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Chapter 1


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Chapter 1

  1. 1.
  2. 2. Psychology: Yesterday and Today<br />
  3. 3. What Is Psychology?<br />Psychology is the science1 of mental processes and behavior.<br />1Systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation.<br />
  4. 4. Levels of Analysis<br />The brain<br />The person<br />The group<br />
  5. 5. Is psychology all common sense?<br />Take the Psychology Quiz and see for yourself<br />
  6. 6. The Evolution of a Science<br />Structuralism<br />Wilhelm Wundt & Edward Titchener (student of Wundt)<br />Focused on identifying the “building blocks” of consciousness<br />Introspection: Looking within<br />Not objectively verifiable<br />
  7. 7. The Evolution of a Science<br />Functionalism<br />William James<br />Influenced by Charles Darwin<br />Studied how consciousness helped an individual survive and adapt to an environment<br />Animal observations provide clues for human behavior<br />Focused on pragmatic issues such as improving education<br />
  8. 8. The Evolution of a Science<br />Gestalt Psychology<br />Max Wertheimer<br />Focused on consciousness and principles of perceptual organization<br />The whole is greater than the sum of its parts<br />
  9. 9. The Evolution of a Science<br />Psychodynamic Theory<br />Sigmund Freud<br />The mind has separate components<br />Conscious and unconscious components<br />Much of behavior in influenced by the unconscious<br />Psychoanalysis<br />
  10. 10. The Evolution of a Science<br />Behaviorism <br />John Watson & B. F. Skinner<br />The mind cannot be observed<br />Behavior can be observed<br />Science should study the observable<br />Reinforcement<br />Stimulus-response<br />
  11. 11. His Head is a Triangle?!<br />
  12. 12. The Evolution of a Science<br />Humanistic Psychology<br />Carl Rogers & Abraham Maslow<br />Client-centered therapy<br />We strive for self-actualization<br />
  13. 13. The Evolution of a Science<br />The Cognitive Revolution<br />Alan Newell & Herbert Simon<br />Focus on mental processes (information processing)<br />Computer metaphor<br />Cognitive neuroscience<br />
  14. 14. The Evolution of a Science<br />Evolutionary psychology<br />Lida Cosmides, John Tooby, David Buss, & Steven Pinker<br />Evolutionarily successful cognitive strategies and goals survived<br />Cultural universality<br />