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Global environmental segments and its structures


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Global environmental segments and its structures

  1. 1. W E L C O M E Central University of Kerala
  2. 2. Ms. Ashila Babu. PI Semester, MastersDept. Environmental SciencesC e n t r a l U n i v e r s i t y oCentral e r a l a Kerala f K University of
  3. 3. Uniqueness of mother Earth, what we believe created life on it and those with which life is sustained and protected has always dragged attention of environmentalists. Being so advanced, as we all believe, fictions rules over facts when it comes to sciences that explore both depths as well as the open space above. Here we’ve a brief note on basic known facts on Environmental Segments & Structures Central University of Kerala
  4. 4.    Central University of Kerala
  5. 5. Central University of Kerala
  6. 6. Components of Atmosphere Central University of Kerala
  7. 7. Layers of the Atmosphere Central University of Kerala
  8. 8. The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earths atmosphere.The troposphere starts at Earths surface and goes up to a height of 7 to 20 km(4 to 12 miles); bounded from stratosphere by Tropopause.Most of the mass (about 75-80%) of the atmosphere is in the troposphere.Almost all weather occurs within this layer.Air is warmest at the bottom of the troposphere near ground level. Higherup it gets colder.Air pressure and the density of the air are also less at high altitudes.The troposphere is heated from below. Sunlight warms the ground orocean, which in turn radiates the heat into the air right above it.Most clouds are found in the troposphere. Central University of Kerala
  9. 9. The stratosphere is the second layer (going upward) of Earthsatmosphere; bounded above by stratopause.Boundaries : Lower - Near the equator - aroud16km(10miles) Near the mid latitudes- around 10km(6miles) Near the pole- around 8km(5miles) Upper - 50km(31 miles)Features : Forms about 20-25% of total atmospheric mass Ozone layer situates in this layer Commercial jet aircraft fly in the lower stratosphere to avoid the turbulence which is common in the troposphere below. Air is roughly a thousand times thinner at the top of the stratosphere than it is at sea level. Because of this, jet aircraft and weather balloons reach their maximum operational altitudes within the stratosphere. Central University of Kerala
  10. 10. Mesosphere (In Greek, “meso” means “middle”)The mesosphere is the third layer (going upward) of Earthsatmosphere; bounded above by mesopause.This layer ranges between 45 to 92 kmForms less than 1% of the total massSharp decline in temperature -93°C (-137°F) at topBoundaries : Lower -The mesosphere starts at 50 km (31 miles) above Earths Upper -The mesosphere goes up to 85 km (53 miles) highAs you get higher up in the mesosphere, the temperature gets colder.The top of the mesosphere is the coldest part of Earths atmosphere. [ -90°C (-130° F)]!Most meteors from space burn up in this layer. Central University of Kerala
  11. 11. About mesosphere….!Scientists know less about the mesosphere than aboutother layers of atmosphere. The mesosphere is hard to study.Weather balloons and jet planes cannot fly high enough toreach the mesosphere. The orbits of satellites are above themesosphere. But we do get some measurements usingsounding rockets which makes a short flights. Central University of Kerala
  12. 12. Thermosphere (from the Greek “therme” meaning heat)The Thermosphere is the fourth layer (going upward) of Earthsatmosphere; bounded above by thermopause.It extends from about 90 km (56 miles) to between 500 and 1,000 km(311 to 621 miles) above our planet.Temperature :Lower thermosphere (below 200 to 300 km altitude)-about 200° C(360° F), hotter in the daytime than at night; and roughly 500° C (900°F) hotter when the Sun is very active than at other times.Upper thermosphere: can range from about 500° C (932° F) to 2,000°C (3,632° F) or higher. Central University of Kerala
  13. 13. About thermosphere….!The space shuttle and the International Space Station both orbitEarth within the thermosphere!Much of the X-ray and UV radiation from the Sun is absorbed inthe thermosphere.The aurora (the Southern and Northern Lights) primarily occur inthe thermosphere. Central University of Kerala
  14. 14. Very high up, the Earths atmosphere becomes verythin. The region where atoms and molecules escapeinto space is referred to as the exosphere. Theexosphere is on top of the thermosphere. Central University of Kerala
  15. 15. Other Layers of AtmosphereIonosphere : Scientists call the ionosphere an extension of the thermosphere. High-energy solar photons tear electrons away from gas particles in the thermosphere, creating electrically-charged ions of atoms and molecules which creates the ionosphere. Ionosphere is broken down into the D, E and F regions. The breakdown is based on what wavelength of solar radiation is absorbed in that region most frequently. Central University of Kerala
  16. 16. The D region is the lowest in altitude, though it absorbs themost energetic radiation, hard x-rays. The D region doesnt have adefinite starting and stopping point, but includes the ionizationthat occurs below about 90km.The E region peaks at about 105km. It absorbs soft x-rays.The F region starts around 105km and has a maximumaround 600km. It is the highest of all of the regions. Extreme ultra-violet radiation (EUV) is absorbed there. Central University of Kerala
  17. 17. Central University of Kerala
  18. 18. On a more practical note, the D and E regions reflect AM radio waves back to Earth. Radio waves with shorter lengths are reflected by the F region. Visible light, television and FM wavelengths are all too short to be reflected by the ionosphere. So your TV stations are made possible by satellite transmissions.Central University of Kerala
  19. 19. Ozonosphere : The ozone layer is a range of altitudes in Earths stratosphere which has a higher concentration of ozone molecules. Ozone is an unusual type of oxygen molecule. It is created when high-energy ultraviolet light from the sun, strikes a normal oxygen molecule. The ozone layer extends from roughly 15 to 35 km (9 to 22 miles) above sea level. The peak of ozone concentration is between 20 and 25 km(12 and 16 miles). Central University of Kerala
  20. 20. Also…Ozone layer protects us from UV radiation in sunlight andacts like a sunscreen for planet Earth.The ozone layer stops almost all of the incoming UV-C, about90% of the UV-B, and roughly half of the UV-A radiation.The ozone molecules which absorb UV radiation later re-radiate the energy as heat, warming the stratosphere. Central University of Kerala
  21. 21. Ozone DepletionVarious chemicals that human release into theatmosphere can destroy ozone in the stratosphere.In the 1980s, scientists noticed that the ozone layer wasthinning.They also noticed huge holes in the ozone layer,especially over Antarctica.They convinced people and governments around theworld to reduce emissions of ozone-destroyingchemicals. They hope the ozone layer will heal itselfover time. Central University of Kerala
  22. 22. Homosphere (“homo” means “same”) Well-mixed gases from 0-80 km.Heterosphere (“hetero” means “different”) Settling of gases according to weight above 80 km. Central University of Kerala
  23. 23. Layers of the Atmosphere Central University of Kerala
  24. 24. The outer part of the Earth, consisting of the crustand the upper mantle. It is about 55 km (34 mi) thickbeneath the oceans and up to about 200 km (124 mi)thick beneath the continents. The high velocity withwhich seismic waves propagate through thelithosphere suggests that it is completely solid, whencomparing with asthenosphere, atmosphere,hydrosphere. Central University of Kerala
  25. 25. The core is a layer rich in iron and nickel found inthe interior of the Earth. It is composed of twosub-layers: the inner core and outer core. The coreis about 7,000 kilometers in diameter.The Earths core is solid mass of iron plus somenickel surrounded by a fluid (water-like) outerlayer. The closer you get to the core, the hotter itbecomes and the greater the pressure.Other factors affect the gravity field too.. Central University of Kerala
  26. 26. Inner Core : Inner region of the Earths core. Itis thought to be solid iron and nickel with adensity of about 13 grams per cubic centimeter.It also has a diameter of about 1220kilometers. Also known as siderosphere.Outer Core : Outer region of the Earths core. It isbelieved to be liquid nickel and iron and has adensity of about 11 grams per cubic centimeter. Itsurrounds the inner core and has an averagethickness of about 2,250 kilometers. Central University of Kerala
  27. 27. Earths outer most layer of solid rock. Between7 to 70 kilometers thick.Two types of crust exist:Oceanic crust and Continental crust. Central University of Kerala
  28. 28. Oceanic Crust : Basaltic portion of the Earths crust thatmakes up the ocean basins. Approximately 5 to 10 kilometersthick.Sima Layer : The part of the crust that forms the oceanbasins and lower layers in the crust and is composed of relativelyheavy, basaltic rocks.Continental Crust : Granitic portion of the Earths crust thatmakes up the continents. Thickness of the continental crust variesbetween 20 to 75 kilometers.Sial Layer : The part of the crust that forms the continents andis composed of relatively light, granitic rocks. Central University of Kerala
  29. 29. Layer of the Earths interior,composed of mostly solid rock thatextends from the base of crust to adepth of about 2,900 kilometers. Central University of Kerala
  30. 30. The Hydrosphere is the total water presence onthe earth, so encompassing that found in thelargest oceans and the smallest ponds, in the soiland that contained in the air. Along with theatmosphere, the biosphere and the geosphere. Central University of Kerala
  31. 31. Oceans-96.5% of water found hereFresh water-3.5% water found here Ice -1.762%(Ice bergs, Glaciers, Snow..) Ground water-1.7% Surface fresh water-0.014% Atmosphere & soil-0.002% Central University of Kerala
  32. 32. What is the difference between watershed and river basin?River basin: The term used to describe an area that drains into a largeriverWatershed: The term used to describe an area that drains into smallerriver or stream.Larger river basins are made up of many inter connected watersheds.The water in a watershed runs to the lowest point- river, stream orocean. E.g. : River Ganga & Brahmaputra are made up of many small watersheds. Central University of Kerala
  33. 33.  River : A large channel along which water is continually flowing down a slope made of many stream that comes together. Stream : A small channel along which water is continually flowing down a slope made of small gullies. Lake : A body of water of considerable size contained on a body of land. Ground water : the water found in the cracks and pores in sands, gravels and rocks below the earth’s surface. Aquifer : a porous rock layer underground that is a reservoir Central University of Kerala
  34. 34. Wetland : An area where the water the water table is at, near or above the land surface long enough during the year to support plant growth.Types: swamps, bogs and marshes. Swamps- a wet land dominated by trees Bogs-a wet land dominated by peat moss Marshes- a wet land dominated by grass. Central University of Kerala
  35. 35. The biosphere is the outermost part of the planets shell,including air, land, surface rocks, and water withinwhich life occurs, and which biotic processes in turnalter or transform. From the broadest bio-physiologicalpoint of view, the biosphere is the global ecologicalsystem integrating all living beings and theirrelationships, including their interaction with theelements of the lithosphere(All the nonliving things thatmake up the earth(dirt, rock, etc.), hydrosphere (TheOceans, river, etc.), and atmosphere (Air and its"relatives", hydrogen, Co2, etc.). This biosphere ispostulated to have evolved, beginning through aprocess of biogenesis or biopoesis, at least some 3.5billion years ago. Central University of Kerala
  36. 36. Contd..The parts of the land, sea, and atmosphere inwhich organisms are able to live. The biosphereis an irregularly shaped, relatively thin zone inwhich life is concentrated on or near the Earthssurface and throughout its waters. Central University of Kerala
  37. 37. The Biosphere is organized in a hierarchical structure in whichindividual organisms are organized into Populations.Several interacting populations form Biotic Communities.And a distinctive community living in a certain physicalenvironment forms an Ecosystem.An ecosystem is a group of animals, plants, and microbesinteracting with each other and with their physicalenvironment in such a way as to ensure their existence. Central University of Kerala
  38. 38. Cont..Hence an ecosystem is the functional unit of sustainable lifeon Earth.No individual cell, population, or biotic community forms asufficient entity to support life.In general, ecosystems do not have sharp boundaries. Insteadthere are gradational or transitional communities referred toas Ecotones.Several related or similar groups of ecosystems are knownas Biomes.Biomes are grouped into two distinct categories: Terrestrial Aquatic Central University of Kerala
  39. 39. Terrestrial biomes:Consist of ecosystems inhabiting land environmentssuch as tundra, temperate grasslands, tropical forests orhot deserts; whereas aquatic biomes consist of water-dwelling ecosystems such as pelagic, andbenthic freshwater ecosystems.Aquatic biomes:They are typically distinguished by salinity, climate, andwater depth. Central University of Kerala
  40. 40. Despite the variations among ecosystems, they all share a common structure due to common functions of basic processes within each ecosystem. They all engage in energy transfer within the community , and energy in an ecosystem flows in one direction. They all must recycle various chemical substances required for growth, reproduction, and protection. Central University of Kerala
  41. 41. Contd..As a result, the basic biotic structure isbased on feeding relationships.The producers, consumers, and detritusfeeders and decomposers are the basicfeeding categories that allow energyand matter to flow throughecosystems. All organisms must feed tosatisfy the basic processes listed above. Central University of Kerala
  42. 42. In addition to biological factors such as the food web, there are physical and chemical factors that determine the survival of an organism in an ecosystem, and can also affect structure of the ecosystem.The abiotic (non-biological) factors in an aquatic environment would include salinity, temperature, light, chemical nutrients, bottom substrate, water depth, water clarity or turbidity, and currents. Central University of Kerala
  43. 43. Contd..Coral reefs, for example, require very low turbidity (maximum light), moderate to high temperatures (tropical climates), shallow depths (for effective light penetration and temperature limitations), and moderate to high salinity (30 - 40 ppt) to survive.A coral reef ecosystem will not develop if all of these abiotic factors are not met. Central University of Kerala
  44. 44. Central University of Kerala
  45. 45. Biosphere 2 is an Earth systemsscience research facility currently ownedby the University of Arizona since 2011. Itscurrent mission is to serve as a center forresearch, outreach, teaching and lifelonglearning about Earth, its living systems,and its place in the universe. It is a 3.14-acre (12,700 m2) structure originally built tobe an artificial, materially closed ecologicalsystem in Oracle, Arizona (US) Central University of Kerala
  46. 46.  To serve as a center for research, outreach, teaching and life-long learning about Earth, its living systems, and its place in the universe. Catalyze interdisciplinary thinking and understanding about Earth and its future. Be an adaptive tool for Earth education and outreach to industry, government, and the public. Distill issues related to Earth systems planning and management for use by policymakers, students and the public. Central University of Kerala
  47. 47. Biosphere 2 arena Oracle, Arizona (US) Central University of Kerala
  48. 48. Image Gallery Central University of Kerala
  49. 49. Queries…..! Central University of Kerala
  50. 50. Ms. Ashila Babu. PI Semester, MastersDept. Environmental SciencesC e n t Central University s i Kerala f K e r a l a r a l U n i v e r of t y o