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  1. 1. CHANGE
  2. 2. ChangeChange Management:•A structured approach to shifting/transitioning individuals, teams and organizations fromcurrent state to a desired future state.Organizational Change:•It is generally considered to be an organization-wide change.•It includes management of changes to the organizational culture, businessprocesses, physical environment, job design / responsibilities, staff skills / knowledge andpolicies / procedures•When the change is fundamental and radical, one might call it organizational transformation 15-2
  3. 3. Forces which necessitate change•Change should not be done for the sake of change – it is a strategy to accomplish overallgoal•Usually organizational change is provoked by some major outside driving force and also maybe triggered by various internal factors. External drivers of Internal drivers of change change •Political Forces •Organization dynamics •Economical Forces •Administrative policies & rigidity •Technological Forces •Expectations of the internal customer •Government Forces •Structural inadequacy •Increased Global competition •Technological factors •Changing customer needs expectations & •Human Resources Planning preferences •Profitability Issues 15-3
  4. 4. Human Reaction to Organization Change•There is a very close relationship between change & human attitudes•Human reaction to change depends on how a change will effect ones need & satisfaction.•Attitudes are very important in determining resistance to change.•Individual reaction to organization change occurs in any of the following forms :-1. Acceptance – If an employee perceives that change will effect his/her favorably, then he/she will accept the change.2. Resistance – If an employee perceives the change is unfavorable to them, they resist to change3. Indifference - In some cases changes in organization or environment fails to bring reaction to the employee. There are two reaction to change, acceptance & resistance, but in some cases no reaction4. Forced Acceptance – Employee or people may resist to the change in initial state but if the change force are stronger than resistance force, then they have to accept change. 15-4
  5. 5. Causes of Resistance to Organization Change1. Individual resistance – Arises due to differing perceptions, personalities & needs. Some of the reasons appears to be rational & emotional.The reasons are listed below :•Economic Factors•Psychological Factors•Social factors2. Group Resistance – While working in organization the employee form informal group inthe organization. The main reason why the group resist change is that they fear that theircohesiveness or existence is threatened by it3. Organizational Resistance –•Change is resisted at the level of the organization itself•True in case of organizations which are conservative in nature•Government agencies want to continue doing what they have been doing for a number ofyears even though there is a need of change in their service. 15-5
  6. 6. Minimizing Resistance to Change• Be Timely • Use Social media• The need for change • Storytelling• Involvement • Increase engagement by asking questions• Communication • Create small wins• The Past • Training Programs• Watch for staff reaction • Don’t change for the sake of• Control Staff anxiety change • Don’t be afraid to change your mind 15-6
  7. 7. The Six (6) Change Approaches of Kotter and Schlesinger1. Education & Communication - Where there is a lack of information or inaccurate information and analysis. One of the best ways to overcome resistance to change is: to inform and educate people about the change effort beforehand.2. Participation and Involvement. Where the initiators do not have all the necessary information to design the change, and where others have considerable power to resist.3. Facilitation and Support. Where people are resisting change, because of adjustment problems. By being supportive of employees during difficult times, managers can prevent potential resistance.4. Negotiation and Agreement. Where someone or some group may lose out because of a change, and where that individual or group has considerable power to resist. Managers can combat resistance by offering incentives to employees not to resist change.5. Manipulation and Co-option. Where other tactics will not work or are too expensive. Kotter and Schlesinger suggest that an effective manipulation technique is: to co-opt with people who are resisting the change6. Explicit and Implicit Coercion. Where speed is essential. And to be used only as last resort. 15-7
  8. 8. Force Field Analysis Model Restraining Desired ForcesConditions Restraining Forces Driving Restraining Forces Forces Driving Forces Current DrivingConditions Forces Before During After Change Change Change 15-8