The Characteristics ofEnglish as an International LanguageGlobal English - World Englishes - English as a Lingua Franca By Rachadaporn Khumpun 550132013
Global English James AllanA vehicular language inGlobalisationDominant English - spread ofAmerican English throughworldwide via media andcommunication systemCultural Homogenization -American pop cultureRegister or FormalityEnglish for specific purpose =>business, academic, technical
World Englishes James AllanLocalized English: adaptation orappropriation of languageFunctioned as nationalitymarkers, especially by phonology(dialects)Postcolonial Englishes: English inthe Outer CircleExpanding Circle (Kachru’smodel)Diversity of English: Singlish,Chinglish, Korean English,Japanese English
Lingua Franca English James AllanGlocal = Global + LocalIntegration of globalizedworld and local cultureand heritageCultural hybridizationLanguage resource forintercultural andfunctionalcommunication
English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) Hulmbauer, et al. ELF as it is generally conceived of is essentially “a ‘contact language’ between persons whoA flexible communicative language share neither a common native tongue nor a common (national) culture, and for whom English is the chosen foreign language of communication”. (Firth, 1996)Not a property of its native speakers - not ‘norm-dependent’ EnglishFor functional effectiveness rather than formalcorrectnessNot a bad or deficient English but a differentEnglishA partner language (not a threat) in multilingualcontext
English as a Lingua Franca Fiedler SabineWe might suggest that ELF interactants are using ELF as a means ofcommunicating, without necessarily identify with English as a culturalsymbol. (House and Edmonson) A language selected for communication only expresses a communicative and primarily referential function, i.e. the culture associated with this natural language is not activated by its users. (Polzl) English in its role as an international language is used as a language of communication and not as a language of identification. (Hullen)
English as a Lingua Franca Fiedler Sabine...[W]hether the English that is used dominantly today is really used without any relationto L1 English and whether speakers really restrict the use of language to itscommunicative function without expressing identity. (Fiedler, 2011) Language of communication only? What about identity or culture? English influenced by Anglo-American culture
English as a Lingua Franca Fiedler SabineIdentity expressed in and through language by non-native speakers based on three constituents:1) English native language and culture2) Speaker’s native language and culture3) Specific ELF identity
English as a Lingua Franca Fiedler Sabine Examples from phraseology1) English native language and culture: non-nativespeakers adopt sayings from native-speaker- In my paper you will find something old, somethingnew, something borrowed, something blue,...- We are in the same boat.
English as a Lingua Franca Fiedler Sabine Examples from phraseology2) Speaker’s native language and culture: exportingfigurative expression from their own lingua-culturalbackgrounds- It’s like a red thread (=a theme) going through thetext. (German)- Using native proverb to explain something.
English as a Lingua Franca Fiedler Sabine Examples from phraseology3) Specific ELF identity: using English as an L2 toconstruct a common identity for themselves- Culture is culture. (from ‘boys will be boys’, ‘Mum isMum’)- God bless the lord. (from ‘God bless you’, ‘Thankyou the Lord’)
ConclusionNon-native speakers tend to have a right to determine the characteristics of English as an International Language in intercultural context.
What is more important to you between usingEnglish correctly and communicating inintercultural context?Do you want to use English only as a means ofcommunication or as a tool to communicate aswell as to represent Thainess in globalcommunity?
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