Esther powerpoint 5

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Esther powerpoint 5

  1. 1. To Establish Annulment: A Closer Look at the Digression in Esther Chapter Nine A powerpoint accompaniment to “ The Day After: A Megillah Retrospective” Lecture Five By Rabbi David Fohrman
  2. 2. Part I: Some Questions
  3. 3. The Theme of Chapter Nine <ul><li>The bulk of chapter nine details the efforts of Mordechai and Esther to take what was at first a spontaneous celebration, and turn it into an officially recognized Jewish holiday, which would be observed in perpetuity. </li></ul><ul><li>There is, however, a significant digression right in the middle of this chronicle… </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>c,fhu </li></ul><ul><li>lknv ,ubhsn kfc rat ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx jkahu vktv ohrcsv ,t hfsrn </li></ul><ul><li>asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uhvk ovhkg ohek oheujrvu ohcurev auruajt </li></ul><ul><li>ovhchutn ohsuvhv ovc ujb rat ohnhf vbau vba kfc uc rag vanj ouh ,tu rst </li></ul><ul><li>vjnau v,an hnh o,ut ,uagk cuy ouhk kctnu vjnak iudhn ovk lpvb rat asjvu </li></ul><ul><li>,tu ,uagk ukjv rat ,t ohsuvhv kceu ohbuhctk ,ub,nu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu </li></ul><ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf ovhkt hfsrn c,f rat </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkg ohsuvhv kceu unhe ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul><ul><li>oc,ff vktv ohnhv hba ,t ohag ,uhvk rucgh tku ovhkg ohukbv kf kgu ogrz kgu </li></ul><ul><li>vjpanu vjpan rusu rus kfc ohagbu ohrfzb vktv ohnhvu vbau vba kfc obnzfu </li></ul><ul><li>;uxh tk orfzu ohsuvhv lu,n urcgh tk vktv ohrupv hnhu rhgu rhgu vbhsnu vbhsn </li></ul><ul><li>,t ohek ;e, kf ,t hsuvhv hfsrnu khjhct ,c vfknv r,xt c,f,u ogrzn </li></ul><ul><li>vtnu ohragu gca kt ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx jkahu ,hbav ,tzv ohrupv ,rdt </li></ul><ul><li>ratf ovhbnzc vktv ohrpv hnh ,t ohek ,ntu ouka hrcs auruajt ,ufkn vbhsn </li></ul><ul><li>,unmv hrcs ogrz kgu oapb kg unhe ratfu vfknv r,xtu hsuvhv hfsrn ovhkg ohe </li></ul><ul><li>rpxc c,fbu vktv ohrpv hrcs ohe r,xt rntnu o,egzu </li></ul>The efforts of Mordechai and Esther to make Purim “official”
  5. 5. <ul><li>c,fhu </li></ul><ul><li>lknv ,ubhsn kfc rat ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx jkahu vktv ohrcsv ,t hfsrn </li></ul><ul><li>asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uhvk ovhkg ohek oheujrvu ohcurev auruajt </li></ul><ul><li>ovhchutn ohsuvhv ovc ujb rat ohnhf vbau vba kfc uc rag vanj ouh ,tu rst </li></ul><ul><li>vjnau v,an hnh o,ut ,uagk cuy ouhk kctnu vjnak iudhn ovk lpvb rat asjvu </li></ul><ul><li>,tu ,uagk ukjv rat ,t ohsuvhv kceu ohbuhctk ,ub,nu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu </li></ul><ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf ovhkt hfsrn c,f rat </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkg ohsuvhv kceu unhe ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul><ul><li>oc,ff vktv ohnhv hba ,t ohag ,uhvk rucgh tku ovhkg ohukbv kf kgu ogrz kgu </li></ul><ul><li>vjpanu vjpan rusu rus kfc ohagbu ohrfzb vktv ohnhvu vbau vba kfc obnzfu </li></ul><ul><li>;uxh tk orfzu ohsuvhv lu,n urcgh tk vktv ohrupv hnhu rhgu rhgu vbhsnu vbhsn </li></ul><ul><li>,t ohek ;e, kf ,t hsuvhv hfsrnu khjhct ,c vfknv r,xt c,f,u ogrzn </li></ul><ul><li>vtnu ohragu gca kt ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx jkahu ,hbav ,tzv ohrupv ,rdt </li></ul><ul><li>ratf ovhbnzc vktv ohrpv hnh ,t ohek ,ntu ouka hrcs auruajt ,ufkn vbhsn </li></ul><ul><li>,unmv hrcs ogrz kgu oapb kg unhe ratfu vfknv r,xtu hsuvhv hfsrn ovhkg ohe </li></ul><ul><li>rpxc c,fbu vktv ohrpv hrcs ohe r,xt rntnu o,egzu </li></ul>The efforts of Mordechai and Esther to make Purim “official” The digression
  6. 6. <ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul>The digression retells the Purim story – as if we didn’t know it already. Why bother doing this? But the digression is also problematic in other ways, too… For example, its verses seem out of order:
  7. 7. <ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul>First, it tells us that Haman cast lots to destroy the Jews. Then, we hear that Esther saved the day, causing Haman’s plot to recoil on his own head. And then, we are told that “this is why they call the day Purim – because of the “pur” (lots).
  8. 8. <ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul>But wouldn’t it make more sense to do it this way… First, it tells us that Haman cast lots to destroy the Jews. Then, we hear that Esther saved the day, causing Haman’s plot to recoil on his own head. Then, we are told that “this is why they call the day Purim – because of the “pur” (lots).
  9. 9. <ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul>Moreover, the text gives us two reasons why the day is called Purim: First, it is because of the lots “pur”. And then: it got the name Purim “because of what was written in Esther’s letter”. But what is that supposed to mean?
  10. 10. Part II: A Theory
  11. 11. <ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul>A key to understanding this passage is the realization that this root word can have more than one meaning.
  12. 12. <ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul>On the one hand it means “lots” But – if we go back to our familiar parashah in Numbers that speaks of vows, we realize it can also mean “annulments”… ubrph vahtu ubnheh vaht apb ,bgk rxt ,gca kfu rsb kf ut vhrsb kf ,t ohevu ouh kt ouhn vaht vk ahrjh arjv otu rpv otu ugna ouhc vk arjv hf o,t ohev vhkg rat vhrxt kf ,t van ,t vuvh vum rat ohejv vkt vbug ,t tabu ugna hrjt o,t rph vhct ,hc vhrgbc u,ck ct ihc u,atk aht ihc The Book of Esther The Book of Numbers
  13. 13. A New Reading <ul><li>So let’s keep in mind that this word can have a double meaning, as we read the verses in Esther chapter 9 one more time… </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul>Haman cast lots. If we read it with the alternate meaning of “hfr”, it would mean: Haman cast “annulments” . Maybe this means the lots were instruments designed to ”annul” the Jews; they would utterly erase them from the earth. But the word for “lots” is that special word…
  15. 15. Haman’s decree was written into law. He had implied that, as the king’s spouse, if she spoke up, she could “annul” that decree; and if she kept silent – it would be her silence that would “affirm” the decree and make it stand. But remember: Even after the decree became law, Mordechai had assured Esther that it was still reversible.
  16. 16. <ul><li>Was Mordechai right about this, or was he wrong? </li></ul><ul><li>The answer is: A little bit of both… </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul>Chapter Nine continues, telling us that Esther indeed came before the king. uc,f o,tu c,f hf lknv ,gcyc un,ju lknv oac ofhbhgc cuyf ohsuvhv kg chavk iht lknv ,gcyc ou,jbu lknv oac c,fb rat But, let’s set the stage for that. As we saw earlier (in chapter eight), when she asked the king to repeal the decree, he protested that he couldn’t anymore. The decree was “written in the books”. And when the king’s decree is written in the books, nothing can take it back anymore…
  18. 18. <ul><li>Seemingly, all hope was lost. </li></ul><ul><li>It appeared that Mordechai was wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>The king’s decree was indeed set in stone. It could not be repealed, despite Esther’s desperate pleas to the king. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless, somehow Esther succeeded. </li></ul><ul><li>Here’s how… </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul>Even though Esther could not repeal the king and Haman’s written word…. uc,f o,tu c,f hf lknv ,gcyc un,ju lknv oac ofhbhgc cuyf ohsuvhv kg chavk iht lknv ,gcyc ou,jbu lknv oac c,fb rat … she and Mordechai could still repeal his thoughts. [that is, they could still leave his decree in place, but work against it, so that the decree would not accomplish what Haman planned.] Esther, ch. 9 Esther, ch. 8
  20. 20. <ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul>uc,f o,tu c,f hf lknv ,gcyc un,ju lknv oac ofhbhgc cuyf ohsuvhv kg chavk iht lknv ,gcyc ou,jbu lknv oac c,fb rat And ironically, they effected this “repeal” by means of written letters… The same instruments used by Haman, which were supposedly impervious to repeal.
  21. 21. <ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul>And this, the Megillah concludes, are why the days are called Purim. It might mean: They are called “days of lots” because of the lots But it also might mean: They are called “days of annulment” because of the “annulment” [brought about by Esther]” And the double meaning of “ hfr ” again asserts itself…
  22. 22. <ul><li>caj ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg </li></ul><ul><li>uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg .gv kg </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg utr vnu ,tzv </li></ul>And if we continue reading, the text explains for us: “ It was called Purim because of the annulments; because of all that was written in this letter promulgated by Esther and because of what [ultimately] came to [the Jews]. In other words: They called it “days of annulments” not because Haman succeeded in his plan to annul the Jews – but because of the opposite: In the end, the thought behind Haman’s decree – which seemed to be so set in stone – was annulled.
  23. 23. Establishing the Annulment <ul><li>And after successfully “annulling” Haman’s plot, Esther seeks to ratify that annullment; to make it as official, and as set in stone, as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Over and over again, she and Mordechai send letters, establishing the days of Purim as official holidays. </li></ul><ul><li>In increasing waves, Purim itself – the day of annulment – becomes established; becomes set in stone… </li></ul>
  24. 24. Remember how the Book of Numbers employed two key words to describe how a spouse either affirms or annuls the vows of his mate? These words are: H’F’R and K’Y’M I f we turn our attention to the end of the Megillah, we will find something curious. We will find these same words – or variants of their roots – appearing in spades…
  25. 25. <ul><li>rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uzrpv hrgc ohcahv ohzurpv ohsuvhv if kg </li></ul><ul><li>jkahu vktv ohrcsv ,t hfsrn c,fhu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu cuy ouhu v,anu vjna </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkg ohek oheujrvu ohcurev auruajt lknv ,ubhsn kfc rat ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhf vbau vba kfc uc rag vanj ouh ,tu rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uhvk </li></ul><ul><li>,uagk cuy ouhk kctnu vjnak iudhn ovk lpvb rat asjvu ovhchutn ohsuvhv ovc ujb rat </li></ul><ul><li>,t ohsuvhv kceu ohbuhctk ,ub,nu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu vjnau v,an hnh o,ut </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf ovhkt hfsrn c,f rat ,tu ,uagk ukjv rat </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg caj </li></ul><ul><li>.gv kg uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>utr vnu ,tzv ,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohukbv kf kgu ogrz kgu ovhkg ohsuvhv kceu unhe ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhvu vbau vba kfc obnzfu oc,ff vktv ohnhv hba ,t ohag ,uhvk rucgh tku ovhkg </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrupv hnhu rhgu rhgu vbhsnu vbhsn vjpanu vjpan rusu rus kfc ohagbu ohrfzb vktv </li></ul><ul><li>khjhct ,c vfknv r,xt c,f,u ogrzn ;uxh tk orfzu ohsuvhv lu,n urcgh tk </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx jkahu ,hbav ,tzv ohrupv ,rdt ,t ohek ;e, kf ,t hsuvhv hfsrnu </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrpv hnh ,t ohek ,ntu ouka hrcs auruajt ,ufkn vbhsn vtnu ohragu gca kt </li></ul><ul><li>hrcs ogrz kgu oapb kg unhe ratfu vfknv r,xtu hsuvhv hfsrn ovhkg ohe ratf ovhbnzc </li></ul><ul><li>rpxc c,fbu vktv ohrpv hrcs ohe r,xt rntnu o,egzu ,unmv </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uzrpv hrgc ohcahv ohzurpv ohsuvhv if kg </li></ul><ul><li>jkahu vktv ohrcsv ,t hfsrn c,fhu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu cuy ouhu v,anu vjna </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkg ohek oheujrvu ohcurev auruajt lknv ,ubhsn kfc rat ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhf vbau vba kfc uc rag vanj ouh ,tu rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uhvk </li></ul><ul><li>,uagk cuy ouhk kctnu vjnak iudhn ovk lpvb rat asjvu ovhchutn ohsuvhv ovc ujb rat </li></ul><ul><li>,t ohsuvhv kceu ohbuhctk ,ub,nu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu vjnau v,an hnh o,ut </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf ovhkt hfsrn c,f rat ,tu ,uagk ukjv rat </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg caj </li></ul><ul><li>.gv kg uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>utr vnu ,tzv ,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohukbv kf kgu ogrz kgu ovhkg ohsuvhv kceu unhe ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhvu vbau vba kfc obnzfu oc,ff vktv ohnhv hba ,t ohag ,uhvk rucgh tku ovhkg </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrupv hnhu rhgu rhgu vbhsnu vbhsn vjpanu vjpan rusu rus kfc ohagbu ohrfzb vktv </li></ul><ul><li>khjhct ,c vfknv r,xt c,f,u ogrzn ;uxh tk orfzu ohsuvhv lu,n urcgh tk </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx jkahu ,hbav ,tzv ohrupv ,rdt ,t ohek ;e, kf ,t hsuvhv hfsrnu </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrpv hnh ,t ohek ,ntu ouka hrcs auruajt ,ufkn vbhsn vtnu ohragu gca kt </li></ul><ul><li>hrcs ogrz kgu oapb kg unhe ratfu vfknv r,xtu hsuvhv hfsrn ovhkg ohe ratf ovhbnzc </li></ul><ul><li>rpxc c,fbu vktv ohrpv hrcs ohe r,xt rntnu o,egzu ,unmv </li></ul>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Establishment
  27. 27. <ul><li>rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uzrpv hrgc ohcahv ohzurpv ohsuvhv if kg </li></ul><ul><li>jkahu vktv ohrcsv ,t hfsrn c,fhu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu cuy ouhu v,anu vjna </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkg ohek oheujrvu ohcurev auruajt lknv ,ubhsn kfc rat ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhf vbau vba kfc uc rag vanj ouh ,tu rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uhvk </li></ul><ul><li>,uagk cuy ouhk kctnu vjnak iudhn ovk lpvb rat asjvu ovhchutn ohsuvhv ovc ujb rat </li></ul><ul><li>,t ohsuvhv kceu ohbuhctk ,ub,nu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu vjnau v,an hnh o,ut </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf ovhkt hfsrn c,f rat ,tu ,uagk ukjv rat </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg caj </li></ul><ul><li>.gv kg uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>utr vnu ,tzv ,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohukbv kf kgu ogrz kgu ovhkg ohsuvhv kceu unhe ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhvu vbau vba kfc obnzfu oc,ff vktv ohnhv hba ,t ohag ,uhvk rucgh tku ovhkg </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrupv hnhu rhgu rhgu vbhsnu vbhsn vjpanu vjpan rusu rus kfc ohagbu ohrfzb vktv </li></ul><ul><li>khjhct ,c vfknv r,xt c,f,u ogrzn ;uxh tk orfzu ohsuvhv lu,n urcgh tk </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx jkahu ,hbav ,tzv ohrupv ,rdt ,t ohek ;e, kf ,t hsuvhv hfsrnu </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrpv hnh ,t ohek ,ntu ouka hrcs auruajt ,ufkn vbhsn vtnu ohragu gca kt </li></ul><ul><li>hrcs ogrz kgu oapb kg unhe ratfu vfknv r,xtu hsuvhv hfsrn ovhkg ohe ratf ovhbnzc </li></ul><ul><li>rpxc c,fbu vktv ohrpv hrcs ohe r,xt rntnu o,egzu ,unmv </li></ul>1 2 3 5 6 7 4 Annulment
  28. 28. <ul><li>rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uzrpv hrgc ohcahv ohzurpv ohsuvhv if kg </li></ul><ul><li>jkahu vktv ohrcsv ,t hfsrn c,fhu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu cuy ouhu v,anu vjna </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkg ohek oheujrvu ohcurev auruajt lknv ,ubhsn kfc rat ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhf vbau vba kfc uc rag vanj ouh ,tu rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uhvk </li></ul><ul><li>,uagk cuy ouhk kctnu vjnak iudhn ovk lpvb rat asjvu ovhchutn ohsuvhv ovc ujb rat </li></ul><ul><li>,t ohsuvhv kceu ohbuhctk ,ub,nu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu vjnau v,an hnh o,ut </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf ovhkt hfsrn c,f rat ,tu ,uagk ukjv rat </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg caj </li></ul><ul><li>.gv kg uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>utr vnu ,tzv ,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohukbv kf kgu ogrz kgu ovhkg ohsuvhv kceu unhe ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhvu vbau vba kfc obnzfu oc,ff vktv ohnhv hba ,t ohag ,uhvk rucgh tku ovhkg </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrupv hnhu rhgu rhgu vbhsnu vbhsn vjpanu vjpan rusu rus kfc ohagbu ohrfzb vktv </li></ul><ul><li>khjhct ,c vfknv r,xt c,f,u ogrzn ;uxh tk orfzu ohsuvhv lu,n urcgh tk </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx jkahu ,hbav ,tzv ohrupv ,rdt ,t ohek ;e, kf ,t hsuvhv hfsrnu </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrpv hnh ,t ohek ,ntu ouka hrcs auruajt ,ufkn vbhsn vtnu ohragu gca kt </li></ul><ul><li>hrcs ogrz kgu oapb kg unhe ratfu vfknv r,xtu hsuvhv hfsrn ovhkg ohe ratf ovhbnzc </li></ul><ul><li>rpxc c,fbu vktv ohrpv hrcs ohe r,xt rntnu o,egzu ,unmv </li></ul>ubrph vahtu ubnheh vaht apb ,bgk rxt ,gca kfu rsb kf The Book of Numbers The Megillah
  29. 29. <ul><li>rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uzrpv hrgc ohcahv ohzurpv ohsuvhv if kg </li></ul><ul><li>jkahu vktv ohrcsv ,t hfsrn c,fhu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu cuy ouhu v,anu vjna </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkg ohek oheujrvu ohcurev auruajt lknv ,ubhsn kfc rat ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhf vbau vba kfc uc rag vanj ouh ,tu rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uhvk </li></ul><ul><li>,uagk cuy ouhk kctnu vjnak iudhn ovk lpvb rat asjvu ovhchutn ohsuvhv ovc ujb rat </li></ul><ul><li>,t ohsuvhv kceu ohbuhctk ,ub,nu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu vjnau v,an hnh o,ut </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf ovhkt hfsrn c,f rat ,tu ,uagk ukjv rat </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg caj </li></ul><ul><li>.gv kg uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>utr vnu ,tzv ,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohukbv kf kgu ogrz kgu ovhkg ohsuvhv kceu unhe ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhvu vbau vba kfc obnzfu oc,ff vktv ohnhv hba ,t ohag ,uhvk rucgh tku ovhkg </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrupv hnhu rhgu rhgu vbhsnu vbhsn vjpanu vjpan rusu rus kfc ohagbu ohrfzb vktv </li></ul><ul><li>khjhct ,c vfknv r,xt c,f,u ogrzn ;uxh tk orfzu ohsuvhv lu,n urcgh tk </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx jkahu ,hbav ,tzv ohrupv ,rdt ,t ohek ;e, kf ,t hsuvhv hfsrnu </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrpv hnh ,t ohek ,ntu ouka hrcs auruajt ,ufkn vbhsn vtnu ohragu gca kt </li></ul><ul><li>hrcs ogrz kgu oapb kg unhe ratfu vfknv r,xtu hsuvhv hfsrn ovhkg ohe ratf ovhbnzc </li></ul><ul><li>rpxc c,fbu vktv ohrpv hrcs ohe r,xt rntnu o,egzu ,unmv </li></ul>ubrph vahtu ubnheh vaht apb ,bgk rxt ,gca kfu rsb kf The Book of Numbers The Megillah
  30. 30. <ul><li>rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uzrpv hrgc ohcahv ohzurpv ohsuvhv if kg </li></ul><ul><li>jkahu vktv ohrcsv ,t hfsrn c,fhu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu cuy ouhu v,anu vjna </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkg ohek oheujrvu ohcurev auruajt lknv ,ubhsn kfc rat ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhf vbau vba kfc uc rag vanj ouh ,tu rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uhvk </li></ul><ul><li>,uagk cuy ouhk kctnu vjnak iudhn ovk lpvb rat asjvu ovhchutn ohsuvhv ovc ujb rat </li></ul><ul><li>,t ohsuvhv kceu ohbuhctk ,ub,nu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu vjnau v,an hnh o,ut </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf ovhkt hfsrn c,f rat ,tu ,uagk ukjv rat </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg caj </li></ul><ul><li>.gv kg uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>utr vnu ,tzv ,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohukbv kf kgu ogrz kgu ovhkg ohsuvhv kceu unhe ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhvu vbau vba kfc obnzfu oc,ff vktv ohnhv hba ,t ohag ,uhvk rucgh tku ovhkg </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrupv hnhu rhgu rhgu vbhsnu vbhsn vjpanu vjpan rusu rus kfc ohagbu ohrfzb vktv </li></ul><ul><li>khjhct ,c vfknv r,xt c,f,u ogrzn ;uxh tk orfzu ohsuvhv lu,n urcgh tk </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx jkahu ,hbav ,tzv ohrupv ,rdt ,t ohek ;e, kf ,t hsuvhv hfsrnu </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrpv hnh ,t ohek ,ntu ouka hrcs auruajt ,ufkn vbhsn vtnu ohragu gca kt </li></ul><ul><li>hrcs ogrz kgu oapb kg unhe ratfu vfknv r,xtu hsuvhv hfsrn ovhkg ohe ratf ovhbnzc </li></ul><ul><li>rpxc c,fbu vktv ohrpv hrcs ohe r,xt rntnu o,egzu ,unmv </li></ul>ubrph vahtu ubnheh vaht apb ,bgk rxt ,gca kfu rsb kf The Book of Numbers The Megillah
  31. 31. A Pair of Sevenths <ul><li>If your chart these seven instances of “annulments” and “establishments”, you will find that the last occurrence of each word takes place in one, final sentence. </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uzrpv hrgc ohcahv ohzurpv ohsuvhv if kg </li></ul><ul><li>jkahu vktv ohrcsv ,t hfsrn c,fhu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu cuy ouhu v,anu vjna </li></ul><ul><li>ovhkg ohek oheujrvu ohcurev auruajt lknv ,ubhsn kfc rat ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhf vbau vba kfc uc rag vanj ouh ,tu rst asjk rag vgcrt ouh ,t ohag ,uhvk </li></ul><ul><li>,uagk cuy ouhk kctnu vjnak iudhn ovk lpvb rat asjvu ovhchutn ohsuvhv ovc ujb rat </li></ul><ul><li>,t ohsuvhv kceu ohbuhctk ,ub,nu uvgrk aht ,ubn jukanu vjnau v,an hnh o,ut </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf rrm hddtv t,snv ic inv hf ovhkt hfsrn c,f rat ,tu ,uagk ukjv rat </li></ul><ul><li>rnt lknv hbpk vtccu osctku onvk krudv tuv rup khpvu osctk ohsuvhv kg caj </li></ul><ul><li>.gv kg uhbc ,tu u,t uk,u uatr kg ohsuvhv kg caj rat vgrv u,cajn cuah rpxv og </li></ul><ul><li>utr vnu ,tzv ,rdtv hrcs kf kg if kg rupv oa kg ohrup vktv ohnhk utre if kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohukbv kf kgu ogrz kgu ovhkg ohsuvhv kceu unhe ovhkt ghdv vnu vff kg </li></ul><ul><li>ohnhvu vbau vba kfc obnzfu oc,ff vktv ohnhv hba ,t ohag ,uhvk rucgh tku ovhkg </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrupv hnhu rhgu rhgu vbhsnu vbhsn vjpanu vjpan rusu rus kfc ohagbu ohrfzb vktv </li></ul><ul><li>khjhct ,c vfknv r,xt c,f,u ogrzn ;uxh tk orfzu ohsuvhv lu,n urcgh tk </li></ul><ul><li>ohsuvhv kf kt ohrpx jkahu ,hbav ,tzv ohrupv ,rdt ,t ohek ;e, kf ,t hsuvhv hfsrnu </li></ul><ul><li>vktv ohrpv hnh ,t ohek ,ntu ouka hrcs auruajt ,ufkn vbhsn vtnu ohragu gca kt </li></ul><ul><li>hrcs ogrz kgu oapb kg unhe ratfu vfknv r,xtu hsuvhv hfsrn ovhkg ohe ratf ovhbnzc </li></ul><ul><li>rpxc c,fbu vktv ohrpv hrcs ohe r,xt rntnu o,egzu ,unmv </li></ul>1 2 3 5 6 7 4 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
  33. 33. <ul><li>rpxc c,fbu vktv ohrpv hrcs ohe r,xt rntnu o,egzu ,unmv </li></ul>Esther’s words established the annulments… <ul><li>And indeed, the double, paradoxical meaning of this final pair, tells the whole story in a nutshell… </li></ul>Esther’s words established Purim...

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