Making heritage our resources the italian lesson learned


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Making heritage our resources the italian lesson learned

  1. 1. Making Heritage our resource: The Italian lesson learned Ratri Wulandari Master Student of Uni European Management of Cultural Landscape Ra3_wulandari@yaho.comAbstractReading the theme, the firsts things appear on mind were questions: what kind of resource?Educational resource? Historical resource? Financial resource? Architectural precedent?Artistic resource? Tourism resource? Or resource of nostalgia to serve psychological needsupon one’s past? It is all depend on whose point of view and for what purpose. Looking onthe trend is making heritage resource for tourism activity, but who get the impact on thisactivity? Whose resources to whom?Italy is the country of heritage, archeological heritage in particular, which people came to fordifferent reasons. Tens of its archeological remains to cultural landscapes are listed in theUNESCO’S world heritage list. Once a site is listed, a heritage becomes internationallyknown and tourists and visitors starting to came. As we all know, UNESCO World Heritagelist is one effective way to promote heritage tourism to the world.Good management and cooperation would lead to protection of heritage and at the same timedeveloping and enhancing the community socio-economic and heritage educationalcondition. On the other hand, mismanagement would lead to improper heritage exploitationand community’s misunderstanding in valuating their heritage and increases its vulnerability.From Amalfi to Val d’Orcia, this paper will review several heritages management conceptionin utilizing heritage as resources in Italy as lesson learned.IntroductionReading the theme, the firsts things appear on mind were questions: what kind of resource?Educational resource? Historical resource? Financial resource? Architectural precedent?Artistic resource? Tourism resource? Or resource of nostalgia to serve psychological needsupon one’s past? It is all depend on whose point of view and for what purpose. Looking onthe trend is making heritage resource for tourism activity, but who get the impact on thisactivity? Whose resources to whom?In making heritage as resource, different stakeholders taking parts have different interestswhich each try to get benefit from. Good management and cooperation would lead toprotection of heritage and at the same time developing and enhancing the community socio-economic and heritage educational condition. On the other hand, mismanagement would leadto improper heritage exploitation and community’s misunderstanding in valuating theirheritage and increases its vulnerability.The Italian has great concern upon their cultural heritage. Italy itself is the country ofheritage, archeological heritage in particular. Tens of its archeological remains to cultural
  2. 2. landscapes are listed in the UNESCO’S world heritage list and we all know, UNESCO WorldHeritage list is one effective way to promote heritage tourism to the world. “The impacts ofthe World Heritage inscription was a boost in tourism, but also highlighted the need for anintegrated management strategy for maintaining the values for which the site was inscribed”.Once a site is listed, a heritage becomes internationally known and tourists and visitorsstarting to came. People came to these cultural heritages for different reasons from curiosityto self fulfillment. The Italians are able to manage and create their cultural heritages intoresources that gain visitors and the world sympathy. Management is a keyword to successand failure.Heritage itself is “a concept to which most people would assign a positive value” (Rugglesand Silverman 2007). Preservation of cultural heritage, tangible and intangible, is viewed asresource that gives advantages to various people (Ruggles and Silverman 2007).. “Bothpersonal and community identities are formed through such tangible objects and intangiblecultural performances, and a formation of a strong identity would seem to be a fundamentallygood thing” (Ruggles and Silverman 2007). Whether who should define and control themanagement and advantage of cultural heritage is a risk must be taken (Ruggles andSilverman 2007). One thing certain is that when a heritage connected directly to people’s lifethen it the people that should be the first preference.Heritage Management“Cultural heritage management is, in essence, a facet of social engineering, whereby physicalremains of the past (and present) are selectively preserved based on values currently held bythe population at large. Indeed, mid- and long-term protection of heritage sites can only occurif such places are “embraced” or “owned” by the community” (Spennemann 2006).Cultural heritage is, in essence, created and selected by present people to represent the past.It is a result of an evolution and a selection process. A good management in conservingheritage will lead to its continuation in the future. Mismanagement will lead to neglect, forgetand misuse of it. The deteriorating of heritage is loss to the society that might lead to publicamnesia about the past and lead to the lost of identity. In preparing a management planning,the surrounding community needs to be considered since they may, and are, holding animportant role in the conservation process.“A good heritage management plan will review the threats posed to the well-being of heritageplaces and will assess, inter alia, the risk posed by natural hazards and include mitigationoptions, including the prescription of special disaster management plans” (Spennemann2006).Cultural LandscapesCultural landscape is a holistic approach of conservation that considers both the tangible andintangible aspect of heritage. The concept appears for the first time to respect the differentconcept upon conservation and to cope with the immaterial aspect of cultural heritage.UNESCO defines the essence of cultural landscape as the ensemble of human interaction andnatural system. UNESCO divides cultural landscape in three categories: the intended createdlandscape, relic and/or evolving landscape, and associative cultural landscape. Italia has fivecultural landscapes listed as world heritage: the Val d’Orcia, the Amalfi coast, Cinque terre,
  3. 3. the national Parc of Cilento and Val di Diano, Sacro Monte. Three of the listed culturallandscapes are evolving landscape, one relict, and one associative landscape.The proposition of sites as a cultural landscape in Italia is because they see the opportunity invaluing and conserving their heritage in a more inclusive way, and to reduce threat to thedeteriorating heritage. “Cultural heritage is threatened when it is neglected and allowed –sometimes intentionally – to deteriorate. It is also damaged when the natural integrity of a siteor people is deluged by external influences” (Ruggles and Silverman 2007). The greatestexternal influence to heritage sites is tourism and natural hazard. The flow of people comingto visit the site needs particular attention and control.In some of the case tourism become solution in a cultural landscape management, but in someother it is disaster. Taking a lesson learned from the Italian WHCL, tourism can be a solution,financial resource to keep tradition and the heritage alive. However, in another part of thecountry, tourism is disaster because it changes the system in the society unconsciously and itthreatened the heritage from going in continuity. This case not only happens in Italy, but inmany parts of the world, including Indonesia.The Italian Cultural LandscapesThe Val d’Orcia is a vast agriculture region with only several thousand peoples inhabitingthe area. It is listed in the world heritage list with its outstanding value is an example of pre-renaissance agricultural landscape. This agriculture area in northern Italy is launching the“Slow Tourism” concept to keep people coming and staying for sometimes in the area. Bytaking advantage from the hilly beautiful landscape break by the line of cypres, the societiesof five cities in the area are proposing this type of tourism. The concept is taking people toenjoy the solitude within the vast agriculture area in one of the isolated lodgement that wasfunctioned as the farmer’s lodgement.The proposition of this region as a cultural heritage is due to local problem of the declininginhabitant – leaving youth and the growing older community, rapid development ofurbanization, and the difficulty of access to the territory and from the territory to neighboringbig city. Therefore its aim is to invite people from exterior through the equipment of publicfacilities such as schools and hospitals, and the availability of proper work for the youth. Thelocal government gives a sort of compensation to land owner who keep their land active andinherit it to their children. The children will then receive a sum of money to support thecontinuity of the agriculture activity.
  4. 4. The Amalfi Coast is terraced lemon agriculture in southern Italy. It constitutes a landscapeinfluenced by the oriental world. Together with the coastline area, it constitutes an exampleof necessity in manipulating natural condition available in order to give maximum utilizationof the land. Traditional farming system of lemon is valued as inherent intangible patrimonyof the site.Threat to this cultural resource is the neglect of traditional farming practice because farmersprefer to use a more practical modernized farming system. Other threat is the load of tourism.Amalfi is a popular tourist destination. For this reason, the inhabitant prefers to transformtheir houses and garden into hotels, hostels, restaurants or shops, more commercial activityless preference in agricultural activity. This way the inhabitant of Amalfi is pushed toneighboring cities such as Scala. In the case of Amalfi, uncontrolled tourism activity is agreat threat to the continuity of heritage.Cinque terre is ensemble of five villages (communities) on steeply sloping mountain sidethat fall directly to the sea. This area managed together with the national park and protectedmarine zone. It was created by the youth that were concerned about the uprooted identity ofthe region. This site is listed as UNESCO’s world heritage endangered site.In promoting the area, the community created a research center and mark of the region toproduce and commerce local products. “The marketing of local agricultural products isbringing financial benefits as well as supporting the eco-cultural identity of the Cinque Terre”(Lennon 2010). To get the cooperation and support from local community, the park makes alogo of standardization that helps promote commercial places and accommodation managedby the locals within the park’s networking. It is a strategy to “coordinates protection anddevelopment activities (Lennon 2010)” within the site. Tourism activity is controlled by thepark while the preservation is managed by the community. “The tourism income is directlybenefiting the local community and the maintenance of the terraces” (Lennon 2010).
  5. 5. The difficulty of access and the hard terrain gives challenges to conservation and even totourism activity. Other problems are the abandon of agriculture land, natural hazard,increased tourism, declining inhabitant that are willing to work in their land.Cinque terre is an example of a whole preservation from terraces, buildings, local products totourist trekking. “Survival of the landscape and its inscribed heritage values is dependent onits continuing economic viability” (Lennon 2010). To cope with financial problem, apart oftourism as finance core, the park also find another source of finance such as sponsorship fromprivate company and international organizations.Cilento National park and Val di Diano is a natural park and archeological remains locatedin the southern of Italy, a vestige and proof of Greek colonisation in the early time of Italy.Again, tourism is expected to become a solution in conserving the region’s patrimony. Inproposing this site as a world heritage cultural landscape, pastoral activity became animportant element of value apart of the park and the archeological site. Another elementvalued is natural resources in the park. Through the national park and archeological vestiges,they signed the historical path of Greek’s immigration and movement in the region.
  6. 6. Lesson Learned“Cultural heritage requires memory. It is not enough for things and monuments to exist on alandscape: in order to be cultural heritage they must be remembered and claimed aspatrimony, even if their original meaning is lost or poorly understood. In this sense culturalheritage is always, to some degree, intangible. For tangible and intangible cultural heritage tohave meaning and potency, the heritage must be active, dynamic, used, and performed, ratherthan existing inert and static” (Ruggles and Silverman 2007).All four cultural landscapes presented utilizing the agriculture and pastoral activity as thecore value of the heritage patrimony. All are set in a way to represent regional richness ofspecialty product and local tradition. The management planning was created to benefit thelocals and to the conservation and preservation of heritage directly. The locals are beingeducated to be conscience about their cultural heritage and therefore giving an ease to theprocess of site protection. It is not only about utilizing heritage as resource but also about itseducation, preservation and conservation. Good cooperation between local governments,local peoples, managing organizations, and support from the central government makes itpossible for the region to revaluate their heritage in order to strengthen and rebuild theirregional (local) identity.
  7. 7. Indonesia is rich with these potentials of cultural and natural heritage. Unfortunately, there isno proper law and governmental body that would support, control and manage thesepotentials. Every level of bureaucracy is stakeholder with their own interest apart of otherstakeholders in site. Rarely local peoples being integrated within the management planningmost of the time they are excluded and only become object of applied planning and law.In Indonesia, “the tourism industry shows signs of devolving into a more locally basedsystem in which not only the economic benefits may accrue to individual regions but also theexpression of cultural localism”. But has it really benefit the object of tourism? Taking asimple case of Borobudur, it is being managed by a state owned company benefitting directlyfrom tourism. How about the local inhabitant living near by the site? Have they received anybenefit from the existence of the world heritage monument? Do they even understand thesignificance of this monument to them and to other more than just a tourist destination orfinancial resources? A researcher, Ken taylor (2003), suggested including the surroundinglandscape and local inhabitant of Borobudur to create an ensemble of cultural landscape thatwould benefit the locals and for the benefit of the monument’s conservation. After the 2006Jogja earthquake, UNESCO led the conservation of Prambanan temple. The temple wastemporarily closed to public. UNESCO’s assistance for the monument conservation wasmisunderstood by local tour guide and they blame the organization for the loss of revenue.This case shows the lack of conscience over cultural heritage which is being regarded only asincome source. Another case in Indonesia is the Sangiran archeological site. The surroundinginhabitant is not well integrated within the site management plan of conservation, if there isany. This leads to ilicit traffic of archeological remains they found in or near the site.“Destruction of heritage can occur deliberately, but it can also occur as a result of neglect,impoverishment, and looting” (Ruggles and Silverman 2007). “Vandalism directed againsttangible cultural heritage, such as architectural monuments and archeological sites, occurs asa result of mischief, greed, political protest, religious intolerance, poverty” (Ruggles andSilverman 2007). It is necessary to determine what to do with heritage sites, monuments andobjects. “The complication with heritage is that the speed of development may be faster thanthe growth in the realisation that deliberate management is essential, resulting in damage thatmay be difficult or impossible to reverse”(Ashworth and Tunbridge 1999).ConclusionThe Italian heritage is being managed in conscience that it is richness of the people and thestate. The people are well educated in the frame of heritage consciousness. They are veryproud of their patrimony and making them their identity. Each region is proud with theirlocality. This is the value that the people well-guarded. Though they are less ordered incomparison to other European country, but they have consistency in managing andsafeguarding their cultural heritage.It is important to revaluate cultural heritage in Indonesia to benefit the locals in subject area.Education on heritage conscience and integrating the locals into the heritage managementplan is essential for the continuation of it. It is time to view heritage as whose belonging, forwhom and how to manage it, not only viewing it as remains from the past or revenueresources. Making heritage as resource is not only commercializing and promoting it to thewide world but also to support its survival as part of the people’s identity.Indonesia has different conception on conservation than the western. Its concept is rooted inthe intangible patrimony and tradition. It is not a good thing to literary applies the
  8. 8. international convention to protect Indonesian heritage but there should be law and consensusbased on local culture in order to intact heritage to the territory and to the people, to makes itremain in the collective memory.BibliographyAshworth, G.J. and Tunbridge, J.E., 1999. Old cities, new pasts: Heritage planning inselected cities of Central Europe. GeoJournal 49: 105–116, 1999. © 2000 Kluwer AcademicPublishers. Printed in the Netherlands. 105Fatimah, Titin, et all. 2005. Borobudur – Recent History Of Its Cultural Landscape: Towardthe Sustainable Rural Development as the Landscape Rehabilitation. Forum UNESCOUniversity and Heritage 10th International Seminar “Cultural Landscapes in the 21stCentury” Newcastleupon Tyne, 1116. Revised: July 2006Ruggles, D. Fairchild and Silverman, Helaine., 2007. Cultural Heritage and Human Rights.Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.Ruggles, D. Fairchild and Silverman, Helaine., 2009. From Tangible to Intangible Heritagein “Intangible Heritage Embodied”, DOI 10.1007/978-1-4419-0072-2_1, _ SpringerScienceþBusiness Media, LLC 2009Salazar, Noel B., 2009. The world’s, Asia’s, Indonesia’s or ours? Heritage Interpretationand Appropriation in Times and Changes. International Conference on Heritage in Asia:Converging forces and Conflicting Values. The Asia Research Institute, NUS.Silver, Christopher., 2007. Tourism, Cultural Heritage, and Human Rights in Indonesia: TheChallenges of an Emerging Democratic Society in “Cultural Heritage and Human Rights”.Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.Spennemann, Dirk H. R., 2006. Your solution, their problem – Their solution, your problem.The Gordian Knot of Cultural Heritage Planning and Management at the Local GovernmentLevel in Australia. 30 disP 164 · 1/2006Sulistyanto, Bambang., 2009. Warisan Dunia Situs Sangiran: Persepsi Menurut PendudukSangiran. Wacana Lingkungan Sosial Urban. Vol. 11 no. 1 April 2009.Tanudirjo, Daud Aris., Cultural Landscape Heritage Management in Indonesia: AnArchaeological Perspective. Jurusan Arkeologi, Fakultas Ilmu Budaya Universitas GadjahMada, YogyakartaTaylor, Ken., 2003. Cultural Landscape ss Open Air Museum: Borobudur World HeritageSite and Its Setting. Humanities Research Vol. 10 No. 2, 2003.UNESCO., 2010. World Heritage Cultural Landscapes: A Handbook for Conservation andManagement. World Heritage paper 26.