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  1. 1. SCHIZOPHRENIA Roberto Abarca Mero 6 fima “B”
  2. 2. SCHIZOPHRENIA <ul><li>It’s a mental disorder characterized by abnormalities in the perception of reality. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics <ul><li>Auditory hallucinations </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganized speech and thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Significant social dysfunction. </li></ul>
  4. 4. HISTORY.- <ul><li>The word &quot;schizophrenia&quot; is less than 100 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>This disease has accompanied mankind through all of it’s history. </li></ul><ul><li>most ancient cultures have described it through their literature. </li></ul>
  5. 5. HISTORY.- <ul><li>Dr. Emile Kraepelin classified Schizophrenia as a distinct mental disorder in 1887. </li></ul><ul><li>Eugen Bleuler was the first to describe the symptoms as &quot;positive&quot; or &quot;negative.&quot; </li></ul>
  6. 6. SYMPTOMS OF SCHIZOPHRENIA.- <ul><li>Symptoms are typically divided into positive and negative. </li></ul><ul><li>Positive Symptoms are those that appear to reflect an excess or distortion of normal functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Negative symptoms are those that appear to reflect a diminution or loss of normal functions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Positive Symptoms <ul><li>Delusions.- </li></ul><ul><li>They are distortions of sensations of reality that the patient has in some moment of his or her experience. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Positive Symptoms <ul><li>Hallucinations .- </li></ul><ul><li>hallucinations are a complete product of a patient’s imagination. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually patients hear strange voices , which could be obscene, frightening or insulting. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Positive Symptoms <ul><li>Disorganized speech/thinking .- </li></ul><ul><li>Disorganized thinking is usually when the patient is unable to make coherent sentences or write anything with sense. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Positive Symptoms <ul><li>Grossly disorganized behavior.- </li></ul><ul><li>It occurs when they start to lose control on most of their actions, such as the motive of performance of certain activity. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Positive Symptoms <ul><li>Catatonic Behaviors.- </li></ul><ul><li>It’s when the patient becomes motionless and appears to have no life. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Positive Symptoms <ul><li>Other Symptoms.- </li></ul><ul><li>These are the symptoms that are present in most patients, but not as much in order to be considered alone. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Negative symptoms <ul><li>Affective Flattening .- </li></ul><ul><li>It’s when a patient has a significant reduction in his or her emotional expressions. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Negative symptoms <ul><li>Alogia.- </li></ul><ul><li>It’s when the patient’s speech becomes very poor, having trouble to give a fluent and full answer. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Negative symptoms <ul><li>Avolition.- </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the reduction of interest in any kind of activity, especially the ones that require interaction with other human beings. </li></ul>
  16. 16. CAUSES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA <ul><li>Genetic contribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Contribution .- </li></ul>
  17. 17. TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA.- <ul><li>Paranoid.- </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the type of schizophrenia that’s characterized by a constant concerning of auditory hallucinations. </li></ul>
  18. 18. TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA.- <ul><li>Catatonic .- </li></ul><ul><li>It’s commonly know has catatonic the patients that show a profound alteration of motor functions. </li></ul>
  19. 19. TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA.- <ul><li>Residual </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the kind of schizophrenia that shows evidence of schizophrenic symptoms, but doesn’t have enough active symptoms to be classified in any of the other types. </li></ul>
  20. 20. TYPES OF SCHIZOPHRENIA.- <ul><li>Schizoaffective disorder.- </li></ul><ul><li>It describes a condition where symptoms of a mood disorder and symptoms of schizophrenia are both present. </li></ul>
  21. 21. TREATMENT.- <ul><li>Treatment with medications </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional Medicine </li></ul><ul><li>Trifluoperazine (stelazine) </li></ul><ul><li>Perphenazine.- </li></ul><ul><li>Haloperidol (haldol).- </li></ul>
  22. 22. TREATMENT.- <ul><li>Newer Medicine .- </li></ul><ul><li>Abilify (aripiprazole).- </li></ul><ul><li>Clozaril (clozapine).- </li></ul>
  23. 23. TREATMENT.- <ul><li>Medication in Development.- </li></ul><ul><li>Asenapine </li></ul><ul><li>Bifeprunox </li></ul><ul><li>Lamictal </li></ul>
  24. 24. TREATMENT.- <ul><li>Side effects of Medication .- </li></ul><ul><li>Obesity.- </li></ul><ul><li>Tardive Dyskinesia.- </li></ul>
  25. 25. POPULAR VIEWS AND MISCONCEPTIONS <ul><li>Normal versus Abnormal </li></ul><ul><li>Violence </li></ul>
  26. 26. HOW TO PREVENT IT <ul><li>Ways to lower your risk .- </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid use of drugs </li></ul><ul><li>Develop social Skills </li></ul><ul><li>Avoid social Isolation </li></ul><ul><li>Learn to deal with stress </li></ul>
  27. 27. Thank you For coming!!!!!