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# Intro to bio notes merged students

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### Intro to bio notes merged students

1. 1. What is Science?Organized way of using evidence to learn about the natural world.
2. 2. Goal of science? Investigate, Explain, and Understand nature Use explanations to make useful predictions
3. 3.  Observations – gathered by the use of 1 or more senses  Produces evidence / data  Ex. There are mini-skeletons hanging from the ceiling
4. 4.  Inference assumption based on something you already knew or have observed  Ex: the clouds are gray and dark when it is raining
5. 5. Data Quantitative – data that is measured using numbers  There are 10 goats eating grass. Qualitative – characteristics not countable such as color, texture, smell  His shirt is soft and green.
6. 6. What are some roles of biologists?1. Study the diversity of life2. Research Diseases3. Develop Technology4. Improve Agriculture5. Preserve the Environment
7. 7. Theory A theory is an explanation of observations that have been tested many times and the same result is given. Ex. Theory of evolution
8. 8. Peer Review Before research is made public, information is reviewed by scientists’ peers.
9. 9. Variables Variables – factors in experiment that change Control Group- group that doesn’t change Change only 1 variable in the exp. all others remain constant  Independent variable – factor that is deliberately changed (manipulated variable)  Plotted on X-Axis  Dependent variable – factor that is observed and changes in response to the independent variable (responding variable)  Plotted on Y-Axis
10. 10. Scientific Method State the problem Hypothesis Experiment Collect & Analyze Date Conclusion
11. 11. State the problem Observations Questions ―What’s the problem?’ Ex. My car won’t start! Why?
12. 12. Form a hypothesis Is written If…then statement Must be testable Prediction Ex. If I fill my car up with gas, then it will start.
13. 13. Experiment Tests the hypothesis Using independent & dependent variables Control variable Constants
14. 14. Recording and Analyzing Results Use of charts, tables, graphs Look for patterns  Qualitative & Quantitative
15. 15. Draw a conclusion Was the hypothesis supported or refuted by the data? Summarize experiment Explain results
16. 16. 8 Characteristics Unicellularof LIFE1. Made up of Cells.*Cells are basic unit of life Unicellular: one cell Multicellular Multicellular: 2 or more cells
17. 17. Asexual 2. Reproduce *Produce offspring Asexual reproduction: only 1 parentSexual Sexual reproduction: requires 2 parents
18. 18. 3. Organized:~atoms~element~molecule~cells~tissue~organs~organ systems~organism
19. 19. 4. Living things Grow andDevelop *Living things have a lifespanGROW: increase in size & shapeDEVELOP: mature over timeGrowth Development
20. 20. 5. Need Energy*Energy comes fromfoodAUTOTROPH: produceown foodHETEROTROPH: mustconsume foodDECOMPOSER: absorbsnutrients for food
21. 21. 6. Respond tostimuli~Stimulus: provokingagent~Response: reaction tostimulusEx. I touch a hot stove soI jerk my hand back inpain.
22. 22. 7. Living things maintainhomeostasis a.) HOMEOSTASIS: internal balance b.) examples: sweating, panting,shivering, etc.
23. 23. 8. Living thingsEvolvea.) adapt to changes inenvironmentb.) change to bettersurvive in environmentc.) changes take placeover a long period oftimed.) involve the entirespecies
24. 24. 8 characteristics of Life1.Made of cells2.Reproduce3.Evolve4.Maintain homeostasis5.Respond to stimulus6.Metabolism (Use/obtain energy)7.Grow & develop8.Based on genetic code (DNA/RNA)
25. 25. Tools and Procedures REVIEW OF THE METRICS & Tools of science
26. 26. The Study of LifeUses Metric System The metric system uses units with divisions that are powers of ten.
27. 27. METRIC PREFIXES  KIL0--thousands  HECTO--hundreds  DEKA—tens  Base unit  deci--tenths 0.1  centi--hundredths 0.01  milli--thousandths 0.001
28. 28. Measurements  Surface area--square meters m2, cm2  Volume of solid--cubic meters (m3) v=lwh  volume of liquids—(liters) ~view at meniscus  mass– (grams) measured by balance scale
29. 29. Metric units Length = meters (m) Mass = grams (g) Volume = liters (L) or cubic m (m3)
30. 30. temperature o0 C= freezing point of water o100 C= boiling point of water
31. 31. Microscopes Microscopes are devices that produce magnified images of structures that are too small to see Two main types of microscopes: 1. Light microscopes 2. Electron microscopes
32. 32. Light Microscope