“Baucis and Philemon” Metamorphoses Book VIII.611-724 P. Ovidius Naso Reubens, Jupiter and Mercury with Philemon and Baucis Group Project:J. Wamsley, B. Urrutia, J. Amy, E. Rogers, L. Campbell, R. Freeman LATN 6220 Summer 2012
Introduction to the Author Introduction to the Work Ovid wrote in what is known as the golden age of Latin literature. Ovid’s influence is so strong that he should not be missed whenThis means that he was writing mostly during the reign of Augustus, a formulating a high school Latin curriculum. His poetry can be read onvery complicated time in Roman history that began with civil war but many levels so all types of students should be able to find something inended in relative peace. There was sort of an opposite trajectory for Ovid that interests them. The myth of Baucis and Philemon provides anOvid. Spending his early years away from Rome allowed Ovid to avoid excellent introduction to the work of Ovid. On a most basic level it is asome of the chaos of the civil war years. Once he established himself in charming story about an elderly couple who are rewarded for their piety.Rome he became involved in some very politically connected circles and More can be read into the symbolism of Ovid by those students who arelife became more complicated for Ovid. Although his political interested in themes such as hospitality, meal sharing, architecture, piety,entanglements may have resulted in his eventual exile, Ovid’s writing has and harmony. It is a very adaptable myth that lends itself to study in anyhad an extensive influence on authors, playwrights, and scholars up to classroom.and including the modern day. Ovid inspired paintings by Titian, Ruben, This text will provide you with the myth of Baucis and Philemon,and Caravaggio. He inspired sculptors like Bernini and Rodin. He has complete with vocabulary and commentary. Also included are discussionalso found a place in literary works such as Dante’s Inferno and questions and sample quizzes. The goal of this text is to provide a levelShakespeare’s plays. Ovid’s poetry was even moralized so that it could three Latin class with an introduction to Ovid. It can be read quickly atstill be studied in even the most Christian of eras. the end of the year as preparation for reading Latin poetry in the fourth year or more time can be spent with the addition of the suggested projects that come with this text. This text is also a means of introducing your students to common figures of speech found in Latin poetry such as anaphora and hendiadys.
Vocabulary Piety613 spretor –oris m despiser, scorner Amnis ab his tacuit. factum mirabile cunctos613 Ixion –onis m Ixion (king of the Lapiths, who was tied to a wheel by moverat: inridet credentes, utque deorum Jupiter for trying to seduce June and sent flying into Tartarus) spretor erat mentisque ferox, Ixione natus614 fingo fingere finxi fictus tr to shape, form; to imagine, invent; ficta refers nimiumque putas, Acheloe, potentes to pretend, feign esse deos, dixit si dant adimuntque figuras. 615620 tilia –ae f linden tree, lime tree obstipuere omnes nec talia dicta probarunt,620 conterminus –a –um adj neighboring; (w. dat) adjacent to ante omnesque Lelex animo maturus et aevo,620 quercus –us f oak tree sic ait: inmensa est finemque potentia caeli621 Phrygius –a –um adj & mf Phrygian; Trojan non habet, et quidquid superi voluere, peractum est,622 Pelopeïas –ados or Pelopeus –a –um adj Pelopian; quoque minus dubites, tiliae contermina quercus 620622 Pittheus –ei or –eos m king of Troezen and father of Aethra, collibus est Phrygiis medio circumdata muro; the mother of Theseus ipse locum vidi; nam me Pelopeia Pittheus misit in arva suo quondam regnata parenti.Notes611 Amnis: The river Achelous was telling a short myth and all the companions listening to his story have fallen silent as he finishes.613 Ixione natus a character by the name Pirithous Becky Tatter, 616 obstupuere Alternative 3rd Person Plural Perfect Active 2009, Atlanta Indicative probarunt Syncopated 3rd Person Plural Perfect Active Indicative617 Lelex was part of the group listening to Achelous story and participated in the Caledonian Boar Hunt in a story told before this myth Animo…aevo hendiadys619 voluere Alternative 3rd Person Plural Perfect Active Indicative Comprehension and Discussion Questions620 dubites 2nd Person Singular Present Active Subjunctive – Purpose Clause introduced by quo I. Why is the beginning of this passage an example of hubris? II. This myth is an example of a narration within a narration. Why does Ovid construct his work in this way, and where else has there been an example of this technique?
Vocabulary Setting the Scene624. stagnum, -i n.: swamp625. celeber, bris, bre: frequented (agreeing with undae) haud procul hinc stagnum est, tellus habitabilis olim, mergus, -i m.: a diver, water-fowl nunc celebres mergis fulicisque palustribus undae; 625 fulica, -ae f.: a coot Iuppiter huc specie mortali cumque parente627. Atlantiades: a descendent of Atlas, i.e. Mercury venit Atlantiades positis caducifer alis. caducifer, fera, ferum: bearing a herald’s staff mille domos adiere locum requiemque petentes, ala, -ae f.: wing mille domos clausere serae; tamen una recepit,630. paluster, tris, tre: marshy, swampy parva quidem stipulis et canna tecta palustri, 630 canna, -ae f.: cane, reed sed pia: Baucis anus parilique aetate Philemon635. famulus, -i m.: servant illa sunt annis iuncti iuvenalibus, illa consenuere casa paupertatemque fatendoNotes effecere levem nec iniqua mente ferendo; nec refert, dominos illic famulosne requiras: 635 tota domus duo sunt, idem parentque iubentque.624. haud procul hinc: “not very far off from here” olim…nunc: “at that time…now” note the contrast632. illa: adverbially, “there” Comprehension and Discussion Questions illa…casa: ablative of place where “in that cabin”633. fatendo: gerund “by owning”634. levem: light (take as predicate to paupertatem) I. The poet mentions that the land where Baucis and Philemon live ferendo: gerund “by bearing [it] in an uneven mind” was once, habitabilis. What does it mean that Baucis and635. requiras: 2nd person singular active subjunctive “should you ask” Philemon continue to live in the swamp-land even when it is uninhabitable? II. Describe the domestic environment of Baucis and Philemon’s house. Are there slaves? Animals? Sons and daughters? III. What is the significance of Baucis and Philemon’s age? Woodcut Ovid, 1563, Furt
Vocabulary At Home Preparing Dinner637. caelicola, -ae f.: deity, god638. vertrex, -icis m.: the crown of the head ergo ubi caelicolae parvos tetigere penates640. superinicio, -ere, eci, ectum: throw over summissoque humiles intrarunt vertice postes, textus, -i m.: texture, covering membra senex posito iussit relevare sedili; sedulus, a, um: attentive cui superiniecit textum rude sedula Baucis 640641. tepidus, a, um: warm inque foco tepidum cinerem dimovit et ignes642. suscito, -are, -avi, -atum: kindle suscitat hesternos foliisque et cortice sicco hesternus, a, um: of yesterday nutrit et ad flammas anima producit anili cortex, -icis n.: husk multifidasque faces ramaliaque arida tecto siccus, a, um: dry detulit et minuit parvoque admovit aeno, 645644. ramale, -lis n.: brushwood quodque suus coniunx riguo conlegerat horto,645. minuo, minuere, minui, minutus: lessen, reduce truncat holus foliis; furca levat illa bicorni aenum, -i n.: kettle sordida terga suis nigro pendentia tigno646. riguus, a, um: watering, well-watered servatoque diu resecat de tergore partem647. trunco, -are, -avi, -atum: strip of branches, cut (acc.) off (abl.) exiguam sectamque domat ferventibus undis. 650 holus, -eris n.: vegetables furca, -ae f. fork Comprehension and Discussion Questions648. sus, suis n.: sow, pig649. exiguus, a, um: meager I. The poet devotes an awful lot of attention (nearly 10 lines) toNotes how Baucis and Philemon prepare the fire and dinner for Jupiter and Mercury. What might be the significance of such detail?639. summissoque…vertice: ablative absolute “with the head Aside from having you look up lots of vocabulary, what effect lowered” might the poet achieve with such language?639. iussit: supply [illos] II. How does the poet characterize the feast that Baucis and posito sedili: ablative of place where “on the put aside seat” Philemon prepare for their divine guests? cui: antecedent is sedili “on which” III. What does the characterization of the feast tell us about Baucis643. nutrit: supply [illos] and Philemon? Are they simply just poor or do they possess an producit: supply [illum] “she leads [it] forth ability to preserve the necessities of life? anima: ablative of means645. minuit: supply [illa] parvo…aeno: ablative of place where “in a small kettle”646. riguo…horto: ablative of origin “from a well-watered garden”648. nigro pendentia tigno: ablative of place where “hanging on a black rafter”650. ferventibus undis: ablative of place where “in boiling water”
Vocabulary Serving the Gods651. fallo, fallere, fefelli, falsum: wile away653. fagineus, -a, -um: (of) beech-wood interea medias fallunt sermonibus horas clavus, -i m.: nail, spike sentirique moram prohibent. erat alveus illic ansa, -ae f.: handle fagineus, dura clavo suspensus ab ansa: 655. ulva, -ae f.: sedge is tepidis inpletur aquis artusque fovendos656. salignus, -a, -um: (of) willow-wood accipit. in medio torus est de mollibus ulvis 655662. testa, -ae f.: potsherd, tile inpositus lecto sponda pedibusque salignis.663. menta, -ae f.: mint vestibus hunc velant, quas non nisi tempore festo664. sincerus, -a, -um: pure, uncorrupt sternere consuerant, sed et haec vilisque vetusque665. cornum, -i n.: cornel-cherry vestis erat, lecto non indignanda saligno. faex, faecis f.: the dregs adcubuere dei. mensam succincta tremensque 660666. intibum, -i n.: endive, succory ponit anus, mensae sed erat pes tertius inpar:667. favilla, -ae f.: glowing ashes, a spark testa parem fecit; quae postquam subdita clivum668. fictilis, -e: earthen; n. as subst., earthenware sustulit, aequatam mentae tersere virentes. ponitur hic bicolor sincerae baca MinervaeNotes conditaque in liquida corna autumnalia faece 665 intibaque et radix et lactis massa coacti655-6. torus…lecto…sponda: a cushion on top of the padding ovaque non acri leviter versata favilla, upon a frame omnia fictilibus; post haec caelatus eodem658. consuerant: syncopated pluperfect for “consueverant” sistitur argento crater fabricataque fago660. succincta: Baucis has lifted her skirt higher for freedom of movement while she serves her guests Comprehension and Discussion Questions663. tersere: Baucis uses fresh mint leaves to scrub the table666. lactis coacti: a common term for cheese, literally “curdled milk” I. Clavus is also the term for a broad purple stripe on a white toga. Beech-wood (fagineus) is typically white. Is there any significance in the juxtaposition of these two items? II. How would you describe the layout and environment of Baucis and Philemon’s home? Do you think gods would be comfortable there? Would you want to pay them a visit? III. Imagine you were serving strangers as your guests in ancient Rome. What would you serve them? Would they expect anything in particular to be served? Carravagio, Supper at Emmaus
Vocabulary Dessert670 flaveo, flavere, --,-- : be yellow or gold colored pocula, qua cava sunt, flaventibus inlita ceris; 670 inlino, inlinere, inlevi, inlitus: smear over; annoint parva mora est, epulasque foci misere calentes,671 epula, epulae, f: courses (pl.), food, dishes of food; dinner nec longae rursus referuntur vina senectae focus, foci, m: hearth, fireplace dantque locum mensis paulum seducta secundis. caleo, calere, calui, -: be/feel/be kept warm; hic nux, hic mixta est rugosis carica palmis673 seduco, seducere, seduxi, seductus: lead away, lead apart prunaque et in patulis redolentia mala canistris 675675 patulus, patula, patulum: wide open, gaping; wide-spreading; et de purpureis conlectae vitibus uvae; redoleo, redolere, redolui, -: emit a scent, be odorous candidus in medio favus est: super omnia vultus canistrum, canistri n: wicker basket (used for food/flowers accessere boni nec iners pauperque voluntas. and in sacrifices)678 accedo, accedere, accessi, accessus: agree with iners, inertis (gen.): unskillful, incompetent Comprehension and Discussion Questions voluntas, voluntatis, f.: good will I. Why do you think the drinking-cups are referred to as cava andNotes are covered with flaventibus ceris? II. Why is dessert referred to as second table? How does this description of dessert compare with a typical American dessert? III. What is the significance of the grapes being removed from purple670 flaventibus...ceris: ablative of means vines?671 misere: alternate verb form IV. What is the most important “observation” that Ovid makes in671 epulasque foci misere calentes: the hearth released the warm food. this passage? lit. sent676 purpureis...vitibus: transferred epithet678 accessere: alternate verb form Otto Van Veen, 1607, Emblemata Horatiana
Vocabulary The Miracles679 totiens: as/so often, so many times haurio, haurire, hausi, haustus: drain, exhaust Interea totiens haustum cratera repleri680 succresco, succrescere, succrevi: overflow sponte sua per seque vident succrescere vina: 680681 paveo, pavere, pavi: be frightened or terrified at adtoniti novitate pavent manibusque supinis682 concipio, concipere, concepi, conceptus: take in/up concipiunt Baucisque preces timidusque Philemon prex, precis: F prayer, request et veniam dapibus nullisque paratibus orant.683 nullus, nulla, nullum: no, none, not any unicus anser erat, minimae custodia villae, daps, dapis F: sacrificial feast/meal; feast, banquet quem dis hospitibus domini mactare parabant; 685684 anser, is m: goose ille celer penna tardos aetate fatigat685 macto, mactare, mactavi, mactatus: sacrifice; slaughter eluditque diu tandemque est visus ad ipsos689 meritus, merita, meritum: deserved, due confugisse deos: superi vetuere necari luo, luere, lui, luitus: pay; atone for (poenam luere – to suffer "di" que "sumus, meritasque luet vicinia poenas punishment) inpia" dixerunt; "vobis inmunibus huius 690690 immunis, immunis, immune: exempt; immune esse mali dabitur. modo vestra relinquite tecta692 comito, comitare, comitavi, comitatus: accompany ac nostros comitate gradus et in ardua montis gradus, gradus M: step, position ite simul!" parent ambo baculisque levati arduus, ardua, arduum: steep, high, lofty, towering; arduous nituntur longo vestigia ponere clivo.693 levo, levare, levavi, levatus: lighten694 nitor, niti, nixus sum: press/lean upon, depend on (+abl) Comprehension and Discussion Questions clivum, clivi N: incline, hill I. What is the effect of the scansion in lines 693-694Notes II. What could be Jove’s motivation for saving the goose?680 sponte sua: ablative of means681 novitate: ablative of agent682 concipiunt: expresses the repeating of a ritual prayer683 dapibus nullis: datives of respect Rembrandt, 685 dis hospitibus: hendiadys Baucis and 686 keep ille as the subject. Jupiter Drawing 688 visus ad ipsos confugisse deos: personification
Vocabulary The Request695. semel: one time tantum aberant summo, quantum semel ire sagitta 695696. mergo, ere, mersi, mersus: drown, overwhelm missa potest: flexere oculos et mersa palude palus, paludis f:: swamp, marsh cetera prospiciunt, tantum sua tecta manere.697. tantum: only dumque ea mirantur, dum deflent fata suorum,699. vetus, veteris: old illa vetus, dominis etiam casa parva duobus700. furca, ae f: prop, fork vertitur in templum: furcas subiere columnae, 700 subeo, ire, ii, itus: pass, extend pass stramina flavescunt, adopertaque marmore tellus701. stramen, straminis n: straw caelataeque fores aurataque tecta videntur. flavesco, ere: become yellow, turn golden talia tum placido Saturnius edidit ore:703. edo, edere, edidi, editus: pronounce "dicite, iuste senex et femina coniuge iusto704. iustus, a, um: proper, lawful digna, quid optetis!" cum Baucide pauca locutus 705706. iudicium, i n: judgement iudicium superis aperit commune Philemon: aperio, ire, ui, apertus: reveal, disclose "esse sacerdotes delubraque vestra tueri707. delubrum, i n: temple, shrine poscimus, et quoniam concordes egimus annos,709. aufero, ferre, abstuli, ablatus: take away auferat hora duos eadem, nec coniugis umquam710. bustum, i n: tomb, corpse, ashes busta meae videam, neu sim tumulandus ab illa." 710Notes Rubens,695. tantum…quantum: how much…that much Landscape696. mersa…prospiciunt: prospiciunt introduces an indirect with Baucis statement. Supply esse with mersa. and698. suorum: supply vicinorum, “of their neighbors” Philemon702. caelata: supply sunt; for adoperta supply est703. Saturnius: This is the son of Saturn, Jupiter705. quid optetis: indirect question with dicite706. superis: referring to the gods, those who live higher above708. concordes egimus annos: we have lived the same years709. auferat: this is a jussive subjunctive and needs to be translated as Comprehension and Discussion Questions “let” nec: so that not, introducing a purpose clause I. How do Philemon and Baucis continue to show their piety as710. nec sim timulandus ab illa: a passive periphrastic in a negative they look on their submerged neighbors? purpose clause. “so that I must not be buried by that woman.” II. Identify the Latin and the line numbers where the old couple’s home is transformed. III. Concordes…annos can mean a variety of things. Based on the word concordes, what sort of marriage have Baucis and Philemon shared?
Vocabulary A Wish Granted711. tutela, - ae, f.: guardianship; here, guardian (s) vota fides sequitur: templi tutela fuere,712. aevum, i, n.: age, generation donec vita data est; annis aevoque soluti casus, casus, m: chance, fortune, plight, fate ante gradus sacros cum starent forte locique solvo, -vere, -vi, solutum: loosen, weaken, release, set free narrarent casus, frondere Philemona Baucis,714. frondeo, -ere: to put forth leaves, to sprout leaves Baucida conspexit senior frondere Philemon. 715716. cacumen, -inis, n.: extremity, peak, top (in this case it is the top iamque super geminos crescente cacumine vultus of the tree) mutua, dum licuit, reddebant dicta "vale" que718. abdo, -ere, -didi, -ditum: hide "o coniunx" dixere simul, simul abdita texit719. frutex, -icis, m.: shrub, bush, bark of a tree ora frutex: ostendit adhuc Thyneius illic720. incola, ae, f.- inhabitant incola de gemino vicinos corpore truncos. 720 geminus, a ,um- two- fold, twin haec mihi non vani (neque erat, cur fallere vellent) truncus, i, m: tree trunk narravere senes; equidem pendentia vidi721. vanus, a,um- false, untruthful, unreliable serta super ramos ponensque recentia dixi fallo, fallere fefelli, falsum- to deceive, to say falsely, to lie "cura deum di sint, et, qui coluere, colantur."722. pendeo, pendere, pependi - hang, overhang723. sertum, serti, n.: wreath, chain of flowers, garland ramus, i, m. : branchNotes711. do, dare, dedi, datum here is “give up” or “yield” annis aevoque: ablatives of separation712-713. loci: locative, “and at that place”714-715. Philomena, Baucida- Greek accusative singular.718: abdida texit ora frutex- bark covered their hidden faces. Prolepsis: the heads of Baucis and Philemon logically can not be hidden until they are covered first by the fruit. Comprehension and Discussion Questions719. At the close of this tale, Ovid reintroduces the narrator, Thyneian/Bithynian Lelex (see map), who will begin speaking in I. What is the effect of the placement and repetition of simul in line line 721 in the first person. 18?721. neque erat- supply “any reason”: There was not any reason… II. Describe the physical transformation of Baucis and Philemon.724. cura deum= “the beloved of the gods” What vocabulary does Ovid use? sint and colantur= jussive subjunctives. The jussive subjunctive III. In the end, the pietas of Baucis and Philemon is rewarded and is used to express a command or exhortation. Supply the helping they are granted their wish. According to Ovid, what is the verb “let.” ultimate reward for pietas?