Semisolid dosage form..

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Semisolid dosage form..

  1. 1. Presented By: Khadija Begum Departmernt of pharmacy University of karachi
  2. 2. • Definition • Ideal properties of semi solid dosage form • Advantage And Disadvantage • Classification • Formullation • Method Of Prepration • Evaluation Of Semi Solid Dosage Form
  3. 3. Semi solid pharmaceutical system comprise a body of product ,which when applied to skin or accessible mucous membranes tends to allevate or treat a pathological condition or other protection against harmful enviroment..
  4. 4. Physical properties a) Smooth texture b) Elegant in appearence c) Non dehydrating d) Non gritty e) Non greasy and non staining f) Non hygroscopic Physiological properties a) Non irritating b) Do not alter membrane function c) Miscible with skin secretion Application properties a. Easy applicable with efficient drug release b. High aqueous washibility
  5. 5. Ointment Creams Pastes Gels Poultices Plaster Suppositories
  6. 6. Ointments are homogenous, translucent, viscous, semi solid preparation intended for external application to skin or mucous membranes. Ointment may be medicated or not.. Applied to mucous membrane or skin Uses Emollient Applcation for active ingredients to the skin Occulsive
  7. 7. Viscous semi solid emulsion with opaque appearance as Contrasted with translucent ointments Consistency depends on whether the cream is W/O or O/W W/O Creams O/W Creams Contain lipophyllic emulsifying agent Contains O/W emulsifying agent Used as emollient or as cleansing agent O/W creams are elegant drug delivery system
  8. 8. Contains high percentage of insoluble solid(usually 50% or more) Pastes are usually prepared by incorporating solids directly into a congealed system by levigation with a portion of base to form paste like mass. They have good adhesion on skin and less greasy.
  9. 9. i. Gels are semi solid system in which liquid phase is constrained ii. With a 3-d polymeric matrix having a high degree of physical iii. Or chemical cross linking iv. Gels are aqueous colloidal system of hydrated forms of insoluble medicaments. v. Jellies are transparent or translucent non greasy semisolid and contain more water than gels. vi. Used for medication,lubrication and carrier for spermicidal agents to be used intra vaginally with diaphargm..
  10. 10. 1. They are solid masses of solid matter applied to skin in order to 2. Reduce inflammation and in some cases to act as a counter irritant. 3. Poultices must retain heat for a considerable time. 4. After heating the preparation is spread on dressing and applied to the affected area . 5. E.g: Kaolin poultice (B.P.C)
  11. 11. Plasters are solid or semi solid masses made by incorporating medicaments in the resinous or waxy bases which are melted or spread on suitable baking material.. They are generally used to, Afford protection and medicinal support. Furnish on occlusive and mecerating action. Bring medication in to close contact with the surface of skin.
  12. 12. It is solid or stiffened semi solid dosage form intended to insertion on body orifices where they melt,soften and dissolve and exert local or systemic effect. Rectal suppositories Pessaries Urethral bougies Nasal bougies Ear cones
  13. 13. Ingredients used in preparation of semi solid dosage form: Active pharmaceutical ingredients Bases Preservatives Humectants Anti oxidants Emulsifier Gelling agent Permeation enhancer Buffers
  14. 14. It is one of the most important ingredient used in the formulation of semisolid dosage form Ointments and suppository base do not merely acts as the carrier of the medicaments, but they also control the extent of absorbtion of medicaments incorporated with them
  15. 15. They should be:  Compatible with skin ph and drug  Inert ,non irritating and non sensitizing  Good solvent and/or emulsifying agent  Emollient , protective , non greasy and easily removable  Release medicaments easily at the site of administration  Pharmaceutical elegant and possess good stability.
  16. 16. BASES OLEAGENOUS BASE ABSORBTION BASE EMULSION BASE WATER SOLUBLE BASE
  17. 17. Oleaginous ( hydrocarbon) bases: They consist of a combination of more than one oleaginous material such as water insoluble hydrophobic oils and fats They are highly compatible ; occlusive ; good emollients They are anhydrous, do not absorb water, readily(hydrophobic) insoluble in water, non washable Example : Vaseline,hard parafin, liquid paraffin,white ointment. Uses : protective, emollient and vehicle for solid drugs.
  18. 18. Absorption (Emulsifiable) base: Have capacity to absorb considerable quantities of water or aqueous solution and turns to w/o without marked changes in the consistency. They are anhydrous, water insoluble and water unwashable. They have good emollient but poor occlusive property. Uses: protective, emollient and vehicle for aqueous solutions and solid drug.
  19. 19. Emulsion bases: According to the type of emulsion these bases are classified as either W/O or O/W. W/O EMULSION BASE O/W EMULSION BASE Hydrous Hydrous Will absorb water Will absorb water Insoluble in water Insoluble in water Not washable washable
  20. 20. Water soluble Bases:  These include both hydrous and non hydrous dermatological non- emulsion bases which are water soluble and contain no oil phase.  Water soluble, water washable, non greasable  Because they softens with the addition of water, large amount of aqueous solutions are not effectively incorporated into the bases. Example : carbowax compounds such as the poly ethylene glycol bases containing pectin, cellulose, bentonite and gelatin.
  21. 21. Some bases , although, resist microbial attack but because of their high water content, it require an anti microbial preservative. Commonly used preservative include: Methyl hydroxy benzoate Propyl hydroxy benzoate Chlorocresol Benzoic acid Phenyl mercuric nitrate
  22. 22. Oxygen is highly reactive atom that is capable of becoming of potentially damaging molecules commonly called “free radicals”. Free radicals are capable of attacking the healthy cells of the body, causing them to loose their structure and functions To prevent this an anti oxidant are added. Example : Butylated hydroxy anisole , Butylated hydroxy toluene
  23. 23. CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIOXIDANT ANTIOXIGENS REDUCING AGENT ANTIOXIDANT SYNERGIST Acts by reacting with the free radicals. e.g. •Butylated hydroxy anisole (BHA) •Butylated hydroxy tocopherols (BHT) (used for oil system) Have lower redox potential than drug,hence gets oxidized first. e.g. •Ascorbic acid •Potassium and sodium metabisulfite •Thiosulfite (used for aqueous system) Chelating or sequestering agents, enhance the effect of anti oxidants. e.g. •Citric acid •Tartaric acid •Lacithin
  24. 24. Gelling agents  Gelling agent forms a gel dissolves in a liquid phase as a colloid mixture that forms a weakly cohesive internal structure.  These are organic hydro colloids or hydro phillic inorganic substances. Example : tragacanth, sodium alginate, pectin, gelatin, cellulose derivatives. Material % Brook field viscosity Carbomer 94 1 resin NF 0.15 2900 Carbomer 94 1 resin NF 0.25 6300 Guar gum 1.50 8040 Methyl cellulose 2.00 5200 Sodium alginate 2.50 10400
  25. 25. Permeation enhancer Skin can acts as a barrier with the introduction of various panetration enhancers, panetration of the drug through the skin can be improved. Permeation enhancer Drug used Methanol,carvacrol, linalool Propranolol hydrochloride Limonene Indomethacin , ketoprofin Geraniol Nerolidol Diclofenic sodium Oleic acid Piroxicam
  26. 26. Anionic Cationic Non ionic •Alkyl sulphates •Soaps •D odecyl benzene •Sulfonates •Lactylates •Sulfosuccinates •Monoglycerides •Sulfonates •Phosphate esters •Silicones •Taurates •Quaternary ammonium compounds •alkoxyalkylamin es •Polyoxyethylene •Alkyl-aryl ethers •Polyoxy ethylene •Sorbitan esters •Sorbitan fatty acid esters •Glyceryl fatty acid esters
  27. 27. A humectant is a hygroscopic substance . It is often a molecule with several hydrophilic groups, most often hydroxl group. Humectants are used to:  Increase the solubility of active ingredients  To elevate its skin preparation  Elevate the hydration of the skin.
  28. 28. Buffers are added to variopus purpose such as:  Compatibility with skin  Drug solubility  Drug Stability  Influence on ionization of drug Example: Sodium acetate , Sodium Citrate , Potassium meta phosphate
  29. 29. Purified water Water for Injection Water for injection may be used in ophthalmic semi solid preparation like eye ointments , gels etc
  30. 30. SIZE REDUCTION LEVIGATION MIXING WITH BASE SPATULATION OR TRITURATION MIXING BASE TO PRODUCE FINAL WEIGHT HOMOGENIZATION FILLING

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