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Diodes,BJT,MOSFET,JFET

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Diodes , BJT , MOSFET and JFET

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Diodes,BJT,MOSFET,JFET

  1. 1. Diodes A diode allows electricity to flow in one direction only and blocks the flow in the opposite direction. They may be regarded as one-way valves and they are used in various circuits, usually as a form of protection. There are different types of diode but their basic functions are the same. On Off Diode operation: (a) Current flow is permitted; the diode is forward biased. (b) Current flow is prohibited; the diode is reversed biased. Diodes are used in many applications like the following:- Converting AC power from the 60Hz line into DC power for radios, televisions, telephone answering machines, computers, and many other electronic devices. Converting radio frequency signals into audible signals in radios. Type of diodes:
  2. 2. Properties of Diodes:- The current-voltage relationship of a diode diode will operate in one of three regions: 1. Forward bias: When the voltage across the diode is positive the diode is “on” and current can run through. The voltage should be greater than the forward voltage (VF) in order for the current to be anything significant. 2. Reverse bias: This is the “off” mode of the diode, where the voltage is less than VF but greater than -VBR. In this mode current flow is (mostly) blocked, and the diode is off. A very small amount of current (on the order of nA) – called reverse saturation current – is able to flow in reverse through the diode. 3. Breakdown: When the voltage applied across the diode is very large and negative, lots of current will be able to flow in the reverse direction, from cathode to anode.
  3. 3. Bipolar Transistor BJT Symbole:- Regions of Operation:-
  4. 4. bipolar junction transistor (BJT) has three operating regions: 1. Cut off ( for NPN BJT) 2. Active region ( for NPN) 3. Saturated ( for NPN) In active region, for silicon BJT, and for Germanium BJT. In saturated region, .
  5. 5. MOSFET MOSFET Review MOSFET (Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect-Transistor) A three terminal semicondcuting device Current through two terminals (Drain and Source) can be controlled by voltage in third terminal (Gate) One can make an amplifier with MOSFET MOSFET is also used as switch in modern micro processors MOSFET Regions of Operation :- There are three regions of operation in the MOSFET: 1– When VGS <VT, no conductive channel is present and ID = 0, the cutoff region 2– If VGS <VT and VDS <VDS,sat, the device is in the triode region of operation. Increasing VDS increases the lateral field in the channel, and hence the current. Increasing VGS increases the transverse field and hence the inversion layer density, which also increases the current
  6. 6. 3– If VGS <VT and VDS >VDS,sat, the device is in the saturation region of operation. Since the drain end channel density has become small, the current is much less dependent on VDS , but is still dependent on VGS, since increased VGS still increases the inversion layer density i-v characteristics Cut-off region (VGS≤VT) iD=0 Linear (or Triode) region (VGS>VT and VDS≤VGS−VT) iD=K(vGS−VT−vDS2)Vds Saturation region (VGS>VT and VDS≥VGS−VT) iD=K2(vGS−VT)2
  7. 7. JFET (Field-effect transistor) Ga te Dra in Sour ce SYMBOLS n-channel JFET Gat e Drai n Sourc e p-channel JFET
  8. 8. S

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