Biochemistry notes students

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Biochemistry notes students

  1. 1. Biochemistry Notes Unit 1 Chapter 6
  2. 2. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Elements  An element is a pure substance that cannot be broken down  Each element has a unique name and symbol.
  3. 3. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds The Periodic Table of Elements  Horizontal rows are called periods.  Vertical columns are called groups.
  4. 4. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds  Chemistry = study of matter.  Atoms are the building blocks of matter.  Neutrons and protons are located at the nucleus of the atom.  Protons are positively charged particles.  Neutrons are particles that have no charge.
  5. 5. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds  Electrons are negatively charged particles that are located outside the nucleus.
  6. 6. 6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds• Atomic Number: number of protons in the nucleus of an element (atom).
  7. 7. 6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds• Atomic Mass: the number of protons & neutrons in the nucleus of an element (atom).• Find the neutrons only: • Atomic mass-atomic number=neutrons • Ex: Carbon Picture
  8. 8. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Isotopes  Atoms of the same element that have the same number of protons and electrons but have a different number of neutrons
  9. 9. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Compounds  A pure substance formed when two or more different elements combine  Compounds cannot be broken down into simpler compounds or elements by physical means, must be a chemical reaction
  10. 10. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Chemical Bonds  Covalent bonds  Chemical bond that forms when electrons are shared  A molecule is a compound in which the atoms are held together by covalent bonds.
  11. 11. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds Ionic Bonds  Electrical attraction between two oppositely charged atoms or groups of atoms
  12. 12. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.3 Water and Solutions Water’s Polarity  Molecules that have an unequal distribution of charges are called polar molecules.  Polarity is the property of having two opposite poles. (Think of North & South Pole)  A hydrogen bond is a bond involving a hydrogen atom and a fluorine, oxygen, or nitrogen atom.
  13. 13. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.3 Water and Solutions
  14. 14. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.1 Atoms, Elements, and Compounds van der Waals Forces  When molecules come close together, the attractive forces between slightly positive and negative regions pull on the molecules and hold them together.  The strength of the attraction depends on the size of the molecule, its shape, and its ability to attract electrons.
  15. 15. Water properties:  Water is cohesive Cohesion: sticks to itself Ex: allows some insects & spiders can “walk” on the surface Water is adhesive Adhesion: sticks to other things Ex: capillary action-pulls column of water up to the top of a plant
  16. 16. Water is called “Universal solvent”: Water properties:dissolves many other substances dueto polarityDifferences in charges pulls/pushessubstances apart (Like a magnetattracts or repels other magnets) Water exhibits evaporative cooling:removes heat when it evaporates froma surfaceEx: sweating cools skin Water expands during freezing:expands into crystal formationreleasing heatEx: ice floating on water
  17. 17. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.3 Water and Solutions Heterogeneous Mixtures  In a heterogeneous mixture, the components remain distinct. A salad is a heterogeneous mixture.
  18. 18. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.3 Water and Solutions Homogenous Mixtures  A mixture that has a uniform composition throughout  A solvent is a substance in which another substance is dissolved.  A solute is the substance that is dissolved in the Food coloring dissolved in water forms a homogenous solvent. mixture.
  19. 19. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.3 Water and Solutions Acids and Bases  Excess of hydrogen ions (H+) are called acids.  Excess of hydroxide ions (OH–) are called bases.
  20. 20. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.3 Water and Solutions pH and Buffers  The measure of concentration of H+ in a solution is called pH.  Acidic solutions have pH values 0-6.99.  Basic solutions have pH values 7.01-14  Neutral solutions have a pH value 7.00
  21. 21. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.3 Water and Solutions  Buffers are mixtures that can react with acids or bases to keep the pH within a particular range.
  22. 22. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.4 The Building Blocks of Life Organic Chemistry  The study of all compounds containing the element CARBON
  23. 23. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.4 The Building Blocks of Life  Carbon compounds can be in the shape of straight chains, branched chains, & rings.
  24. 24. What is a macromolecule?  A giant molecule made up of 100’s or 1000’s or smaller units called MONOMERS Macromolecules are also called polymers!!!!
  25. 25. The 4 types of macromolecules: NUCLEIC ACIDSCARBOHYDRATESLIPIDS PROTEINS
  26. 26. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.4 The Building Blocks of Life Carbohydrates  Made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
  27. 27. CARBOHYDRATES  Used as main source of energy Building block: glucose (C6H12O6)  Sugars: quick source of energy Monosaccharide-simple sugar, disaccharide-2, polysaccharide-manyTwo types: Ex: glucose, lactose, fructose, sucrose Starches: source of energy breaking down slower Ex: potatoes, pasta, bread, grains
  28. 28. Figure 2-13 A Starch Section 2-3 Where found? • Cellulose: plant cell walls • Glycogen: animal liverGo toSection:
  29. 29. Nucleic Acids Made up of H,O,N,C & P Store and transmit genetic info in nucleus Made up of nucleotides Two types (examples): DNA & RNA
  30. 30. PROTEINS  Made up of N,C,H, O Made up of groups called amino acids (20 in nature)  proteins have a large variety of sizes & shapes If the shape changes, it becomes a new protein Examples: muscles, peanuts, soybeans
  31. 31. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.4 The Building Blocks of Life
  32. 32. LIPIDS Made up mainly of C & HUsed to store energy,insulation & protectionUsually not soluble inwaterMade up of long chains offatty acids
  33. 33. Contrasting Lipids Lipids/Triglyceride Fats (Mostly solid at room temperature) Saturated Unsaturated (Solid at room temp & (Liquid at room temp“saturated” with Hydrogen & have double bonds. atoms, single bonds) few Hydrogen atoms) Oils (Liquid at room temperature & Considered mostly unsaturated fats)
  34. 34. Saturated Fats Ex’s:Unsaturated fats Ex’s: •Some cooking oils •Nuts •Margarine •Fish oils
  35. 35. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.2 Chemical Reactions Reactants and Products  A chemical reaction is the process by which atoms or groups of atoms in substances are reorganized Chemical reaction into different substances.  Clues that a chemical reaction has taken place include the production of heat or light, and formation of a gas, liquid, or solid. Physical reaction
  36. 36. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.2 Chemical Reactions Chemical Equations  Chemical formulas describe the substances in the reaction and arrows indicate the process of change.  Reactants are the starting substances, on the left side of the arrow.  Products are the substances formed, on the right side of the arrow.
  37. 37. Dehydration Synthesis http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UyDnnD3fMaU• A chemical reaction that builds molecules by losing water molecules (H2O) Before After
  38. 38. Hydrolysis• Chemical reaction splitting a compound into 2 by adding water (H2O) Before After
  39. 39. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.2 Chemical Reactions Energy of Reactions  Activation energy: the minimum amount of energy needed for reactants to form products in a chemical reaction.
  40. 40. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.2 Chemical Reactions  This reaction is exothermic and released heat energy.  The energy of the product is lower than the energy of the reactants.  Ex. Na+ + Cl- =NaCl (salt)
  41. 41. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.2 Chemical Reactions  This reaction is endothermic and absorbed heat energy.  The energy of the products is higher than the energy of the reactants.  Ex: photosynthesis
  42. 42. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.2 Chemical Reactions Enzymes  A catalyst is a substance that lowers the activation energy and speeds up a reaction  It does not increase how much product is made and it can be re-used over and over again .  Enzymes are biological catalysts.
  43. 43. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.2 Chemical Reactions  The reactants that bind to the enzyme are called substrates.  The specific location where a substrate binds on an enzyme is called the active site. Fits together like a lock and key
  44. 44. Chapter 6 Chemistry in Biology 6.2 Chemical Reactions  The active site specifically is shaped to match the substrate and forms the enzyme- substrate complex, which helps bonds in the reactants to be broken and new bonds to form.  Factors such as pH, temperature, and enzyme concentration

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