Environmental scanning

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  • How many of you have participated in an environmental scan? Of those who have NOT participated, who can give me a definition an environmental scan?
  • Example: Baby-boomer peak starting to reach retire age  workforce openings. Baby-boom echo (kids of boomers) is currently passing through high school. HS graduations are peaking  declining traditional student enrollments. Also means fewer young people entering the workforce. Mitigating factors: Majority of boomer cannot afford to retire. Will they keep their jobs longer thereby preventing new job openings? If so, will this cause shift in regional career demand relative to prior trends. How will this effect career mobility within existing workforce? Will they be coming back to college for retraining in other fields? What is our institution’s part in all of this?
  • CCS used a team of 4 researchers. Together we developed the major areas of focus (chapters), then split up the work. We spent 3 months collecting and exploring data, and writing our assigned chapters. Does anyone else who has conducted a scan want to share what there process was like?
  • Editor CCS used was outside the research team, but had research experience and was able to help synthesize the results. You must tell the story with enough detail that a vision of the future is obtainable to planners.
  • Environmental scanning

    1. 1. A. Mark Macias Director of Institutional Research Spokane Community College November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    2. 2. <ul><li>Introduction to the environmental scanning process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Definition of scanning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of scans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>What to include in your scans </li></ul><ul><li>Tips on conducting scans </li></ul><ul><li>Tips on producing scan report </li></ul><ul><li>Resources </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    3. 3. November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    4. 4. <ul><li>The process of collecting, analyzing, and distributing information for tactical and strategic purposes </li></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    5. 5. <ul><li>To provide strategic intelligence by evaluating potentially significant environmental changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveys both current environmental status and how it is changing  trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alerts planners to trends that are converging, diverging, interacting, accelerating, or decelerating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal end-goal: allows for adaptive planning before these trends occur or fully develop </li></ul></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    6. 6. <ul><li>Often refers only to the environment that is external to the organization (also called the macroenvironment) </li></ul><ul><li>Good strategic planning requires information on internal organizational factors, so whenever possible include these also (unless obtained in separate processes) </li></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    7. 7. <ul><li>One cycle in the strategic planning process </li></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    8. 8. November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    9. 9. November 2008 WARP Fall Conference Ad Hoc Periodic Continuous General Character-istics <ul><li>Usually performed in response to crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Not as in-depth </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasts are more short-term </li></ul><ul><li>Tied to planning cycle (e.g., every 3 years) </li></ul><ul><li>In-depth </li></ul><ul><li>Forecasts 5 to 10 years </li></ul><ul><li>Also called Continuous Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Structured, in-depth data collection and analyses by dedicated staff </li></ul><ul><li>Data gathered is more comprehensive </li></ul>Pros <ul><li>Allows for quicker turn-around of scan results </li></ul><ul><li>Lower commitment of resources over time </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable frequency allows for appropriate budget planning </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency provides timely information gathering for planning </li></ul><ul><li>Planning is proactive… </li></ul><ul><li>Dedication of time by researchers allows incorporation of data from more sources </li></ul><ul><li>Provides planners with more comprehensive information </li></ul><ul><li>Informs planners of critical changes sooner </li></ul><ul><li>Plans can be adjusted or adopted more proactively </li></ul>Cons <ul><li>Data can be more superficial </li></ul><ul><li>Results may address immediate issues, but are less generalizable </li></ul><ul><li>If only conducted in response to crises, indicates lack of organized institutional planning efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Planning response is reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction to unforeseen changes in environment (e.g., onset of recession) may require Ad Hoc scan to supplement information. </li></ul><ul><li>Planning response is then more reactive </li></ul><ul><li>Requires ongoing institutional commitment of resources (funding, personnel, and time) </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Depends … </li></ul><ul><li>No, this is not a cop-out … </li></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    11. 11. <ul><li>Depends… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Type of scan (Ad hoc, Periodic, Continuous) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Your institution’s relationship to its service area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the scan information will be used </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Things to consider including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer analyses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current and potential students </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current and potential students’ parents </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Current and potential employers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other institutions of higher education (for transfer students) </li></ul></ul></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    12. 12. <ul><li>Community relations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Community needs assessment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Competitors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other public and private CCs, universities, and technical colleges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Campus (& District) Climate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Faculty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Macroenvironment: STEEP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-cultural </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Demographics </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>population size and distribution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>age distribution </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>education levels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>income levels </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>race and ethnicity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Socio-Cultural (continued) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes about higher education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural shifts </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Technological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New products and services  training opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New manufacturing processes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure changes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Economic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Industry/career demand and decline </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unemployment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inflation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental/Ecological </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>New industry opportunities </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Political </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political climate/stability </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>State budget deficit or surplus </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Changes in legislation </li></ul></ul></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    13. 13. <ul><li>Rate factors on two dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Potential impact on your institution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Probability of occurrence </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Look for changes in current trends </li></ul><ul><li>Look for potential interaction effects between factors. </li></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    14. 14. November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    15. 15. <ul><li>Don’t try to do this alone! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Assemble a research team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divide the workload </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allow your team ample time to do the work * </li></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference * Then give yourself even more time!
    16. 16. <ul><li>Use an editor to create a common voice in the text. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Present your data so that it tells a story, then actually tell that story. Because… </li></ul><ul><li>The reader must be able to envision the future and engage in “future-thinking.” </li></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    17. 17. <ul><li>Again, consider your audience. </li></ul><ul><li>Use charts and graphs to clearly present past and future trends. </li></ul><ul><li>Refer to The Visual Display of Quantitative Information by Edward Tufte for guidance of best practices. </li></ul><ul><li>Use color in charts and graphs to draw readers attention to important factors, and avoid “chart clutter.” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But, make sure they are still readable if photocopied or printed in grayscale. </li></ul></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference Don’t do what we did! (And we even knew better)
    18. 18. <ul><li>Plan on producing both printed and electronic (PDF) versions. </li></ul><ul><li>Plan for limited color printing (for key stake-holders), with additional copies in black and white for general distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Documents that stakeholders are proud of will be more widely distributed and more widely used. </li></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    19. 19. <ul><li>A small sampling… </li></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    20. 20. November 2008 WARP Fall Conference These data sources were found to be very helpful in preparing the CCS environmental scan, and would be useful for any college in WA. Free Sources US Census Bureau US Dept of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics Capital Professional Services State Board for Community & Technical College Washington Office of Financial Management Washington Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction Washington Workforce Explorer www.census.gov and factfinder.census.gov www.bls.gov inflationdata.com www.sbctc.ctc.edu www.ofm.wa.gov www.k12.wa.us www.workforceexplorer.com Subscription Sources National Student Clearinghouse Economic Modeling Specialists, Inc. www.studentclearinghouse.org www.economicmodeling.com
    21. 21. <ul><li>Morrison, J. L. (1992). Environmental scanning. In M. A. Whitely, J. D. Porter, and R. H. Fenske (Eds.), A primer for new institutional researchers (pp. 86-99). Tallahassee, Florida: The Association for Institutional Research. Out of publication, but still available on the web: http://horizon.unc.edu/courses/papers/enviroscan/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Environmental_scanning </li></ul><ul><li>Tufte, E. R. 2001. The Visual Display of Quantitative Information . Cheshire, Connecticut: Graphics Press LLC. </li></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference
    22. 22. <ul><li>Share Tips or Advice ? </li></ul><ul><li>Share Data Sources ? </li></ul><ul><li>Share Resources ? PowerPoint slides and PDF of CCS Environmental Scan available upon request: A. Mark Macias Spokane Community College [email_address] 509-533-8871 </li></ul>November 2008 WARP Fall Conference

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