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Ontologies Presentation

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Ontologies presentation for e-business systems development

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Ontologies Presentation

  1. 1. Ontologies<br />Presentation for e-business systems development BN3374<br />Tom Raby<br />
  2. 2. What is an Ontology?<br />Definition:<br /> “ Ontologies are ways of organising and describing related items, and are used to represent semantics.”<br /> “ Ontology involves discovering categories and fitting objects into them in ways that makes sense.” <br />
  3. 3. Example<br />
  4. 4. Components<br />Classes– Collections, concepts<br />Individuals – Instances or objects. The basic objects<br />Attributes – aspects, properties, features<br />Values / Properties– Individual related specific data. Value of the properties / attributes<br />Relations – ways in which individuals/classes relate to one another<br />Events – the changing of attributes or relations <br />
  5. 5. Components<br />Classes– Collections, concepts<br />
  6. 6. Example<br />
  7. 7. Components<br />Classes– Collections, concepts<br />Individuals – Instances or objects. The basic objects<br />
  8. 8. Example<br />
  9. 9. Components<br />Classes– Collections, concepts<br />Individuals – Instances or objects. The basic objects<br />Attributes – aspects, properties, features<br />
  10. 10. Example<br />
  11. 11. Components<br />Classes– Collections, concepts<br />Individuals – Instances or objects. The basic objects<br />Attributes – aspects, properties, features<br />Values / Properties– Individual related specific data. Value of the properties / attributes<br />
  12. 12. Example<br />
  13. 13. Components<br />Classes– Collections, concepts<br />Individuals – Instances or objects. The basic objects<br />Attributes – aspects, properties, features<br />Values / Properties– Individual related specific data. Value of the properties / attributes<br />Relations – ways in which individuals/classes relate to one another<br />
  14. 14. Example<br />
  15. 15. Components<br />Classes– Collections, concepts<br />Individuals – Instances or objects. The basic objects<br />Attributes– aspects, properties, features<br />Values / Properties– Individual related specific data. Value of the properties / attributes<br />Relations – ways in which individuals/classes relate to one another<br />Events – the changing of attributes or relations <br />
  16. 16. Example<br />
  17. 17. What makes a good Ontology?<br />Syntax<br />Identified with form, format and structure of the data. <br />Programs such as RDF (research development framework) OWL (ontology web framework) SQL and Java all improve the form and format of the ontology<br />Structure<br />Databases, semantic web and ontologies require good structure to organise and contain elements of the model. <br />Semantics<br />Semantic interpretation is the mapping between some structured subset of data and the set of objects with respect to the intended meaning of those objects and the relationships.<br />Pragmatics<br />Intent of the semantics and actual semantic usage. There is very little pragmatics expressed or even expressible in programming or database languages, but will become important.<br />
  18. 18. The need for Ontologies<br />With increasing levels of data, the need to categorise it and develop a framework and understanding of it increases. <br />Allows greater level of integration.<br />Able to express the semantics of your data, document collections, and systems using the same semantic resource that is machine interpretable. <br />Re-use previously developed versions, bring in different or related ontologies, and extend the ontology. This helps to establish community wide common semantics. <br />
  19. 19. Closing Comments<br />Ontologies are used to improve the structure and data used in a web page<br />Categorise s and develops data into a structure that makes sense.<br />Complicated but becoming essential to generate full use of data<br />Needs to be machine interpretable. Machines cannot make assumptions like humans<br />
  20. 20. Questions?<br />
  21. 21. References<br />Deitel, P.J. Deitel, H.M. (2008). Internet &World Wide Web How to Program. 4th ed. New Jersey: Pearson Education Inc. 96.<br />Daconta, M. Obrst, L. Smith, K (2003). The Semantic Web. A Guide to the eFuture of XML, Web services, and Knowledge Management. Indianapolis: Wiley Publishing Inc. 181-238<br />

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