE                                        • Visual Texture is                                          the ill...
TACTILE TEXURE                                Tactile texture is                                the roughness or          ...
COLOR• Refers to specific hues (pure colors without tint  or shade, which are created by adding white or  black pigments r...
CHROMA/INTENSITY      Chrom is             a     about how    vivid colorsare perceived.    Essentially,it’s a measure    ...
CHROMA/INTENSITYThe brightness or dullness of a color isreferred to as the color’s intensity.A pure color is high intensit...
VALUEValue (sometimes called ‘tone’) is concerned with the LIGHTNESS and DARKNESS of a color and is achieved by adding whi...
Irving Penn
Artemesia GentileschiJud ith De c a p ita ting Ho lo fe rne s                              c. 1620
Michelangelo Drawing
Caravaggio. Sup p e r a t Em m a us . 1601.
FORM  • Form is a 3D object    having volume and    thickness.  • The illusion of form    (volume and    thickness) can be...
MOVEMENT    • Refers to a visual      sense of motion used      to establish the flow      of the composition      from on...
COMPOSITION     •   The arrangement/placement of         arts elements according to visual         principles. Examples of...
PRINCIPLES OF ARTThe ways that art elements are used,arranged, or organized to createartworks.Arts principles are also ref...
BALANCE   • Refers to the way in     which visual weight is     distributed throughout the     art piece. A composition   ...
Rose Window. Cathedral of St. John the Divine
Christo. Running Fe nc e         Dra wing . 1973
Edvard Munch
Richard      Diebenkorn.O c e a n Pa rk N .                 o                29.              1970
Lucian Freud
Rachel Whiteread
Alice Neel. Lo nline s s       1970
Egon Scheile. Po rtra it o f the Pa inte r A n                     nto        Pe s c hka , 1909
Edouard Vuillard
Paula Rego.The Fa m ily       1988
Andrew Wyeth. Chris tina ’s World. 1948
David Hockney.Yv e s -M rie A le e p .         a     s                 1976
Fra Angelico.The Annunc ia tio n.            1442.
Henri Matisse. Ba the rs with a Turtle .
James Ensor.Se lf-Po rtra it Surro und e d by                         M s ks .                           a                ...
Thomas Eakins. The A ne w Clinic . 1889                    g
HARMONY   • When visual elements     within an artwork interact     well together in an     aesthetically pleasing     man...
CONTRAST    • The difference between      two things.    • High contrast would be      the difference between      black a...
SCALE  • Scale is the size or    apparent size of an    object in relation to    other objects and    it’s environment.  •...
PROPORTION     • Refers to the way that       elements and objects       work together in an       artwork. Using       pr...
Kent Twitchell. LA Marathon Mural. 405 Freeway.
HIERARCY    • Refers to the way      objects and figures      are placed to show      relative importance of      those ob...
Fra Filippo Lippi.      Sa int La wre nc eEnthro ne d with Sa ints          a nd Do no rs .         c. Late 1440s
EMPHASIS    • Emphasis is produced by      visually stressing the      importance of one      element over another in     ...
VARIATION     • A device used to       make key areas stand       out, achieved by       using differing lines,       shap...
VARIATION (CONT’D)         • For example, if a           warm orange dot is           placed on an artwork           that ...
ABSTRACTION The ‘Riesenrad’     • Refers to the ferris wheel at the                   deliberate departure Prater,        ...
CROPPING    • When a selected      image is improved by      the removal of the      outer parts to improve      framing, ...
MOVEMENT & RHYTHM                                  • By creating                                    movement, you are     ...
Bridget Riley.     A st 2.      rre          1965
Beatriz Milhazes
What Arts Elements andPrinciples Can You Identify?
Cave paintings of Hyenas, Chauvet caves,estimated to be around 32,000 years old.
Ansel Adams, ‘The Tetons and theSnake River’ (1942), photograph.
Caravaggio, ‘Davidwith the Head ofGoliath’ c. 1610, Oilon canvas
Banksy, ‘Graffiti Removal’, May 2008, spray paint           (removed in August 2008)
Bridget Riley, “Cataract 3”, 1967. PVA on canvas
M C Escher, “Drawing Hands”, 1948,            Lithograph
Meret Oppenheim, “Object”, 1936, mass produced               tea set and fur.
Francisco de Goya“The Sleep of ReasonProduces Monsters”c. 1797Etching
“Ejiri in the Suruga Province”, Hokusai, 1832,                woodblock print
Pablo Picasso, “Guernica”, 1937. Oil on canvas
Hokusai, “Great Wave off Kanagawa”, 1832,             woodblock print.
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
Elements & Principles Review
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Elements & Principles Review

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  • Contour Line: Describes the outside and inside edges of an object. This lines don’t actually exist, but delineate changes in color, mark edges and describe interior areas of texture or changes in form.
  • On left, contour line drawing exhibits precise attention to edges and details…accuracy of observation. On right, does not use precise contour lines, but gesture lines that suggest the mass and form of his head. We can see the movement of the hand.
  • Gesture lines are used when describing shape is less important than showing action or pose. Line is free…drawn quickly and spontaneously. In this drawing, some contours are suggested, but the stance and proportion of the pose are predominant. Both types of drawing styles can be used simultaneously.
  • Negative Space/Positive Shape -Figure/Ground -Both elements are thought through and planned -Subject is focal point, but negative areas are equally important
  • Figure-Ground Reversal
  • Figure-Ground Reversal
  • Richard pearse
  • Low-Value Contrast
  • High-Value Contrast
  • Value Pattern : The arrangement and the amount of variation in light and dark, independent of the colors used. When value contrast is minimized and all the values are within a limited range with only small variation… HIGH KEY=Composition dominated by lights LOW KEY=Composition dominated by darks Here  LOW KEY…dominated by darks, dramatic, theatrical. Works with subject matter…typical of Baroque artists
  • Value  Used to suggest volume or space Chiaroscuro : During the Renaissance, this term was coined to describe the artistic device of using light and dark to imply depth and volume in a painting or drawing. -Combination of the two Italian words “chiaro”, meaning light, and “scuro”, the word for dark. -Characterized by strong contrasts between light and dark, usually bold contrasts affecting a whole composition
  • Symmetrical Balance : repeated elements on both sides of the axis…also called Bilateral Symmetry…MIRROR IMAGE. -Static balance -Formal balance -Feeling of permanence, strength, stability -Order -Present in government buildings, churches
  • Symmetrical Balance is rare in photography and painting, unlike architecture. Symmetrical Compositions  Immediate creation and emphasis of a focal point.
  • Approximate Symmetry…slight differences on either side of the axis
  • Radial Balance…mirror image on all axes
  • Spirograph! String art! Doily!
  • Asymmetrical Balance : Balance is achieved with dissimilar objects that have equal visual weight or equal eye attraction. Informal balance : More casual approach; appears less planned (though is untrue)… -Involves more complex considerations and more subtle factors.
  • Asymmetrical Balance by Value : Dissimilar value areas are equally interesting to the eye -A darker, smaller element is visually equal to a lighter, larger one.
  • -A darker, smaller element is visually equal to a lighter, larger one.
  • Asymmetrical Balance by Color : A smaller amount of one color can balance a larger area of another color
  • Asymmetrical Balance by Color : A smaller amount of one color can balance a larger area of another color
  • Asymmetrical Balance by Color : A smaller amount of one color can balance a larger area of another color
  • Asymmetrical Balance by Shape…a small, complicated shape is balanced by a larger, more stable shape.
  • Asymmetrical Balance by Shape…a small, complicated shape is balanced by a larger, more stable shape. The curvilinear shape of the chair is balanced by the many rectilinear shapes of the window sills.
  • Asymmetrical Balance by Texture/Pattern…Large areas of pattern are balanced by smaller areas of flat, smooth texture.
  • Asymmetrical Balance by Texture/Pattern…Large areas with no pattern are balanced by smaller areas of decorative pattern.
  • Asymmetrical Balance by Texture/Pattern…Large areas with no pattern are balanced by smaller areas of decorative pattern.
  • Asymmetry by Position & Eye Direction : A large shape placed near the middle of a design can be balanced by a smaller shape placed toward the outer edge.
  • Asymmetry by Position & Eye Direction : A large shape placed near the middle of a design can be balanced by a smaller shape placed toward the outer edge.
  • Asymmetry by Position & Eye Direction : A large shape placed near the middle of a design can be balanced by a smaller shape placed toward the outer edge.
  • Asymmetry by Position & Eye Direction : A large shape placed near the middle of a design can be balanced by a smaller shape placed toward the outer edge…connected by eye direction between Mary and Gabriel
  • Focal point : A point of emphasis that can attract attention and encourage the viewer to look closer. -Here the turtle is emphasized by the contrast of color and size, as well as its isolation…actual and implied lines also direct us to it. -Several focal points can turn the design into a “3-ring circus”, leaving the viewer in confusion…WHERE EVERYTHING IS EMPHASIZED, NOTHING IS EMPHASIZED.
  • Emphasis by Contrast : as a rule, focal point results when one element differs from the others. Whatever interrupts an overall feeling or pattern automatically attracts the eye by this difference. -Here, composition is dominated by distorted, expressionistic faces. His realistic self-portrait differs in its execution
  • Emphasis by Isolation : Simply by being set off by itself, it grabs our attention. This is contrast, of course, by it is contrast by placement, not form. -The doctor and the foreground figures contrast by value from the background figures, but their isolation in the composition’s corner gives extra emphasis to the doctor.
  • Power of Unusual Scale
  • Scale and proportion are closely tied to emphasis and focal point. Hieratic Scaling : Visual scale was often related to thematic importance
  • Rhythm : Based on repetition…involves a clear repetition of elements that are the same or only slightly modified.
  • Legato (connecting & flowing) vs. Stacatto (abrupt)
  • Elements & Principles Review

    1. 1. Arts Elements andVisual Principles
    2. 2. ELEMENTS OF ART• Are the visual, tactile, spatial (and sometimes the sonic) sensory qualities used when creating or talking about 2D, 3D and time based artworks.• Arts elements are traditionally associated with particular arts disciplines and art forms. In visual arts, these elements include…
    3. 3. LINE • Line is a mark on a surface that describes a shape or outline. It can create texture and can be thick and thin. • ‘Cataract 3’ by Bridget Riley, 1967. PVA on canvas.
    4. 4. Ellsworth Kelly. From series of plant drawings.
    5. 5. Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres. Alberto Giacometti. Se lf-Po rtrra it. 1954Po rtra it o f M e . Ha y a rd a nd he r m Da ug hte r Ca ro line . 1815
    6. 6. Rembrandt. Sketches for Chris t He a ling the Sic k. 1647-49
    7. 7. SHAPE • Shape is a 2D line with no fo rm or thickness. • Shapes are flat and either ‘geometric’ (eg. a square) or ‘organic’ (eg. A swirl or ripple)
    8. 8. Richard Serra Jo e
    9. 9. Richard Serra Jo e
    10. 10. SPACE• . • There are 2 types of space, positive and negative. • Positive space is the space taken up an object in the area. • Negative space is the space a ro und the object, or space that is no t taken up by an object.
    11. 11. SPACE • Depth is created by a visual perspective used to give the illusion of depth or distance on a flat surface. Sometimes depth is included as part of s p a c e . – Line a r Pe rs p e c tive is a way of showing depth where distant objects are made proportionally smaller than nearer ones. – Horizon Lines and Vanishing Points determine the scale of objects within
    12. 12. TEXTURE • There are 2 types of texture used to talk about the surface qualities of artworks, used to describe the roughness or smoothness in objects and surfacesDetail of ‘Sunflowers’ by VanGogh, (1888, oil on canvas)showing texture of impastotechnique.
    13. 13. VISUAL TEXTURE • Visual Texture is the illus io n of texture, created on a flat surface.Graphite pencil drawings of fur. Graphite pencil and charcoal drawing of glass by Koo Hyunhee, a year 12 student from Westfield High (America)
    14. 14. TACTILE TEXURE Tactile texture is the roughness or smoothness of a surface. In this image the ridges and peaks of thickly applied paint in works using a technique calledDetail of ‘Sunflowers’ by Van im p a s to .Gogh, (1888, oil on canvas)showing texture of impastotechnique.
    15. 15. COLOR• Refers to specific hues (pure colors without tint or shade, which are created by adding white or black pigments respectively), and has three properties CHROMA INTENSITY VALUE
    16. 16. CHROMA/INTENSITY Chrom is a about how vivid colorsare perceived. Essentially,it’s a measure of a color’s purity compared to grey.
    17. 17. CHROMA/INTENSITYThe brightness or dullness of a color isreferred to as the color’s intensity.A pure color is high intensity, whereas acolor that has been mixed with it’scomplementary color is called a lowintensity color.
    18. 18. VALUEValue (sometimes called ‘tone’) is concerned with the LIGHTNESS and DARKNESS of a color and is achieved by adding white or black to a color to create tints (by adding white) and s ha d e s (by adding black).
    19. 19. Irving Penn
    20. 20. Artemesia GentileschiJud ith De c a p ita ting Ho lo fe rne s c. 1620
    21. 21. Michelangelo Drawing
    22. 22. Caravaggio. Sup p e r a t Em m a us . 1601.
    23. 23. FORM • Form is a 3D object having volume and thickness. • The illusion of form (volume and thickness) can be implied with light and shade, but true 3D form can be viewed from multiple angles, as an object in physical space.
    24. 24. MOVEMENT • Refers to a visual sense of motion used to establish the flow of the composition from one area to another. • In this sculpture the artist makes effective use of movement. The eye is drawn through the form by the angles of the arm, legs and torso, and
    25. 25. COMPOSITION • The arrangement/placement of arts elements according to visual principles. Examples of formal compositional devices are the ‘rule of thirds’, and the ‘golden section’. • The image at the top depicts a photograph composed using the traditional ‘golden mean’ compositional framework. In this type of composition, places where the guidelines intersect are key points for placing important elements of your image. • The image at the bottom depicts a photograph composed using the ‘rule of thirds’ compositional framework.
    26. 26. PRINCIPLES OF ARTThe ways that art elements are used,arranged, or organized to createartworks.Arts principles are also referred to as‘compositional’ or ‘structural’ devicesor conventions. They include:
    27. 27. BALANCE • Refers to the way in which visual weight is distributed throughout the art piece. A composition can be symmetrically or asymmetrically balanced, which means that both sides of an image are visually equal, or unequal, respectively. • The top image shows the difference between symmetrical and asymmetrical balance, while the image at the bottom shows ‘approximate symmetry’
    28. 28. Rose Window. Cathedral of St. John the Divine
    29. 29. Christo. Running Fe nc e Dra wing . 1973
    30. 30. Edvard Munch
    31. 31. Richard Diebenkorn.O c e a n Pa rk N . o 29. 1970
    32. 32. Lucian Freud
    33. 33. Rachel Whiteread
    34. 34. Alice Neel. Lo nline s s 1970
    35. 35. Egon Scheile. Po rtra it o f the Pa inte r A n nto Pe s c hka , 1909
    36. 36. Edouard Vuillard
    37. 37. Paula Rego.The Fa m ily 1988
    38. 38. Andrew Wyeth. Chris tina ’s World. 1948
    39. 39. David Hockney.Yv e s -M rie A le e p . a s 1976
    40. 40. Fra Angelico.The Annunc ia tio n. 1442.
    41. 41. Henri Matisse. Ba the rs with a Turtle .
    42. 42. James Ensor.Se lf-Po rtra it Surro und e d by M s ks . a 1899.
    43. 43. Thomas Eakins. The A ne w Clinic . 1889 g
    44. 44. HARMONY • When visual elements within an artwork interact well together in an aesthetically pleasing manner. • This principle is closely related to unity , and often concerned with combining similar art elements to create a pleasing appearance.
    45. 45. CONTRAST • The difference between two things. • High contrast would be the difference between black and white or bright yellow and dark purple. • Low contrast would be the difference between middle value colours and greys. • Contrast can also apply to size, shape, colour and texture etc.
    46. 46. SCALE • Scale is the size or apparent size of an object in relation to other objects and it’s environment. • Relative to other objects.
    47. 47. PROPORTION • Refers to the way that elements and objects work together in an artwork. Using proportion, artists can make sure that the different parts of an artwork make sense within their composition. The Vitruv ia n M n a Le o na rd o Da Vinc i, C. 1 48 7 . Pe n a nd ink with wa s h o ve r m e ta lp o int
    48. 48. Kent Twitchell. LA Marathon Mural. 405 Freeway.
    49. 49. HIERARCY • Refers to the way objects and figures are placed to show relative importance of those objects or figures. • In this image, the cyclist is at the top of the visual hierarchy, then the shadows of the other cyclists and then the landscape which serves as the
    50. 50. Fra Filippo Lippi. Sa int La wre nc eEnthro ne d with Sa ints a nd Do no rs . c. Late 1440s
    51. 51. EMPHASIS • Emphasis is produced by visually stressing the importance of one element over another in order to create a sense of hierarchy to control where the viewer looks first. Areas of emphasis may be planned using compositional devices such as the ‘rule of thirds’, or created using color and so on. Henri de Toulouse Lautrec - "At the Moulin Rouge", 1892/1895 Oil on Canvas
    52. 52. VARIATION • A device used to make key areas stand out, achieved by using differing lines, shapes, and colors within the artwork. • This principle can be used to create movement and direct the eye of the viewer through the artwork. In this image, the variations displayed are primarily color, shape and texture.
    53. 53. VARIATION (CONT’D) • For example, if a warm orange dot is placed on an artwork that is mostly cool colors, the eye of the viewer is drawn to the orange spot.
    54. 54. ABSTRACTION The ‘Riesenrad’ • Refers to the ferris wheel at the deliberate departure Prater, from natural Vienna appearances. • Images are simplified, Abstracted modified or changed image of to varying degrees to ferris wheel- details emphasize certain removed to qualities or content, or emphasise line and to convey meaning. shape. • DIFFERENT than non-representational art.
    55. 55. CROPPING • When a selected image is improved by the removal of the outer parts to improve framing, accentuate the subject, mood or drama of a work, or to alter the aspect ratio.
    56. 56. MOVEMENT & RHYTHM • By creating movement, you are able to control where the viewer looks in your image, and keep them looking at your image for longer. • How has the artist led our eyes around the‘Reptiles’, M. C. Escher, 1943, Lithograph. image?
    57. 57. Bridget Riley. A st 2. rre 1965
    58. 58. Beatriz Milhazes
    59. 59. What Arts Elements andPrinciples Can You Identify?
    60. 60. Cave paintings of Hyenas, Chauvet caves,estimated to be around 32,000 years old.
    61. 61. Ansel Adams, ‘The Tetons and theSnake River’ (1942), photograph.
    62. 62. Caravaggio, ‘Davidwith the Head ofGoliath’ c. 1610, Oilon canvas
    63. 63. Banksy, ‘Graffiti Removal’, May 2008, spray paint (removed in August 2008)
    64. 64. Bridget Riley, “Cataract 3”, 1967. PVA on canvas
    65. 65. M C Escher, “Drawing Hands”, 1948, Lithograph
    66. 66. Meret Oppenheim, “Object”, 1936, mass produced tea set and fur.
    67. 67. Francisco de Goya“The Sleep of ReasonProduces Monsters”c. 1797Etching
    68. 68. “Ejiri in the Suruga Province”, Hokusai, 1832, woodblock print
    69. 69. Pablo Picasso, “Guernica”, 1937. Oil on canvas
    70. 70. Hokusai, “Great Wave off Kanagawa”, 1832, woodblock print.

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