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VANET, Security and Trust


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A seminar presentation on VANET Security and Trust Issues

Published in: Technology, News & Politics

VANET, Security and Trust

  1. 1. VANET SECURITY AND TRUST Seminar by Rajesh P Barnwal IIT-Kharagpur
  2. 2. PRESENTATION OUTLINE <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Technical facts about VANET </li></ul><ul><li>Security Issues in VANET </li></ul><ul><li>Security and Trust </li></ul><ul><li>Trust Management </li></ul><ul><li>Trust Establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Trust Models and Desirable Properties </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Conclusion </li></ul>
  4. 4. CONSIDER THE SITUATIONS? <ul><li>You are on the way in a car and… </li></ul><ul><li>wish to know about traffic jam condition at next turn or road condition ahead </li></ul><ul><li>wish to have prior alert, if vehicle in front of you is applying breaks </li></ul><ul><li>wish to have advance info, if any vehicles met with an accidents on the road ahead </li></ul><ul><li>wish to know whether the nearby parking area has vacancy or not </li></ul><ul><li>wish to avoid accidents in ever increasing traffic conditions </li></ul>
  5. 5. THE ANSWER IS? <ul><li>VANET </li></ul>
  6. 6. WHAT IS VANET? <ul><li>Network of moving and Smart Vehicles </li></ul><ul><li>Term Stands for Vehicular Ad-hoc Network </li></ul><ul><li>VANET is a technology that uses moving cars as nodes to create a mobile network [ Wikipedia ] </li></ul><ul><li>Futuristic technology and a Dream in vehicular communications </li></ul>
  7. 7. WHAT IS VANET? CONTD… (Picture from :
  8. 8. TYPICAL VANET SCENARIO (Picture from :
  9. 9. MOTIVATIONS <ul><li>Safety and Excessive Cost of Traffic Collision </li></ul><ul><li>WHO report 2009 called the road fatalities an &quot;epidemic&quot; that will become the world's third biggest killer by 2020 </li></ul><ul><li>Traffic Jams is the major concern in ever increasing road traffic scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Shifting interest of vehicle manufacturing giants towards vehicle safety research </li></ul><ul><li>Big business opportunities for the infotainment industry like traffic advisory service, driving assistance, telematics, </li></ul><ul><li>infotainment, advertisements etc. </li></ul>
  10. 10. APPLICATIONS <ul><li>Safety Application (to enhance driving safety) like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>EEBL – Emergency Electronic Brake Light (sudden braking) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PCN – Post Crash Notification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RFN – Road Feature Notification (ex. downhill curve) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>LCA – Lane Change Assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CCW – Cooperative Collision Warning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blind Merge Assistant and many more … </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. APPLICATIONS CONTD… <ul><li>Convenience Application (for better driving experience) : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Road Congestion Notification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dynamic Route/Travel Time Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Querying Parking Availability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding Parking Spots </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Other Commercial/ Infotainment/ telematics Application: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remote Vehicle Diagnostics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Free flow Tolling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social Networking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multimedia Content Exchange </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Advertising </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. BOTTLENECKS IN DEPLOYMENT <ul><li>Unavailability of basic road side infrastructure </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of coordination among manufacturing giants </li></ul><ul><li>Security, the most challenging part and biggest issue </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy of the vehicles </li></ul>
  14. 14. MANET VS VANET <ul><li>Both are Collection of networked highly cooperative mobile nodes </li></ul><ul><li>No central administration , wireless communication </li></ul><ul><li>VANET is more structured but having highly dynamic topology due to high speed of vehicle </li></ul><ul><li>Resource, Computation power and memory are not a constraint unlike MANET </li></ul><ul><li>Large number of networked nodes </li></ul>
  15. 15. COMPONENTS OF VANET <ul><li>Computer controlled devices (On Board Unit) </li></ul><ul><li>Radio transceivers for message exchange </li></ul><ul><li>GPS (Global Positioning System) </li></ul><ul><li>Other sensors for sensing surrounding environments </li></ul><ul><li>Road side infrastructure units </li></ul>
  16. 16. COMMUNICATION IN VANET <ul><li>DSRC (Dedicated Short Range Communication) spectrum in the band of 5.850 GHz to 5.925 GHz having line of sight distance within 1000m </li></ul>Using DSRC/WAVE/802.11p Band: 5.850-5.925 GHz V2V, V2I communication Seven 10MHz wide channels Range 300 mtrs to 1000 mtrs Data Rate: 6-27 Mbps IEEE 1609.1 Upper Layer IEEE 1609.2 (Security Services) IEEE 1609.3 Network Layer IEEE 1609.4 Lower Layer IEEE 802.11p . Physical Medium
  17. 17. SECURITY ISSUES AND CHALLENGES <ul><li>The security is more crucial in VANET due to involvement of critical life threatening situations </li></ul><ul><li>Handling malicious/ misbehaving as well as faulty nodes </li></ul><ul><li>Attacker may be insider, outsider, malicious or rational </li></ul><ul><li>Handling message attacks viz. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bogus Information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>False positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Privacy (Disclosure of ID) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denial of Service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Masquerading </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. SECURITY AND TRUST <ul><li>Communication is mainly performed using exchange of messages </li></ul><ul><li>Security largely depends upon trust worthiness of messages </li></ul><ul><li>Security can be established by valid communication between trusted vehicle/ nodes </li></ul>
  19. 19. WHAT IS TRUST? <ul><li>Derives from the notion of trust among human beings and is a subject of social sciences. </li></ul><ul><li>The degree of subjective belief about the behaviors of a particular entity. </li></ul><ul><li>Trust is context-dependent, dynamic & non-monotonic. </li></ul>
  20. 20. SIMPLIFIED VANET MODEL (Adopted from: Reference [5])
  21. 21. TRUST MANAGEMENT IN VANET <ul><li>“ Trust Management” was first coined by Blaze et. al 1996 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a coherent framework for the study of security policies , security credentials and trust relationships . </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two types of models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certificate-based </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation-based (behavior observed directly or indirectly) </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. CHALLENGES IN TRUST MANAGEMENT IN VANET <ul><li>Decentralized and open environment </li></ul><ul><li>Very high mobility, vehicle speed 60-100 km/hr </li></ul><ul><li>No long term relationship with other peers </li></ul><ul><li>Road Conditions are very dynamic in nature </li></ul><ul><li>Difficult to differentiate between malicious and genuine neighbor </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluation is time, location and context dependant </li></ul>
  23. 23. TRUST ESTABLISHMENT IN VANET <ul><li>Classifications of Trust Establishment Approaches </li></ul>Trust Establishment Infrastructure Based Self Organising Centralised Direct Distributed Hybrid Indirect
  24. 24. TRUST MODELS IN VANET <ul><li>Infrastructure models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based upon use of certificates from central authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Needs presence of Road Side Units </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Self Organising models </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on Entity-oriented trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on Data-oriented trust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on Combined trust models </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. PROPERTIES OF A GOOD TRUST MODEL <ul><li>Decentralized Trust Establishment </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to Cope up with Sparsity </li></ul><ul><li>Event, Location, Time Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Integrated Confidence Measure </li></ul><ul><li>Sensitive to Privacy Concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Scalable and Robust </li></ul>
  26. 26. CASE STUDY <ul><li>From a Research Paper published in September’ 2010 </li></ul><ul><li>Based on collaborative project of Carnegie Mellon University and General Motors </li></ul><ul><li>Goal to propose a model that enables OBUs to accurately label VANET messages as legitimate or spurious </li></ul>
  27. 27. CASE STUDY CONTD… <ul><li>Problem Statement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Given a road with a small but non-negligible fraction of vehicles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vehicles that transmit spurious messages which contain false information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>False information transmission either intentionally or accidentally due to malfunctioning units </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to ensure that legitimate vehicles can filter out such spurious messages with high probability. </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. CASE STUDY CONTD… <ul><li>Six sources of information as basis of trust establishment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cryptographic Authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Source Location </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Sensors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other Vehicles’ Messages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrastructure Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sender’s Reputation </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. CASE STUDY CONTD… (BASIC ASSUMPTIONS) <ul><li>Vehicle communicates using DSRC spectrum </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicle adhere to the IEEE 1609 standards </li></ul><ul><li>Vehicles are equipped with minimal local sensors, e.g., thermometer, GPS, accelerometer, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>A limited percentage of vehicles are equipped with advanced sensing equipment </li></ul><ul><li>The majority of vehicles are honest </li></ul><ul><li>And sparse presence of RSUs </li></ul>
  30. 30. CASE STUDY CONTD… <ul><li>Attacker’s model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>active attackers are those node who violate the integrity of messages (i.e., attackers create bogus alerts) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Attackers may also suppress legitimate alerts of critical safety information from further propagation by simply dropping packets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nodes that have compromised other vehicles, and/or inject malicious messages from outside the area of relevance </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. CASE STUDY CONTD… <ul><li>Misbehaviour detection model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>based on a multi-source filtering model </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(6 complementary sources of information) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the OBU of a vehicle investigates a received message by aggregating the results from all applicable sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Only when the aggregated result indicates that the message is valid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>the OBU confirms that the received message is announcing some real safety condition </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>and warns the driver. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. CASE STUDY CONTD… <ul><li>Data Flow Diagram for endorsing an Alert and updating trust value of a node </li></ul>Vehicle A receives a new alert from Vehicle B Are RSU broadcasting the same alert? Is the Location Claim valid? Is the alert cryptographically correct? Do local sensors’ output match the alert Do other vehicle report relevant alert? Is CoE > threshold? Notify Driver Drop the Alert Drop the Alert Update CoE Wait for other Alerts No Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No Pass vehicle B’s trust level Reporting vehicle trustworthiness Update CoE Yes No No Decrease vehicle B’s trust level Was the Alert true? Increase vehicle B’s trust level Yes Notify the Driver Yes No
  33. 33. CASE STUDY CONTD… <ul><li>CoE vs Threshold Curve </li></ul>
  34. 34. A STEP TOWARDS REALITY… <ul><li>News of through PTI dated 4 th March 2011 </li></ul><ul><li>“ First Internet Car Unveiled at Geneva Motor Show” </li></ul>
  35. 35. CONCLUSION <ul><li>VANET technology has a great potential in facilitating road transport safety and other vehicular communication applications in real scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Security is one of the major concern in deployment of VANET </li></ul><ul><li>Trust may be one of the tool to solve the security related issues </li></ul><ul><li>Substantial research in the area of security is required to make the VANET deployment possible in near future </li></ul>
  36. 36. ANY QUESTIONS?
  37. 37. THANK YOU! With the hope to see VANET in real deployment…
  38. 38. REFERENCES <ul><li>Vehicular ad-hoc network. [Online accessed on 03rd March 2011]. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligent Transportation using VANET. technology/ 2009/109020101.asp [Online accessed on 03rd March 2011]. </li></ul><ul><li>Sherali Zeadally, Ray Hunt, Yuh-Shyan Chen, Angela Irwin and Aamir Hassan. “Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks (VANETS): Status, Results, and Challenges” , Journal of Telecommunication Systems (9 December 2010), pp. 1-25. </li></ul><ul><li>Raya, Maxim and Hubaux, Jean-Pierre. “ Securing vehicular ad hoc networks”, Journal of Computer Security, vol. 15, Jan. 2007, pp 39-68. </li></ul><ul><li>Fuentes, J. M. D., & González-Tablas, A. I. (2010). “ Overview of security issues in Vehicular Ad-hoc Networks ”, Handbook of research in mobility and computing. IGI Global. Retrieved from </li></ul><ul><li>M. Blaze, J. Feigenbaum, and J. Lacy. “ Decentralized Trust Management”, Proc. IEEE Symposium on Security and Privacy, 6-8 May, 1996, pp. 164 – 173. </li></ul><ul><li>Philipp Wex, Jochen Breuer, Albert Held, Tim Leinm¨uller and Luca Delgrossi. “ Trust Issues for Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks” , 67th IEEE Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC2008-Spring). </li></ul><ul><li>Jie Zhang. &quot; A Survey on Trust Management for VANETs &quot;, In Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications (AINA), 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>Tiffany Hyun-Jin Kim, Ahren Studer, Rituik Dubey, Xin Zhang, Adrian Perrig, Fan Bai, Bhargav Bellur, and Aravind Iyer. “ VANET alert endorsement using multi-source filters”, Proceedings of the seventh ACM international workshop on VehiculAr InterNETworking (VANET '10). ACM, New York, NY, USA, pp 51-60. </li></ul>