Classical Music systems of the world<br />KGKP Annual Conference<br />24.09.2011<br />Manasi Prasad<br />© Manasi Prasad 2...
What is classical music<br />Art music<br />Advanced structural and theoretical considerations<br />In several cases a wri...
European classical<br />Chinese classical<br />Ottoman<br />Andalusian<br />Gagaku<br />Persian<br />Hindustani<br />Pinpe...
Agenda<br />Chinese traditional music (guqin)<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
Agenda<br />Chinese traditional music (guqin)<br />Persian classical music (dastgah)<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
Agenda<br />Chinese traditional music (guqin)<br />Persian classical music (dastgah)<br />Indonesian art music (gamelan)<b...
Agenda<br />Chinese traditional music (guqin)<br />Persian classical music (dastgah)<br />Indonesian art music (gamelan)<b...
Analysis<br />History and development<br />Salient features<br />Theoretical basis/ framework<br />Instruments used<br />C...
Chinese traditional music<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
History and development<br />Evidence of musical instruments from 500BC<br />Development during the Tang and Han dynasties...
The guqin<br />Most ancient Chinese instrument<br />Seven stringed instrument belonging to the zither family<br />Normativ...
Salient features<br />Melodic/ monophonic<br />Pentatonic scale<br />Modal variations of the pentatonic scale<br />No form...
Aesthetic approach<br />Music for self-perfection as opposed to music for self-expression<br />Search for harmony/ balance...
Instruments<br />Guzheng<br />Pipa<br />Erhu<br />Dizi<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
Indonesian traditional music<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
Gamelan music<br />Musical ensemble from Indonesia<br />Variety of instruments such as xylophones, drums and gongs, bamboo...
History and development<br />Earliest image of musical ensemble in 8th century<br />Palaces of Java had musical ensembles ...
Salient features<br />Gamelan pieces are based on a primary melodic phrase. Each instrument plays a variation of this melo...
Contexts<br />Integral part of all cultural activities:<br />Wayangkulit (leather puppet)<br />Court dance<br />Uyon – uyo...
Instruments<br />Saron<br />Bonang<br />Kendhang<br />Gendare<br />Kempul<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
Persian classical music<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
Persian classical music<br />Monophonic<br />Modal system<br />The use of microtones divides the scales into more than twe...
History and development<br />Evidence of musical instruments in Elamite era around 800BCE<br />Developments during the Sas...
The radif<br />Dastgah system of organization developed during Qajar dynasty<br />Twelve basic modes: seven primary modes ...
A comparison<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
Example<br />Dastgah Shur<br />Dastgah Houmayun<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
Compositional Forms<br />Instrumental forms:<br />Pishdaramad - prelude to the daramad. It may be in double, triple, or qu...
Performance format<br /> Typical performance consists of the following elements :<br />pīshdarāmad(a rhythmic prelude whic...
Subject matter<br />Large body of classical poetry, from medieval times to the present day<br />Most of the poems are rhyt...
Persian instruments<br />Santur<br />Kamancheh<br />Tambur<br />Do tar<br />Tonbak<br />Oud<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
Andalusian music<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
Pinpeat music<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
Conclusions<br />Indian music is not THE oldest, but one of the most ancient musical forms<br />Most classical music syste...
THANK YOU!<br />Questions?<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
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Classical music systems of the world

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  • Persian music was the reason for indian music to split into 2
  • Binding fabric
  • emphasize
  • Western – chord, piano….
  • Gamelan originates from Bali and Java in Indonesia.· The word &apos;gamel&apos; means hammer.· A gamelan orchestra consists mostly of gongs, metallophones, xylophones and drums.· Gamelan music is used to accompany performances such as dance and shadow puppet plays.
  • Groups typically consist of the singer, one or two accompanying melodic instruments (either of kamanche, tar, santur, setar, or nay) and perhaps a rhythmic instrument, such as the dombak, or the now rarer daf.
  • The order of gushes within a dastgah is not fixed, and some gushes may be omitted altogether. Musicians are expected to render each gusheh in such a way that it remain identifiable.Combination of all pieces that make up the repertory of Persian music is called the radif (row).
  • - Not THE oldest but one of the oldestUnderlying fabric that connects is melody and its variations-rhythm, more than anything is superimposed onto this melodic fabric, to provide variety and variation from a listener’s perspective-improvisation varies in degrees….in some cases it is only interpretation, whereas in Carnatic as well as Persian, scope- monophony is a more ancient concept than polyphony- in terms of rhythmic and melodic variety while indian music perhaps rates the highest, each form of music has its own specialities which
  • Classical music systems of the world

    1. 1. Classical Music systems of the world<br />KGKP Annual Conference<br />24.09.2011<br />Manasi Prasad<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    2. 2. What is classical music<br />Art music<br />Advanced structural and theoretical considerations<br />In several cases a written musical tradition<br />In contrast to popular music and traditional or folk music<br />Classical<br />AXIOMATIC<br />Triangle <br />Folk<br />Popular<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    3. 3. European classical<br />Chinese classical<br />Ottoman<br />Andalusian<br />Gagaku<br />Persian<br />Hindustani<br />Pinpeat/ Piphat<br />Carnatic<br />Mande<br />Gamelan<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    4. 4. Agenda<br />Chinese traditional music (guqin)<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    5. 5. Agenda<br />Chinese traditional music (guqin)<br />Persian classical music (dastgah)<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    6. 6. Agenda<br />Chinese traditional music (guqin)<br />Persian classical music (dastgah)<br />Indonesian art music (gamelan)<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    7. 7. Agenda<br />Chinese traditional music (guqin)<br />Persian classical music (dastgah)<br />Indonesian art music (gamelan)<br />Some other examples<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    8. 8. Analysis<br />History and development<br />Salient features<br />Theoretical basis/ framework<br />Instruments used<br />Comparison to Indian classical system<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    9. 9. Chinese traditional music<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    10. 10. History and development<br />Evidence of musical instruments from 500BC<br />Development during the Tang and Han dynasties (500 – 1000 AD)<br />Court tradition weakens by 18th, 19th centuries<br />Exclusive domain of the literati <br />Cultural revolution of 1965 – 79<br />Reform and revival of traditional art forms<br />Westernization<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    11. 11. The guqin<br />Most ancient Chinese instrument<br />Seven stringed instrument belonging to the zither family<br />Normative for Chinese classical music<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    12. 12. Salient features<br />Melodic/ monophonic<br />Pentatonic scale<br />Modal variations of the pentatonic scale<br />No formalized rhythm structure<br />Importance of dynamics and timbre<br />Lack of structural improvisation<br />Sample 1 (Gong Yi)<br />Sample 2 (Guan Ping Hu)<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    13. 13. Aesthetic approach<br />Music for self-perfection as opposed to music for self-expression<br />Search for harmony/ balance<br />Simplicity/ minimalism<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    14. 14. Instruments<br />Guzheng<br />Pipa<br />Erhu<br />Dizi<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    15. 15. Indonesian traditional music<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    16. 16. Gamelan music<br />Musical ensemble from Indonesia<br />Variety of instruments such as xylophones, drums and gongs, bamboo flutes<br />Set of instruments as a distinct entity, built and tuned to stay together<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    17. 17. History and development<br />Earliest image of musical ensemble in 8th century<br />Palaces of Java had musical ensembles from 12th century<br />Used in temple rituals and palace celebrations<br />2 main styles – Javanese and Balinese gamelan<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    18. 18. Salient features<br />Gamelan pieces are based on a primary melodic phrase. Each instrument plays a variation of this melody.<br />2 main 'scales‘ :<br />Slendro tuning system divides the octave into five equidistant parts <br />Pelog tuning system divides the octave into seven unequal parts<br />Pathet – an organizing concept for melodies<br />CYCLIC - repetition and variation<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    19. 19. Contexts<br />Integral part of all cultural activities:<br />Wayangkulit (leather puppet)<br />Court dance<br />Uyon – uyon<br />(musical ensemble)<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    20. 20. Instruments<br />Saron<br />Bonang<br />Kendhang<br />Gendare<br />Kempul<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    21. 21. Persian classical music<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    22. 22. Persian classical music<br />Monophonic<br />Modal system<br />The use of microtones divides the scales into more than twelve semi-tones<br />A priority is given to ornamentation<br />A number of substantial pauses in each piece<br />Rhythmic patterns are kept simple<br />Classical music is vocal based<br />Accompanied by at least one wind or string instrument and one type of percussion<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    23. 23. History and development<br />Evidence of musical instruments in Elamite era around 800BCE<br />Developments during the Sassanid era (200 – 600AD)<br />Foundation of Islamic state (7th century)<br />Sufi saints of 13th – 15th century<br />Significantly developed during the Qajar Empire (1785 – 1925)<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    24. 24. The radif<br />Dastgah system of organization developed during Qajar dynasty<br />Twelve basic modes: seven primary modes (dastgah-s) and five secondary modes (avaz-s). Each avaz is derived from a specific dastgah<br />Each dastgah has 8 note scale<br />Each dastgah has its own repertory of melodies each of which is called gusheh<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    25. 25. A comparison<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    26. 26. Example<br />Dastgah Shur<br />Dastgah Houmayun<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    27. 27. Compositional Forms<br />Instrumental forms:<br />Pishdaramad - prelude to the daramad. It may be in double, triple, or quadruple time<br />Cheharmezrab is a solo piece, mostly with a fast tempo<br />Reng, which is a simple dance piece that is usually played at the conclusion of the dastgah. <br />Vocal form :<br />Tasnif (similar to Pishdaramad)<br />Scope for improvisation exists<br />Vocal parts are often decorated with Tahrir, a vocal ornamentation similar to yodeling <br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    28. 28. Performance format<br /> Typical performance consists of the following elements :<br />pīshdarāmad(a rhythmic prelude which sets the mood)<br />darāmad(rhythmic free motif)<br />āvāz (improvised rhythmic-free singing)<br />taṣnīf (rhythmic accompanied by singing, an ode)<br />Chahārmeżrāb (rhythmic music but rhythmic-free or no singing)<br />reng (closing rhythmic composition, a dance tune)<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    29. 29. Subject matter<br />Large body of classical poetry, from medieval times to the present day<br />Most of the poems are rhythmically free and are generally performed within the context of a suite of gushe-s<br />EG: (Rumi)<br />“Man mast o to divāna/ mā-rākebaradkhāna<br />I am drunk and you are mad, who shall take us back to home?<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    30. 30. Persian instruments<br />Santur<br />Kamancheh<br />Tambur<br />Do tar<br />Tonbak<br />Oud<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    31. 31. Andalusian music<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    32. 32. Pinpeat music<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    33. 33. Conclusions<br />Indian music is not THE oldest, but one of the most ancient musical forms<br />Most classical music systems in the world are monophonic<br />Melody (pitch and tonal variations) form the basic fabric of most classical music systems<br />Improvisation is found in varying degrees in different classical music systems<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />
    34. 34. THANK YOU!<br />Questions?<br />© Manasi Prasad 2011<br />

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